Assessing Control of Asthma in Jush, Jimma, South West Ethiopia
Background: Despite international guidelines, asthma control is short of the goal in different parts of the world. The objective of this study was to assess control of asthma in patients older than 14 years at the Chest Clinic of Jimma University Specialized Hospital/JUSH, South West Ethiopia.
Methods: A cross-sectional hospital-based study was conducted on 234 physician-diagnosed asthmatic patients attending the chest follow up clinic from June 01 to July 31, 2012. Asthma control was assessed using the GINA algorithm and the ACT questionnaire. Pulmonary function test was measured using a spirometer for 160 subjects. Data were cleared, entered and analyzed using SPSS version 16 and independent variables were assessed for association with the level of asthma control using bivariate and multinomial analyses.
Results: Using the GINA based algorithm, 42 respondents (26.2%) were considered to have partly controlled asthma and the majority, 117 (76.1%), had uncontrolled asthma. Asthma was uncontrolled (ACT score <19) in 71.4% subjects and well-controlled (ACT score = 20-25) in 28.6%. Inhaled corticosteroids alone or in association with long-acting b-agonists, which are the prophylactic treatments recommended by GINA, were used by only 9 subjects (3.8%). Factors associated independently with asthma control were individual patient’s age group, unscheduled visit, frequency of SABA use, type of treatment and perceived rate of asthma control.
Conclusion: Asthma control is unacceptably poor in Jimma, South West Ethiopia. This could be changed through improved appropriate treatment and frequent monitoring to achieve and maintain control.
Keywords: Control of asthma, Spirometry, Asthma treatment, Sub-Saharan Africa