PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH

Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences

Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

Remember me or Register



Clinical profile and outcome of pediatrics tetanus: the experience of a tertiary hospital in Ethiopia

Henok Tadele

Abstract


Background: Tetanus is an acute vaccine preventable illness manifested by neuromuscular dysfunction due to a potent exotoxin, tetanospasmin produced by Clostridium tetani. It is a common health problem in developing countries like Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to assess clinical profile and outcome of Pediatrics tetanus in a referral hospital, South Ethiopia.

Methods: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study of medical records of 24 Pediatric tetanus patients who were admitted from July 2014 to June 2016 to the Pediatrics Department of Hawassa University Comprehensive Specialized Hospital, Hawassa-Ethiopia. Tetanus was diagnosed clinically. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS statistical software.

Results: The median age at diagnosis was 8 years with 19 (79.2%)of the study subjects being males. There were 3 male neonatal tetanus cases with 2 deaths. From post-neonatal cases, only 8(38.1%) were fully vaccinated for infant Expanded Period of Immunization (EPI). Booster vaccination with TT (tetanus toxoid) was only given to 5(29.4%) of discharged patients. Trauma was common in above 5 years of age and documented in 19(79.2%) of patients. All tetanus cases were generalized type with mild, moderate and severe grades comprising 7(29.2%), 8(33.3%), 7(29.2%) and 2(8.3%) respectively. Case fatality rate was 29.2% (7) with more deaths in higher grades. Respiratory failure 6(85.7%), and aspiration pneumonia 1(14.3%) were causes of death.

Conclusion: In this study, case fatality rate was high. Hence, health promotion with scale-up of EPI for infant tetanus immunization and large scale studies to provide support for booster vaccination schedules are recommended.

Keywords: Profile, outcome, tetanus, children, Ethiopia




http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ejhs.v27i5.14
AJOL African Journals Online