Change in air temperature over Sudan and South Sudan with time and station coordinates and elevation during the last century
Annual mean air temperature for Sudan and South Sudan for the three periods 1900-1940, 1961- 1990 and 1981-2010 for 12 stations was analyzed with objectives of studying changes in air temperature over the area during the last century and also to study the linkages between mean, maximum and minimum air temperature on the one hand and latitudes, longitudes and elevations on the other hand. The data was obtained as normal data for each period from Sudan Meteorological Authority and other sources. The results showed an increase of about 0.60 degrees Celsius in the mean temperature of the 12 stations over the last century. The maximum temperature dropped in the second period by about 0.40 degrees Celsius and increased in the third period by about 0.35 degrees making almost no net change over the century. The minimum temperatures increased on the average by about 1.2 degrees since the turn of the last century and increased by about 0.32 degrees between the last two periods. The net increase in air temperature for the 12 stations over the last century was mainly a result of an increase in the minimum air temperature. The results also showed strong linkages between mean and minimum temperatures on one hand and longitudes on the other hand.
Keywords: Air temperature, Variation, Coordinates, Elevation, Sudan