Prevalence of intestinal parasites in HIV-infected adult patients in Southwestern Ethiopia
AbstractBackground: Parasitic infection of the intestinal tract is a major source of disease in patients with HIV particularly in the tropics, where diarrhea is a common complaint with variable severity and specific pathogens are be identified in more than half of the HIV/AIDS patients with persistent diarrhea.
Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and their association with diarrhea of HIV infected patients.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 372 consecutive patients from Feb.-July, 2001, on HIV infected and non-infected patients which were confirmed by Wellcozyme ELISA(Murex, UK). Chronic diarrhea was defined as three or more lose stool passed daily for more than two weeks. Parasite infections were diagnosed by examination of single stool specimen which were examined as fresh wet mounts, formol-ether concentration technique and Modified acid fast stain.
Result: Diarrhea was more prevalent in HIV infected 99(51.1%) than in HIV non infected patients 53(29.5%). Regardless of their diarrhea status, the general prevalence of intestinal parasites in HIV infected and HIV non-infected were 44.8% and 34.4% respectively. Among the 192 HIV infected patients 54 (28.1%) and 45(23.4%) of them had chronic and acute diarrhea respectively. The prevalence of intestinal parasites were 28(51.9%)in patients with chronic and 17(37.8%) in those acute with diarrhea. C. parvum, I. belli, and C. catyenesis oocyst were detected only in HIV infected patients with chronic diarrhea (P<0.001, P<0.01, P<0.01 respectively), whereas the majority of (60%-100%) S.stercoralis, S. mansoni, E. histolytica, and G. lamblia were detected in diarrheic stool samples of HIV infected patients (P<0.05).
Conclusion: This study re-affirms the previously held view that in more of HIV patients with chronic diarrhea etiologic agent can be identified. Diarrhea and intestinal parasites prevalence were higher in HIV infected than HIV non-infected patients. Intestinal coccidian are opportunist infections which are found exclusively in HIV patients with chronic diarrhea.
[Ethiop.J.Health Dev. 2003;17(1):71-78] The retirement of malaria control workers as a critical problem for vector control in Oromia, Ethiopia Wakgari Deressa, Dereje Olana, Shelleme Chibsa : A retrospective record review for the period of seven years was done on retirement and death in February 2001 to assess the current status of malaria control workers in Oromia Regional State. The number of malaria control workers who left Malaria Control Programme due to retirement and death has dramatically increased across the last seven years with an average of about 15 workers annually. Among 106 malaria workers who left the programme during the period, 60% of them were retired and 26% deceased. It was also found that 89% of them were malaria technicians with specialized technical expertise in vector control, while the remaining 11% were highly experienced microscopists. Training of health professionals on malaria control through incorporating the malaria curriculum into the health training schools and institutions seems mandatory. [Ethio.J.Health Dev. 2003;17(1):79-83]