Prevalence, awareness and reporting of symptoms of obstructive sleep apnoea among hospitalized adult patients in Nigeria: A multicenter study
Background: Obstructive sleep apnoea is the most common form of sleep- disordered breathing in adults and children. It is associated with many adverse health consequences. The objectives this study were to determine the prevalence, awareness and reporting of symptoms of obstructive sleep apnoea among hospitalized adult patients in Nigeria.
Methods: This was a multicenter cross-sectional study involving 1420 adult patients admitted to general medical and surgical wards of selected hospitals from March to April 2013. A questionnaire embedded with Berlin questionnaire, Epworth sleepiness scale and questions on level of awareness and reporting of symptoms of sleep apnoea was used for data collection.
Results: One-third of the patients (33.4%) reported snoring, 16.3% had excessive daytime sleepiness, 10.0% experienced daytime fatigue, and 8.0% experienced drowsy driving. Approximately 5% reported witnessed apnoea and 18.0% had high risks for obstructive sleep apnoea. The frequency of high risk for sleep apnoea increased with age and declined after 65 years and also increased with the body mass index. Snoring, excessive daytime sleepiness and high risk for obstructive sleep apnoea were more common in patients with chronic medical conditions and who were admitted to the urban hospitals. The majority were not aware that snoring (77.3%) and excessive daytime sleepiness (65.8%) constitute a medical problem, and only 4.5% reported these symptoms to their doctors.
Conclusions: The level of awareness and under-reporting of sleep apnoea symptoms are poor. The high prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea symptoms from this study should form the basis for screening hospitalized patients with chronic medical condition across the country.
Keywords: Obstructive sleep apnoea, Nigeria, Snoring, Prevalence, Awareness, Under-reporting