CYP1B1 and myocilin gene mutations in Egyptian patients with primary congenital glaucoma
Purpose: Primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) accounts for 26–29% of childhood blindness in Egypt. The identification of disease causing mutations has not been extensively investigated. We aimed to examine the frequency of CYP1B1 and MYOC mutations in PCG Egyptian patients, and study a possible genotype/phenotype correlation.
Methods: Ninety-eight patients with PCG diagnosed at the Ophthalmology department of
Alexandria Main University Hospital were enrolled. Demographic and phenotypic characteristics were recorded. Patients and 100 healthy subjects (control group) were screened for two mutations in CYP1B1 gene (G61E, R368H) and one mutation in MYOC gene (Gln48His) using polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR/RFLP). Phenotypic characteristics pertaining to disease severity were compared.
Results: Nineteen patients (19%) with PCG were found positive for one or more of the mutations screened for. Seven patients (7%) were homozygous for the G61E mutation. Ten patients (10%) were heterozygous; 6 for the G61E mutation, 2 for the R368H mutation and 2 for the Gln48His mutation. Two patients (2%) were double heterozygotes harboring a R368H as well as a Gln48His mutation. The most common mutation observed was the G61E in 13 patients; 7 homozygotes and 6 heterozygotes for the mutation. The control group were negative for all mutations screened for. No significant correlations between the mutations and phenotype severity were detected. A statistically significant positive correlation however was found between the different mutations and
each of the IOP and the cup/disk ratio.
Conclusion: The current study further endorses the role of CYP1B1 mutations in the etiology of PCG among Egyptian patients and is the first study to report MYOC gene mutation in Egyptian patients with PCG.