Ethiopian Journal of Health Development https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejhd <p><span lang="EN-US">The Journal publishes analytical, descriptive and methodological articles, as well as original research, on public health problems, management of health services, health care needs and socio-economic and political factors related to health and development. More specifically, the Journal focus on important topics in health development that include: health policy and health politics; health planning, monitoring and evaluation; health administration and organization of health services; hospital administration; health manpower, including training; health economics, financing, and health development; health statistics and health information systems; maternal and child health, including family planning; environmental health and water; food and nutrition; health education; epidemiology and communicable diseases including HIV/AIDS, TB and STI; community involvement and inter-sectoral approaches to primary health care; drug supply and distribution; socioeconomic factors related to health and health services, medical geography, broader topics on scientific work on health care technologies; rights and obligations of communities in participation in health care; and international health organizations and technical cooperation among developing countries.</span></p> <p>Other websites related to this journal:&nbsp;<span lang="EN-US"><a title="www.ejhd.org" href="http://www.ejhd.org/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">www.ejhd.org</a></span></p> Ethiopian Public Health Association en-US Ethiopian Journal of Health Development 1021-6790 Copyright for articles published in this journal is retained by the journal. The Ethiopian Health Information System: Where are we? And where are we going? https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejhd/article/view/210739 <p>Health Information System (HIS) is a system that integrates data collection, management, and interpretation, including the use of the information to improve the quality of service and care through better management at all levels of health services (1). Early on, efforts to restructuring HIS to systematically collect, analyze, and report data for improved management in developing countries were undertaken by national program managers of vertically structured programs. In recent years, however, HIS in developing countries, including Ethiopia, has gained more and more attention as more effort by governments, international agencies, non-governmental organizations, donors, and other development partners seek to improve health care to reverse disease trends in these countries. The expansion of the health system, diagnostic capacity with the rapid transition of diseases epidemiology, and information technology played a crucial role in the increment of health data demand and information use in the health sector over the years (2). HIS encompasses a number of issues: data use, data quality, quality of care, e-Health and other relevant topics. This editorial provides a highlight of each of these topics and associated challenges. Because these entities are very much linked, it is not possible to expect successful progression in the use and quality of health information systems unless they are treated holistically.</p> Girma Taye Wondimu Ayele Ephrem Biruk Berhan Tassew Tibebe Beshah Copyright (c) 2021-07-16 2021-07-16 35 1 Assessment of routine health information utilization and its associated factors among Health Professionals in Public Health Centers of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejhd/article/view/210770 <p>Abstract<br>Background: - A Routine Health Information System (RHIS) is referred to as the interaction between people, processes, and technology to support operations management in delivering information to improve healthcare services. Routine health information is likely to allow public health facility providers to document analyze and use the information to improve coverage, continuity, and quality of health care services. In Ethiopia, information use remains weak among health professionals. Besides, more have to be done on the utilization of routine health information among health professionals to strengthen and improve the health of the community at large. This study aimed to assess the level of routine health information use and identified determinants that affect health information use among health professionals.</p> <p>Method: Facility-based cross-sectional study design was used from March to April 2020 among 408 health professionals within 22 public health centers using a multi-stage sampling technique. Data was collected using a Semi-structure questionnaire and an observational checklist. The data collected were entered into EpiData version 3.1 and transferred into SPSS version 20 for further statistical analysis. Stepwise regression was used to select the variable. Variables with a p-value of less than 0.05 for multiple logistic regression analysis were considered statistically significant factors for the utilization of RHIS.</p> <p>Result: In this study, Routine health information utilization rate among health professionals was 37.3% (95% CI: 32.6%, 42.1%). The findings also showed a significant positive association between routine health information utilization and health professionals who use of Both manual and computer-based files (AOR = 1.474, 95 % CI =1.043-2.082); Organizational rules, values, and practices (AOR = 1.734, 95 % CI =1.212-2.481); Human resource (AOR = 1.494, 95 % CI = 1.056-2.114); Had problem solving skill on HIS tasks (AOR = 2.091, 95 % CI = 1.343-3.256); Professional who believe that routine health information use is important (AOR = .665, 95 % CI = .501- .883); Planning and monitoring practice (AOR = 1.464 95% CI (1.006-2.131)) and Knowing duties and responsibilities (AOR = 1.525, 95 % CI = 1.121-2.073)</p> <p>Conclusion and Recommendations: Good health information utilization status of health professionals in Addis Ababa was low. Use of recording information; Organizational rules, values, and practices; Inadequate Human resource; Problem-solving skill of health professionals on HIS tasks; Professional who believe that routine health information use is important; the Collected information used for planning, monitoring, and evaluation of facility performance; and Staff know their duties and responsibilities in their workplace were found significantly associated with routine health information use. Thus, major improvements must be done in equipping health professionals to utilize the information they have by improving the above key findings/factors in the health care system. And, health professionals have to use routine health information for evidence-based decision-making in health facilities for a better quality of health care system implementation. [Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 2021; 35(SI-1):05-14]</p> <p>Keywords: Routine Health information Utilization, Health centers, Health professionals, Information Use, healthcare data</p> Meskerem Mengistu Girma Taye Wondimu Ayele Tigist Habtamu Ephrem Biruk Copyright (c) 2021-07-16 2021-07-16 35 1 A mixed-methods assessment of Routine Health Information System (RHIS) Data Quality and Factors Affecting it, Addis Ababa City Administration, Ethiopia, 2020 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejhd/article/view/210746 <p>Abstract<br>Background: Effective and efficient health care services need evidence-based decisions, and these decisions should rely on information from high-quality data. However, despite a lot of efforts, routine health data is still claimed to be not at the required level of quality. Previous studies have primarily focused on organization-related factors while little emphasis was given for perception and knowledge of service providers' gaps. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the quality of data generated from routine health information systems and factors contributing to data quality from diverse aspects.</p> <p>Objective: This study aims in assessing the quality of routine health information system data generated from health facilities in Addis Ababa city administration, providing the level of data quality of routine health information system, and factors affecting it.</p> <p>Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 568 health professionals from 33 health centers selected randomly using a two-stage sampling method. A qualitative study was also conducted using 12 key informants.</p> <p>Result: The overall regional data quality level was 76.22%. Health professionals' motivation towards routine health care data have shown a strong association with data quality, (r (31) =.71, p&lt;.001). Lack of adequate Health information system task competence, non-functional PMT, and lack of supervision was also commonly reported reasons for poor data quality.</p> <p>Conclusion: This review has documented the data quality of routine health information systems from health centers under Addis Ababa city. Overall data quality (76.22%) was found to be below the national expectation level, which is 90%. The study emphasized the role of behavioral factors in improving the quality of routine health care data. [Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 2021; 35(SI-1): 15-24 ]</p> <p>Keywords: RHIS, Accuracy, completeness, timeliness, consistency, Addis Ababa</p> Biniyam Haftu Girma Taye Wondimu Ayele Tigist Habtamu Ephrem Biruk Copyright (c) 2021-07-16 2021-07-16 35 1 COVID 19 Epidemic Trajectory Modeling Results for Ethiopia https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejhd/article/view/210747 <p>Abstract<br>Background: An outbreak of “pneumonia of unknown etiology" later renamed as Novel Corona Virus (COVID 19) was first reported from Hubei Province, China on 31 December 2019. The cases have increased exponentially; the pandemic has reached all countries in the world with 81.2 million confirmed cases and over 1.8 million by December 28, 2020. Ethiopia reported its first case on March 13, 2020, and as of December 28, 2020, the country had 122864 confirmed COVID-19 cases and 1909 deaths. Being a new pandemic its epidemiologic trajectories across regions and populations remains unknown. Mathematical models are widely used to understand and predict the possible courses of an outbreak, given a set of underlying assumptions.</p> <p>Objective: This study intends to model COVID 19 epidemic trajectory under different assumptions and to predict the likely timing of peak of the epidemic in Ethiopia.</p> <p>Methods: Standard Susceptible Exposed, Infected and Recovery (SEIR) compartmental epidemiological deterministic model was employed to estimate and predict COVID 19 in progression in Ethiopia and Addis Ababa at different points of time. Exhaustive literature reviews were carried out to contextualize COVID 19 pandemic epidemiological. Efficacy and coverage of face mask and social distancing were considered in the best and worst situation to run the model and estimate the number of infections after sustained local transmissions.</p> <p>Result. Without any intervention, the COVID 19 viruses spread will peak at 150 days from the first report, infecting 8.01million people given local/community transmission. As the compliance with face mask coverage increases by 25%, 50%, and 75%, the infection will be reduced by about 20%, 40%, and 60% respectively social distancing compliance by le 25% of the population alone will reduce above 60% of infections. Compliance of 40% face mask use and social distance combined effect will reduce 97% of the estimated number of cases.</p> <p>Conclusion: This predication indicated that compliance with combination of non-pharmaceutical intervention such as use of face mask use with physical distance averted significant number of COVID infection. For a county like Ethiopia with poor health systems resilience, mitigating the pandemic at an early stage through strong preventive measures is necessary. [Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 2021; 35(SI-1):25-32]</p> <p>Key word: COVID 19, Modelling, Non-Pharmaceutica intervention, Ethiopia</p> Wondimu Ayele Latera Tesfaye Abdulnasir Abagero Girma Taye Biruk Abate Tigist Habtamu Solomon Kassahun Ephrem Biruk Mezgebu Yitayal Shegaw Mulu Alemnesh Murikuze Copyright (c) 2021-07-16 2021-07-16 35 1 Data quality and it’s correlation with Routine health information system structure and input at public health centers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejhd/article/view/210750 <p>Abstract<br>Background: The Government of Ethiopia, together with its partners, has made significant progress over the years in the standardization and implementation of health information system (HIS). The sector continues to be challenged by its lack of accurate, timely and thorough data, which therefore has affected the quality of care, planning and management systems in the country. This study assessed HIS for managing health care data and data quality in the Addis Abeba City Administration in Ethiopia.</p> <p>Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the quality of the data. The study was conducted in 25 health centers in Addis Ababa City. Connected woreda assessment tools have been used. Composite analysis was carried out to determine the implementation of routine health information system structure and input. Univariate and multiple linear regression are used to identify predictors of overall data quality,reporting findings using a regression coefficient and 95 % confidence interval.</p> <p>Result: The overall |implementation of RHIS structure and input was 63.9% at health facilities. The mean score of RHIS structure and input was 19.2/30 + 4.7. The overall data quality was found to be 57.9% with a 95 Confidence interval of (95%CI (51.0-64.9%). Overall data accuracy, completeness, and timeliness in all assessed health facilities was 69.6% (95 IC 59.8-79.3%), 49.5% (95 CI 38.3-60.7%), and 56% (95 CI, 48.8_63.2), respectively. Supportive supervision and mentorship found to be associated to data quality, as supervision mean score increase by one-unit data quality increases by 1.42 with 95% CI (0.10-2.76) given another variable held constant.</p> <p>Conclusion and recommendation: Overall data quality was much lower than the national acceptable level of less than 90%. Supportive supervision and mentorship has a significant correlation with data quality. A considerable number of health facilities have not yet fulfilled all the input required to strengthen the HIS. Strengthen support supervision and mentorship is an opportunity to improve data quality at the level of health facilities. [Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 2021; 35(SI-1):33 - 41]</p> <p>Keywords: Data quality, RHIS structure and input, healthcare data</p> Wondimu Ayele Ephrem Biruk Tigist Habtamu Girma Taye Mulugeta Tamire Adamu Addissie Copyright (c) 2021-07-16 2021-07-16 35 1 Improving health care services through enhanced Health Information System: Human capacity development Model https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejhd/article/view/210752 <p>Abstract<br>Background: Quality of health care depends on how the health system is able to reduce errors through evidence-based decisions. Demand for data on patient care has increased over the years to improve the health care system, including planning and policy issues in several countries across the globe. However, there are challenges and opportunities in the process of recording, managing, analyzing, interpreting, and reporting data and/or information. Accordingly, several studies showed that an appropriate capacity development program is expected to improve data recording, data quality and use by professionals, planners, policymakers, and stakeholders.<br>Objective: This project aims to assess existing capacity-building efforts and formulate a new and better capacity-building model for the lower-level health facility staff of Addis ababa City administration, 2018-2020.<br>Methods: PRISM and SWOT analysis method were employed to assess existing HIS gaps and opportunities. The assessment was carried out in the health centers located in selected three sub-cities of Addis Ababa City Administration. We employed phase to phase approach to design an innovative human capacity development model, namely, desk review, data collection, data synthesis, design, and validation.<br>Results: The project designed interventions that were implemented simultaneously and one supporting the other. The capacity-building model includes a renewed approach to training; structured mentorship approach; practically oriented supportive supervision; ‘experience sharing program’ for helping those in a poor environment gain experience through experience sharing; quality improvement initiatives; and implementation science studies to tackle problems that may not be solved with activities listed earlier.<br>Conclusion and recommendation: The new capacity-building approach helped to improve individual knowledge, interpersonal relationship, strategic thinking, system management, and accountability, all of which lead to sustained and improved HIS. Improvement in HIS is often a collective effort of several forces, but the human element plays a decisive role. [Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 2021; 35(SI-1):42-49]<br>Keywords: Human Capacity Development Model, Health Information Systems, Quality of health care, data quality, Information use</p> Girma Taye Copyright (c) 2021-07-16 2021-07-16 35 1 Implementation of Human Development Model Impact on Data Quality and Information Use in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejhd/article/view/210753 <p>Abstracts<br>Background: Designing of human development model is a crucial role towards addressing data quality and information use at service delivery point and administrative level. A human development model is implemented through capacity building approach of competence-based training, mentorship, supportive supervision, experience sharing, and quality improvement initiative. This study aimed to synthesize the level and significance of a change in Routine health information systems (RHIS) structure, input data quality and information use because of human development model implementation.</p> <p>Methods: A quasi-experimental study design was employed to assess the impact of the human development model on RHIS structure and implementation, data quality, and administrative data use in Addis Ababa city administration. A total of 31 health centers, three sub-cities, and three hospitals and 954 health workers from respective health facilities and administrative levels were included in this study. Standard Performance of Routine Information System Management data quality and information use assessment tool was used to evaluate the contribution of the model. The data analysis covers the period between 2018 and 2020, 2018 was the base year and 2020 is the end period. The difference in difference data analysis technique was used to capture any change between the two periods and to investigate significant differences in HIS structure and implementation, data quality, and information use at administrative and service delivery points.</p> <p>Result: A total of 954 health workers were trained. The mean difference between pre- and post-training evaluation results was 9.3 with 95% (CI of 3.8-14.6, p-value, &lt;0.001). Substantial changes were documented in the last mentorship session in data quality and information use. Data quality and information use was 96.4 with (95% CI, 94.4-98.4, SD, 5.6) and 80.6 with (95 % CI,76.8-84.4, SD,10.5) respectively at service delivery point. The mean difference before and after implementation of the human development model for data quality and data use was 40.7 with (95% CI, 36.6-44.8, p-value, &lt;0.0001) and 19.7 with (95% CI, 15.6-23.8, p-value, &lt;0.0001), at health facilities level, respectively. The mean score of data quality and information use after implementation of the human development model was 93.0%nd 85.0% at the sub-cities level, respectively.</p> <p>Conclusion: The implementation of the human development model was very timely approach to ensure data quality and information use at all levels. Use of competence-based training, practical application with proper follow-up of application of knowledge and skills gained to real-life activities also contributed to the improvement of data quality and information use. [Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 2021; 35(SI-1):50-58]</p> <p>Keywords: Human development model, Data quality, information use, capacity-building, mentorship</p> Wondimu Ayele Ephrem Biruk Tigist Habtamu Girma Taye Ashagre Sisay Daniel Getachew Copyright (c) 2021-07-16 2021-07-16 35 1 Improving the Quality of Clinical Coding through Mapping of National Classification of Diseases (NCoD) and International Classification of Disease (ICD-10). https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejhd/article/view/210756 <p>Abstract<br>Introduction: Medical coding is the transformation of healthcare diagnosis, procedures, medical services, and equipment into universal medical alphanumeric codes. Utilization of international disease classification provides higher-quality information for measuring healthcare service quality, safety, and efficacy. The Ethiopian National classification of disease (NCoD) was developed as part of Health Management information System (HMIS) reform with consideration of accommodating code in International Classification of disease (ICD-10). There is limited resource about the utilization status and related determinants of NCoD by health care professionals at tertiary level hospitals. This study is designed to assess the utilization status of NCoD and improve the quality of clinical coding through mapping of NCoD and ICD-10.</p> <p>Methods: Quasi-experimental study considering “Mapping” as an intervention was employed in this study. Retrospective medical record reviews were carried out to assess the utilization of NCoD and its challenges at Tikur Anebsa Specialized Hospital (TASH) for a period of one year (2018/2019). Qualitative approach used to get expert insight on NCoD implementation challenges and design of mapping exercises as an intervention. Seven thousand five hundred forty-seven (20%) of the medical records from the total of 37,734 medical records were selected randomly for review. A data abstraction checklist was developed to collect relevant information on individual patient charts, patient electronic records specific on a confirmed diagnosis. The reference mapping approach was employed for the mapping output between ICD-10 and NCoD. Both ICD-10 and NCoD were mapped side by side using percentage comparison and absolute difference.</p> <p>Result: Data for document review was taken from the electronic medical record database. Out of the total, 3021 (40%) of records were miss-classified based on the national classification of disease. From the miss-coded record, 1749 (58%) of them used ICD code to classify the diagnosis. Reasons provided for poor utilization of NCoD among physicians include, perception of having a limited list of diagnosis in the NCoD, not being familiarized, inadequate capacity building about NCoD use, and absence of enforcing mechanism on the use of standard diagnostic coding among professionals. Utilization of disease classification coding provides higher-quality information for measuring healthcare service quality, safety, and efficacy. This will in turn provide better data for quality measurement and medical error reduction (patient safety), outcomes measurement, operational planning, and healthcare delivery systems design and reporting.</p> <p>Conclusion: Extended NCoD categories were mapped from ICD-10. Standard ways of coding disease diagnosis and coding of new cases into the existing category was established. This study recommends that due emphasis should be given in monitoring and evaluation of medical coding knowledge and adherence of health professionals, and it should be supported with appropriate technologies to improve the accessibility and quality of health information. [Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 2021; 35(SI-1):59-65]</p> <p>Keywords: Mapping, NCoD, ICD, Clinical Coding, Diagnosis, Health Information System</p> Ephrem Biruk Tigist Habtamu Girma Taye Wondimu Ayele Berhan Tassew Adiam Nega Ashagre Sisay Copyright (c) 2021-07-16 2021-07-16 35 1 Assessing the existing e-health system functionalities towards digitization and integration https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejhd/article/view/210758 <p>Abstract<br>Background: Cognizant of overall limited use of functionalities of information systems in general compared to the available features, this research project is motivated to investigate the level of use of DHIS2 system functionalities. By determining the functionalities being used and unused it is possible to identifying gaps and potential interventions for improvement. Understanding the level of knowledge and extent of use of DHIS2 functionalities with the intent of improving use of the system for better digitization of the health data is the central agenda in this project. Thus, the objective of this research is to assess use of the existing e-health system functionality towards digitization and integration.</p> <p>Methods: A qualitative study was employed to investigate the level of use of functionalities and identify gaps for improvement. Three health centers from three sub cities were the study sites while health information technicians and health decision makers were study participants. Data for examining the system under study is obtained using two methods, namely, interviewing and observation. A two-page interview guide consisting of 22 items in five categories was employed. For the observation, numerous detail FUNCTIONS /FEATURES of DHIS 2 under 33 major functionalities were observed at three selected health centers. An ODK tool and Google forms were used to facilitate data collection and analysis. Though four structured interviews were planned in each health center which will make a total of 12 interviews, numerous further interview sessions were conducted to clarify ambiguous issues and get further details.</p> <p>Results: Findings showed that only few of the major and sub functionalities of DHIS2 were utilized currently and needs future actions to enhance system usability. In line with this, there are major functionalities are not even known by the system users. Thus, it is easy to learn that an appropriate intervention should be designed to fill the gaps observed in the next implementation strategy.</p> <p>Conclusion: Assessing health system functionalities enables proper understanding of the level of system use at health centers. Good knowledge of the extent of use will in turn direct appropriate action in facilitating digitization and integration of health systems. The gaps identified through this empirical investigation in system functionality use will be addressed in the subsequent interventions planed. [Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 2021; 35(SI-1):66-75]</p> Tibebe Beshah Wendweson Endale Andargachew Asfaw Selamawit Kasahun Girma Taye Copyright (c) 2021-07-16 2021-07-16 35 1 Hospitalization, Recovery, Death, incubation period and Severity of COVID-19: A Systematic Review https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejhd/article/view/210759 <p>Abstract<br>Background: The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 disease, named “COVID-19" by the WHO, was declared Public Health Emergency Concern globally January 2020. As of 01 February, 2021, the virus already visited more than 200 countries across the globe, with a total of over 103 million confirmed cases, over 2 million deaths and over 76 million recoveries.<br>COVID-19 first appeared in the African continent on 15th February 2020 in Egypt. Back in April 2020, only a few African countries reported 1, 2 or 3 confirmed cases with no death; but as of 07 June the virus visited over 45 African countries already with a total of 183,474 confirmed cases, 81,367 recovered and 5,041 deaths. Moreover, country context evidence is important at least to reduce the impact of COVID 19 in Africa region.</p> <p>Objective: The objective is to get cohesive understanding on hospitalization, recovery, death, incubation period and severity of COVID-19.</p> <p>Methods: Systematic Review was carried out to synthesis cohesive information on hospitalization, recovery, death, incubation period and severity of the disease. This review includes a systematic literature search of PubMed and other sources like Google Scholar and Research Gate. Results: Hospitalization rate for young is as low as 1%, while it ranged from 20.7% to 31.4% for older people. Hospitalization rate was high among patients with obesity (Body Mass Index&gt;40), and heart failure. Recovery rate ranged from 30% in China to over 70% in South Korea. Overall case fatality rate from different studies ranged from 0.1% to 6%. But this value increases to as much as over 45% for those over 75 years old. The median incubation period ranged from 4 days to 5.1 days but showed increment for the older ages. Proportion of critically ill patients ranged from 0.026% to 23%. More severe cases were seen among males than females. Conclusion: This systematic review in-sight the variation in hospitalization, recovery, death, incubation period and severity of COVID-19 pertaining to patients’ characteristics. [Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 2021; 35(SI-1):76-81]</p> <p>Key words: Hospitalization, Recovery, Death, incubation period severity, COVID-19, systematic review</p> Mengistu Yilma Girma Taye Awgichew Kifle Wondimu Ayele Ephrem Biruk Copyright (c) 2021-07-16 2021-07-16 35 1 The Plight of COVID-19 in Ethiopia: Describing Pattern, Predicting Infections, Recoveries and Deaths Using Initial Values from Different Sources https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejhd/article/view/210762 <p>Abstract<br>Background: On 31rd December 2019, China reported a cluster of cases of pneumonia of unknown etiology in Wuhan city, Hubei province. Eventually, a coronavirus was identified which was called “COVID-19” by World Health Organization (WHO) and was declared as a Public Health Emergency Concern globally.<br>Experts suggested a country context evidence to reduce the impact of COVID-19 in Africa region. To this end, this study aimed to model the course of the outbreak towards understanding the spread of the disease and the effect of integrated intervention.</p> <p>Methods: The SEIR and other relevant models were fitted to determine the effect of integrated intervention towards prevention and control of the virus. Comparative visualization of data was conducted to show the pattern and progress of the disease in Ethiopia in relation with other countries.</p> <p>Results: The overall trend of the virus in Ethiopia showed linear increase since the first case on March 13, 2020, and exponential increase after May 24, 2020. The confirmed cases in Ethiopia reached 5034 within 67 days, while South Africa and Italy reached 22,556 and 205,425 respectively within 67 days after passing 100 cases. The SEIR model considered integrated intervention measures (social distancing, facemask, and hand hygiene) with rho values of 0.7 and 0.5. Without intervention, about 9% of the population can be infected, while the proportion reduced to 5.5% and 2.5% with implementation of 30% and 50% integrated intervention measures, respectively.<br>The Prophet model showed prediction accuracy of 78.3% (95%CI = 74.2% – 82.3%) for confirmed cases.</p> <p>Conclusion: Ethiopia showed the slow progress of COVID-19 compared with South Africa and Italy. The implementation of integrated measures could reduce the proportion of infection significantly. The integrated intervention measures could also extend the peak time to a longer period. The Prophet model showed promising prediction accuracy as it increases when the data increase. [Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 2021; 35(SI-1):82-89]</p> <p>Key Words: COVID-19, patterns, predicting, infections, recovery and death</p> Girma Taye Mengistu Yilma Awgichew Kifle Wondimu Ayele Ephrem Biruk Copyright (c) 2021-07-16 2021-07-16 35 1 Patterns of essential health services utilization and routine health information management during Covid-19 pandemic at primary health service delivery point Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejhd/article/view/210764 <p>Abstract<br>Background: Health information system refers to any system that captures, stores, manages, and transmit information related to health of individuals. The essential health service includes Antenatal care, skilled birth attendant, emergency, outpatient, Inpatient, Pneumonia, and Immunization. The current pandemic of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has proved devastating in low-income countries, which were already suffering from low access for basic health service utilization. The pandemic might generate disruptive collateral damage to ongoing healthcare services through diverting available healthcare resources to the fight against the pandemics in these countries. This study aimed to assess the pattern of essential health services utilization, data accuracy checking, and information use performance review practice at selected public health center in Addis Ababa Ethiopia.</p> <p>Methods: We employed cross-sectional study and retrospectively reviewed health records to assess the pattern of selected essential health service utilization, data quality, and performance review practice before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Out of twenty-seven health centers, nine health centers were randomly selected from three sub-cities to review key indicators using a guiding checklist. Data were extracted using record verification protocol. Data was entered, cleaned, and analyzed using STATA version 14. We used average change in proportions to describe the pattern of service utilization, data quality and performance review practice before and during COVID 19. The mean difference before and during COVID 19 was compared using paired T-test statistics.</p> <p>Result: Essential health services utilization has been partially or completely disrupted in the selected health centers. Pneumonia (70%), Upper respiratory diseases (65%), PICT (54%), Out-patient (42%), and 39% for data quality and performance review practice (39%) showed significant reduction during COVID 19 cases reported in the country. ANC1, ANC4, Penta1, and Penta4 service show almost in a similar trend from month to month before and during COVID-19.</p> <p>Conclusion: Service utilization like emergency, out-of-patient, and VCT cases significantly reduced during COVID-19 pandemic. During the COVID-19 pandemic, routine data accuracy checks, and RHIS performance reviews practice were also significantly reduced. [Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 2021; 35(SI-1):90-97]</p> <p>Key words: Data quality, data use, health service utilization</p> Wondimu Ayele Ephrem Biruk Awgichew Kifle Tigist Habtamu Girma Taye Yakob Wondarad Copyright (c) 2021-07-16 2021-07-16 35 1 Quality of Primary Health Care during COVID-19 Pandemic in Addis Ababa Ethiopia: Patients-side and facility level assessment https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejhd/article/view/210766 <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background: Quality is increasingly becoming an important aspect of health care that is given a priority nowadays. The assessment and assurance of quality depends on reliable evidence. It is evident that there is no comprehensive study related to quality of health care in public primary health care facilities during COVID-19 pandemic in Ethiopia. Even if the formulation and launching of health facility standards nationally has been made in 2013 and quality has been taken as one pillar for the past two decades, quality of health services has been poor. Unfortunately, the occurrence of COVID 19 pandemic poses another threat to the already existing poor quality of health service. Therefore, this assessment of selected quality dimensions of primary health care in Addis Ababa could be used for future monitoring and evaluation of quality improvement in the country as well as prepare the primary health facilities against possible future pandemics.</p> <p>Objective: The objective of the study is to assess the selected dimension of health care quality at the time of COVID 19 in the selected primary health care facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia</p> <p>Methods: A facility-based cross-sectional study design was used. The study was done in six health facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Patients, health service providers and health facilities were the study participants. An observation checklist and interviewer administered questionnaire were used to assess the routine service provision. Data cleaning, management and analysis was done using SPSS version 23 statistical software. Both descriptive and analytical results were used to present the findings.</p> <p>Result: The overall patient satisfaction was 77.9 %. From the quality dimension, the grand mean satisfaction score for health service accessibility, patient centeredness, equitability, and timeliness were54.7%, 67.9%, 72.1%, 63.4% respectively. From the facility level analysis only two facilities indicated employees receive ongoing Continuing Professional Development (CPD). All the facilities maintain employment record of each staff; however, with regard to the content only two facilities contain credential information, health examination record, in-service education /training and copies of annual evaluation. In half of the facilities lack of procedure room and hand washing room was observed. Toilets were not clean. Poor continuity of care was also identified and only two facilities indicated they had feedback providing mechanism in the referral system.</p> <p>Conclusion: Most of the respondents were satisfied with the quality of primary health care service. Gaps, however, were identified in the human resource management, infrastructure, referral system and continuity of care from the facilities’ perspective. Incomplete recording of most of the content of employee was identified as well. Thus, it is recommended to improve the identified challenges through provision of a system (guideline), continuous supervision, mentorship, and training. [Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 2021; 35(SI-1):98-107]</p> <p>Keyword: quality of service, patient satisfaction, continuing professional development</p> Berhan Tassew Adiam Nega Demeke Assefa Ephrem Biruk Tigist Habtamu Girma Taye Wondimu Ayele Copyright (c) 2021-07-16 2021-07-16 35 1