Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management <p><strong>Kindly note that from 1 September 2017, updating of this journal has been suspended by AJOL, pending the outcome of a journal ownership dispute process.</strong></p> <p>The <em>Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management</em> (EJESM) is based in the Department of Geography and Environmental Studies,&nbsp;Bahir Dar University,&nbsp;Ethiopia. Its aim is to publish original research output in the area of Geography, Ecology, Botany, Conservation studies,&nbsp;Food and Nutrition, Water Resources, Urban Studies, Environmental Design and Management and other allied disciplines. It is devoted to disseminating results of original research in these fields. Review papers and short communications on topical issues of contemporary importance are also accepted.&nbsp;The journal&nbsp;publishes&nbsp;six issues annually&nbsp;in&nbsp;February,&nbsp;April,&nbsp;June,&nbsp;August, October&nbsp;and December.</p> en-US Copyright is owned by the journal. (O.A. Ajala) (Dept.of Geography Bahir Dar University,) Fri, 21 Jul 2017 09:25:40 +0000 OJS 60 Adequacy or otherwise of cemetery space for sustainable human body disposal in Benin city, Nigeria <p><em>The adequacy or otherwise of cemetery space in Benin City was assessed in 2014, based on population projected from the 2006 census figures. The area of each cemetery was determined by running a Global Positioning System (GPS) traverse round each, which gave a total of 11.979 Ha. At a rate of 0.5 Ha of cemetery space to 1000 population, for 50 years, 702.749 Ha would be required for cemetery in Benin City. Results have shown that of these, only 1.68% is available for the teeming population of the city which comprised the three major Local Government Areas (LGAs). It is therefore recommended that cemeteries be established in new sites in each LGA, should reflect the population trends in order to achieve sustainable human body disposal in the city.</em></p><p><strong>Key Words:</strong><em> Death, Global Positioning System, Inhabitants, Population, Sites</em></p> C.A.E. Ibhadode, A.R. Dirisu, F.O. Akhimien Copyright (c) Remote sensing and gis applications in determining shoreline and surface water quality changes in Bayelsa state, Nigeria <p><em>The study of shoreline changes is essential for updating the changes in shoreline maps and management of natural resources as the shoreline is one of the most important features on the earth’s surface. Shorelines are the key element in coastal GIS that provide information on coastal landform dynamics. The purpose of this paper is to investigate shoreline changes in the study area and how it affects surface water quality using Landsat imagery from 1987 to 2016. The image processing techniques adopted involves supervised classification, object-based image analysis, shoreline extraction and image enhancement. The data obtained was analyzed and maps were generated and then integrated in a GIS environment. The results indicate that LULC changes in wetland areas increases rapidly during the years (1987-2016) from 34.83 to 38.96%, vegetation cover reduces drastically through the year which range from 30% to 20%. Polluted surface water was observed to have decreased from 30% to 20% during 1984-2010 and reduced by about 3% in 2016. In addition, the result revealed the highest level of erosion from 1987 to 2016 which is -49.60% against the highest level of accretion of 13.39% EPR and NSM -1400 erosion against 350 accretions. It was also observed that variations in shoreline changes affect the quality of surface water possibly due to shoreline movement hinterland. This study has demonstrated that through satellite remote sensing and GIS techniques, the Nigerian coastline can adequately be monitored for various changes that have taken place over the years.</em></p><p><strong>Key Words: </strong><em>Shoreline, Remote Sensing, Erosion, Accretion, GIS</em></p><p> </p> A.O. Adebola, T.H.T Ogunribido, S.A. Adegboyega, M.O. Ibitoye, A.A Adeseko Copyright (c) Groundwater quality assessment near a Nigerian dumpsite <p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align: justify;"><em><span style="font-size: 12.0pt;" lang="EN-MY">Municipal solid waste collected in Nigeria are often disposed of in uncontrolled dumpsites and/or burnt in the open spaces and consequently causing significant pollution on surface water, ground water and the air. An investigational study was carried out on the level of pollution on groundwater near Gbagede dumpsite in Kwara state. Ground water samples, GW1, GW2, GW3 were taken at three different locations: 186 m, 290 m, and 326 m from the edge of the dumpsite. Physicochemical parameters evaluated include; pH, total hardness, Total Dissolved Solids, Total Suspended Solids, alkalinity, turbidity, Chemical Oxygen Demand, Biochemical Oxygen Demand, Dissolved Oxygen, Nitrate ion, Chloride ion, Sulphate ion, Electrical conductivity, Calcium ion and Magnesium ion using standard laboratory procedures. The results of the evaluations were compared with the World Health Organization (WHO) and Nigerian Standard for Drinking Water Quality (NSDWQ) to establish its suitability for human consumption. Results fell within the stipulated range of WHO and NSDWQ standard for drinking water. It was however observed that the water quality improves with distance from the dumpsite. Statistical analyses indicated mild differences among all the parameters tested for in the samples at 95% confidence level. Uncontrolled accumulation of leachates from the dumpsite may pose potential risk to the source of water for the community in the near future. It was recommended that the dumpsite be relocated from the current residential area.</span></em></p><p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="text-align: justify;"><strong><span style="font-size: 12.0pt;" lang="EN-MY">Key Words:<em> </em></span></strong><em><span style="font-size: 12.0pt;" lang="EN-MY">Groundwater, Assessment, Contaminants, Solid-waste, Water quality</span></em></p> O.A. Mokuolu, S.O. Jacob, A.M. Ayanshola Copyright (c) Extension Service Delivery Of Agricultural Development Programmes In Southwest Nigeria During The Post World Bank Era (1996-2013) <p><em>The</em><em> study was conducted to assess </em><em>the </em><em>extension </em><em>service </em><em>delivery within the Agricultural Development Programme</em><em>s of Southwest Nigeria</em><em> after the cessation of the World Bank funding</em><em> between 1996 and 2013. Primary data were collected from 201 extension agents across 50% of the states in the area of study using structured questionaire. Descriptive statistical tools such as frequency counts, percentages, mean and standard deviation were used to analyse the data while t-test was used to test the hypothesis. Hypothesis tested revealed that significant difference existed in the level of extension service delivery in PWBE (</em><em></em><em>=25.3; Std. Dev=3.06) and WBE (</em><em></em><em>=55.2; Std. Dev= 7.0) with a t-value of (21) -2.241; P≤0.055. It was concluded that withdrawal of World Bank funding has grossly and negatively affected extension service delivery by the ADPs in Southwest, Nigeria. It is recommended that government at all levels should intensify effort in increasing the budgetary allocation to their extension organisations with a view to boosting food production among Nigerian farmers. Extension programme planners should explore the cooperative group farming approach to generate community level capitalization and also access funds for agricultural development from financial institutions and NGOs.</em><em></em></p><p><strong>Key</strong><strong> W</strong><strong>ords:</strong><em> Extension service, extension delivery, World Bank, Agricultural Development Programme</em></p><p> </p> A.A. Olaniyi, A.J. Farinde Copyright (c) Constraints Associated With Pesticide Safety Measures Adoption Among Users In Oil Palm Farms In Edo, Delta And Ondo States, Nigeria <p><em>Safety of farmers is basic to the realization of food security and agricultural transformation in developing countries globally. Most farming activities predispose farmers, non-farmers and farming communities to health hazards because some users of these hazardous substances deliberately refuse to observe necessary precautionary measures. This study assessed constraints associated with pesticide safety measures adoption among users of pesticides in oil palm farms in Edo, Delta and Ondo States. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 268 respondents. Questionnaire was used to collect primary data analyzed for this study using frequency counts, percentages, and means while Kruskal-Wallis test was used to examine the relationships between the response and predictor variables of the study. Results showed that about 95% of the respondents adopted the 28 identified pesticide safety measures. Nine constraints to pesticide users’ adoption of pesticide safety measures were identified by respondents. Inconveniences of personal protective clothing on users (</em><em>=2.28), some pesticide safety measures are dangerous to man (</em><em> =2.16), and lack of money to buy protective equipment (</em><em> =2.05) </em><em>were found to be serious constraints to adoption of safety measures. There was a significant difference in constraints to adoption among pesticide users in oil palm farms in the surveyed States (H= 9.524, P&lt;0.05). It is recommended that safety measures should be included in agricultural messages disseminated to farmers especially those that use pesticides.<strong></strong></em></p><p><strong> </strong><strong>Key Words: </strong><em>Constraints, Pesticide, Safety Measures, Oil Palm, Adoption</em></p> J.I. Osabuohien, F.E. Omoregbee Copyright (c) Factors Influencing Road Traffic Delay: Drivers’ Perspectives And Loss Of Man-Hour Along Lagos-Abeokuta Expressway, Lagos, Nigeria <p><em>This study examined drivers’ perception of road traffic delay attributes and factors influencing road traffic delay with a view to assessing loss of man hours along Lagos-Abeokuta Expressway. This view translated to policy statements that can tremendously reduce the road traffic delay in the study area. Primary data were collected through questionnaire administration, traffic volume survey and direct field observation while the secondary data were obtained from past relevant journals, textbooks among others. The sample frame evolved from an average of 3 day traffic volume survey, which translated into 17,647 drivers between 7 am – 7 pm in the study area. The sample size was 117 (0.007%) as the purposive sampling technique was adopted. The frequency tables and likert scale outputs were adopted for data analyses. The study found that most drivers along this road were majorly (75.2%) young educated working adults while the trips made accounted for the concentration of work and after-work trips along this road. The study revealed that traffic delay along the road was largely due to indiscreet use of bus-stops, bad roads condition, drivers’ recklessness with DAI values of 4.70, 3.77 and 3.41 respectively using a 5 Point Likert Scale. This study established that a total of 2,920 ‘man-hours’ was lost annually on this road as the daily accumulated estimate for man hour loss was estimated as 8 hours per day. The strict enforcement and monitoring of proper usage of bus-stops and prompt rehabilitation of bad roads are needed among other recommendations.</em></p><p><strong>Key</strong><strong> W</strong><strong>ords:<em> </em></strong><em>Road Traffic Delay, Drivers’ Perspectives, Man-Hour Loss</em></p> A.I. Bako, O.O. Agunloye Copyright (c) Speciation And Mobility Study Of Selected Heavy Metals In Kofe Dumpsite Soil Of Jimma Town, Jimma, Ethiopia <p><em>Speciation and mobility of selected heavy metals including Cd, Pb and Fe were investigated in Kofe dumpsite soils of Jimma Town, Jimma, Ethiopia. To study vertical mobility of the metals, soil samples were collected at three depth profiles comprising surface soil (0-10 cm), subsoil (20-30 cm), and bottom soil (40-50 cm) using soil auger. Similarly, for horizontal mobility assessment, soil samples were collected from 5 m, 10 m and 15 m distances starting from the edge of the dumpsite in east, west, north and south directions. Control soil samples were also collected at the same depth profiles, from 200 m away from the dumpsite. The collected samples were air dried, sieved as well as ground before processing utilizing a </em><em>Community Bureau of Reference (</em><em>BCR) sequential extraction procedure. The fraction of the target metals in the extracted samples were then determined by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS). The mobility factor (%MF) of the target metals was investigated in both vertical and horizontal variations and the obtained results showed that the target metals have exhibited both vertical and horizontal mobility. The texture, organic matter and pH of the soil samples were also analyzed for correlation study. Variation among obtained results, i.e., %MF and concentration of analytes, were evaluated using one way ANOVA at (P<span style="text-decoration: underline;">&lt;</span>0.05). It was observed that Cd and Pb exhibited vertical mobility and thus could lead to pollution of the underground water. Similarly, the highest amount of Pb in the bioavailable fraction may also indicate its horizontal mobility and its high tendency to pollute surface water, sediment as well as agricultural products.</em></p><p><strong>Key Words:</strong><em> Speciation, Mobility, Sequential extraction, Heavy metals</em></p> Kassim Kedir, Abera Gure, Yared Merdassa Copyright (c) Determining Factors For Housing Affordability In Ibadan, Nigeria <p><em>Housing affordability has been a concern in developed and developing world because of its role in man’s welfare and productivity. This study aims at investigating determining factors for housing affordability in Ibadan urban centres. Questionnaire was developed based on consumers’ evaluation on variables identified from the literatures. The administration of questionnaire was carried out among 494 respondents within five local government areas that constitute Ibadan metropolis. The data collected was analysed statistically using statistical softwares SPSS version 22. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) technique was applied to define the determining factors for housing affordability. The result through EFA revealed house rents, housing preference, housing satisfaction, land price and government intervention as the determining factors for housing affordability. The multiple regression analysis confirmed land price, housing satisfaction and housing preference to be the most significant factors. The study encouraged and suggested urgent steps to be taken for the improvement and transformation in the Nigerian housing delivery to achieve affordable housing in Ibadan urban centres.</em></p><p><strong>Key Words:<em> </em></strong><em>Determining factor, Housing, Housing affordability, Ibadan</em><em>, Urban centres</em></p> Babatunde Femi Akinyode Copyright (c) Adoption Of Irrigation And Its Consequences On Household Income In The Northern Ethiopia <p><em>An expansion of irrigation is among the priority areas in Ethiopia although farmers’ participation is below the expectations. This paper aims to identify factors that affect farmers’ decisions to use irrigation and also estimate its role in household income. The data is collected using standardised questionnaire and analysed it using the Heckman model. Household size, rural associations, markets, information access, extension services, and rural roads are found significant factors affecting farmers’ decisions to use irrigation. Income from irrigation has accounted for 38% of total income. Use of irrigation has a significant positive effect on household income. Thus, local associations and institutions should be empowered and rural services should be expanded to induce farmers to use irrigation thereby increases their income. </em></p><p><strong>Key Words:</strong><em> Irrigation, income, Heckman model, Ethiopia</em></p> Woldegebrial Zeweld, Assefa Hidgot, Gebresilassie Hailu Copyright (c) Effect Of Laboratory Produced Xylanase From <i>Aspergillus niger</i> On Fibre Digestibility Of Rice Husk And Guinea Grass <p><em>The efficacy of laboratory produced xylanase enzyme from Aspergillus niger on highly fibrous feeds and feedstuffs was investigated. Guinea grass (Panicum maximum) from grass hay and rice husk (Oryza sativa) from crop by-product characterised with high fibre content served as substrates (Feeds and Feedstuffs) for the experiment. The enzyme xylanase was prepared from Aspergillus niger (fungal extracts). The two substrates were treated with three levels of aqueous enzymes xylanase (0.02 ml/g, 0.04 ml/g, 0.08 ml/g). Substrate with no enzyme treatment (0 ml/g) served as control. Substrates were subjected to xylanase enzyme treatment at different time interval to determine the optimum incubation period for maximum fibre digestibility. Rice husk and guinea grass were analysed to determine the level of digestibility of fibre fractions such as crude fibre, hemicellulose, acid detergent fibre, neutral detergent fibre and lignin. The results indicate an improvement in fibre digestibility for rice husk and g</em><em>uinea grass </em><em>treated with enzyme when compared with the control. There was no significant different in the fibre digestibility of substrate treated different levels of xylanase enzyme. Results obtained on the period of application showed no significant different across the time intervals (0 hr, 24 hr, 48 hr and 72 hr). The results therefore, suggest that optimum fibre digestibility could be obtained at level 0.02 ml/g of xylanase treatment at any time interval.<strong></strong></em></p><p><strong>Key Words:</strong><em> Aspergillus niger, Xylanase, Rice husk, Guinea grass, Laboratory</em></p> M.B. Yousuf, I.O. Kolade, D.O. Adetitun, M.O. Arekemase Copyright (c) Assessment Of Labile Metals In Effluents From Lubricating Oil Company In Osogbo Osun State, Nigeria <p><em>Effluent and sediment samples were collected on seasonal basis, comprising of three months (August to October) in the wet season and three months (December to February) in the dry season from five points around a lubricating oil company in Osogbo - Nigeria. </em><em>The sequential extraction method was used to respectively fractionate the sediment and effluent samples, then analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS) to determine concentrations of five heavy metals: Mn, Ni Co, Cd and Pb. Results showed that in wet season, </em><em>higher concentration of Mn was found in exchangeable fraction, Ni and Pb were more pronounced in carbonate bound fraction, Cd in Fe-Mn oxide fraction, while Co was more in residual fraction. In dry season, Pb was more concentrated in exchangeable fraction, Coin residual fraction, Mn in Fe-Mn oxide fraction, Cd in organic matter bound, while Ni was more concentrated in the carbonate fraction. In both seasons for sediment samples, Cd concentrations were found above the set limit by WHO. </em><em>The speciation study of the effluent showed that, Mn, Co and Ni concentration were found more in Organic substances fraction in both seasons, Pb was more concentrated in free metal ion fraction in wet season while it was high in organic fraction in the dry season. Concentrations of all metals in the effluent samples in both seasons were above the maximum permissible limit for effluent. The high mobility factors of heavy metals in the sediment indicated that the metals were labile and bioavailable thereby making the soil and the living organisms vulnerable to possibility of high heavy metal bioaccumulation.</em></p><p><strong>Key Words</strong>: <em>Heavy Metals, Speciation, Effluents, Sediment</em></p> A.O Adeniji, I.O. Olabanji, E.A. Oluyemi Copyright (c) Rate Of Land Cover Change And Its Determinants In The Soudano-Guinea Transition Zone Of Benin Republic <p><em>The paper assesses land cover dynamics and its associated drivers in the soudano-guinea transition zone of Benin Republic, using both </em><em>spatial and non-spatial data. Multispectral and multi temporal Landsat imageries (</em><em>Landsat TM of 1986, ETM+ of 2000 and OLI-TIRS of 2013) were used for the analysis of land cover dynamics through a supervised classification. </em><em>Logistic </em><em>Multiple Regression model is used to analyse the relationship between the rate of land cover change and nine explanatory variables considered as potential factors of land cover change rate. Land cover change rate was estimated to an average of -4.34% annually. This rate appears higher than the national rate estimated at -1.2% by Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). The rate of change classified into four modalities ranging from -8.77 to -1.13, show a gradual decrease towards the northern part of the study area</em>. <em>From the R<sup>2</sup>, it is observed that the nine variables explained about 35.30% of the occurrence of land cover change. Variables such as ‘rank of agriculture in the source of income’ and ‘accessibility’ are significantly influencing the rate of land cover change in the study area. </em><em>The paper further advocates for the need to dwell more on indirect factors which remotely influence environmental dynamics. </em><strong></strong></p><p><strong>Key Words</strong>:<em> Land cover, Rate of change, Benin, Logistic multiple regression, Determinants</em></p> Joseph Oloukoi Copyright (c)