Insulin sensitivity and plasma glucose response to aerobic exercise in pregnant women at risk for gestational diabetes mellitus
Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is one of the common complications that occur during pregnancy. Early intervention is essential to prevent the development of the disease in the non-pregnant state but also helpful in preventing the occurrence of GDM. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of aerobic exercises on insulin sensitivity and fasting plasma glucose level in pregnant women with risk for gestational diabetes mellitus.
Materials and methods: Forty multigravidae women between 20-24 weeks of gestation with risk for GDM were randomly selected (age range was 25-35 years), body mass index ranged from 30-35 kg/m². Women were divided into two equal groups: intervention group (A), which followed an aerobic exercise program in the form of walking on treadmill, three times weekly until the end of 37 weeks of gestation in addition to diet control. Control group (B) which received diet control with usual care given by obstetricians and midwives. Evaluation of the women in both groups was carried out before and after treatment program through assessment of fasting blood glucose and insulin levels.
Results: There was a highly statistically significance decrease in fasting blood glucose level, fasting insulin level in both groups where the p value was 0.0001 favoring group (A).
Conclusion: Moderate intensity of aerobic exercises were effective in reducing fasting blood glucose level and fasting insulin level in pregnant women with risk for gestational diabetes mellitus.
Keywords: Aerobic exercise, Blood glucose level, Insulin level, Pregnancy, Maternal diabetes