Pediatric urinary tract infection as a cause of outpatient clinic visits in southern Ethiopia: a cross sectional study
Background: Failure to timely diagnose and treat urinary tract infections is associated with grave long term consequences. The objectives of this study included assessing the proportion and predictors of Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) as a cause of pediatric outpatient department (OPD) visits and determining common uropathogens with antimicrobial susceptibility pattern.
Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted from May to September 2015 among children of less than 15 years old at a tertiary center in Hawassa, Ethiopia. Children who fulfilled predefined eligibility criteria were recruited to undergo urine culture and urine analysis.
Results: A total of 863 children visited the OPD during the study period among which 269(31.2%) fulfilled the predefined eligibility criteria. Urine culture was positive for 74/269(27.5%) of the clinically suspected children. Male uncircumcision (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 3.70; 95% CI 1.34-10.16) and under nutrition (aOR 5.41; 95%CI 2.64-11.07) were independent predictors of culture positivity. More than 5 WBC per high power field (aOR 4.7, 95% CI 1.8-12.7) on microscopy, urine PH > 5.0 (aOR 2.6, 95%CI 1.2-5.8), and positive leukocyte esterase (aOR 9.9, 95%CI 4.1-25.7) independently predicted positive growth on urine culture. Escherichia coli (34/74, 45.9%) and Klebsiella spp (18/74, 24.3%) were the most frequent isolates. High resistance was noted against amoxicillin (70.6%) and cotrimoxazole (97.1%) by E. coli.
Conclusion: UTI accounted for a tenth of total OPD visits. Commonly used first line antibiotics showed high level resistance to common etiologies of UTI. UTI should be suspected in febrile children, and antibiograms should be done to tailor prescription of antibiotics.
Keywords: Bacterial profile, antibiotic resistance, children, urinary tract infection