Clinico-Pathological Patterns of Patients Who Underwent Orbital Exenteration in a Tertiary Eye Hospital of Nepal
BACKGROUND: Orbital exenteration is a destructive procedure performed by removing all or part of the orbital contents along with entire eyeball. It is a procedure reserved for life threatening malignancies and some nonmalignant disorders which are not controlled by conservative management.
METHODS: This is a retrospective study done on patients who underwent orbital exenteration at Tilganga Institute of Ophthalmology from1 January 2006- 30 in December 2014.
RESULTS: The mean age of patients was 30 years (range 1-78), with male preponderance of 15(55.6%. Overall presenting duration of eye morbidity was 18 months (2 months-8.5 years). The most common presenting complaint was protrusion of eyeball1, 4(50%), primary site of tumor being intraocular in 10 patients (35.7%,) and total orbital exenteration was the most commonly performed type of surgery in 16(57.1%) out of 27 patients. The most common etiology responsible for orbital exenteration, in pediatric age group of 9/27 patients (64.2%), was retinoblastoma whereas conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)accounts for 5 patients (38.4%) in adults. Overall, the most common cause of orbital exenteration was retinoblastoma 9(32.1%).
CONCLUSION: The most common etiologies requiring orbital exenteration were retinoblastoma (in children and overall) and conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma (in adults), both diseases that could be addressed with less invasive treatment modality if detected earlier in the disease process. Designing strategy is important for early detection and treatment of these conditions, which would decrease disease morbidity and prognosis, potentially sparing sight and life.
KEYWORDS: Orbital exenteration, histopathology patterns, retinoblastoma, squamous cell carcinoma, proptosis, Nepal