Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) I/D and bradykinin B2 receptor T/C genes polymorphism in patients with ACE inhibitors-related cough
Background: Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors-related cough had been reported to contribute for discontinuation of ACE inhibitors therapy. The role of ACE I/D and bradykinin B2 receptor T/C genes in ACE inhibitors-related cough is still unclear.
Objectives: To determine ACE I/D and bradykinin B2 receptor T/C genes polymorphisms in patients with ACE-inhibitors-related cough.
Subjects and methods: An analytical study with cross-sectional design was conducted at Saiful Anwar General Hospital from June 2013 to September 2014. We used the polymerase chain reaction to genotype ACE I/D and bradykinin B2 receptor T/C genes. Data on both ACE I/D and bradykinin B2 receptor T/C genes polymorphisms in cough and non cough group of hypertensive patients treated with ACE inhibitors in our Hospital during the period were analyzed using multiple logistic regression. Moreover, a metaanalysis was performed to summarize findings from other regions.
Results: A total of 18 patients with cough (21%) and 67 patients without cough (79%) of hypertensive patients treated with ACE inhibitors from our Hospital during the period were analyzed for this study. In our population, no correlation was observed between ACE inhibitors-related cough and both ACE I/D (p = 0.560) and bradykinin B2 receptor T/C (p = 0.475) genes polymorphism. However, our meta-analysis of five studies consisting of 267 patients with cough and 346 patients without cough revealed that higher risk of ACE inhibitors-related cough was 1.82-fold associated with T allele of bradykinin B2 receptor T/C gene polymorphism (p = 0.0310).
Conclusions: While the evidence in our meta-analysis suggests strong role for bradykinin gene polymorphism in ACE inhibitors-related cough, however, in our population, we did not find any association.
Keywords: ACE inhibitors-related cough, ACE I/D gene polymorphism, Bradykinin B2 receptor T/C gene, polymorphism, Hypertension