The Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components among Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients at a Tertiary Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of risk factors that is responsible for the risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of MetS and its components among T2DM patients.
METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Diabetes Clinic of the Hospital, from June to July, 2015. Data were entered into EPI INFO software and exported to SPSS 20 for analysis. MetS prevalence was estimated using NCEP ATPIII and IDF criteria. Anthropometric measurements, investigations of serum glucose and lipid profiles were done. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate associated factors. A P-value ≤ 0.05 was
considered statistically significant.
RESULT: A total of 159 participants were included in the study; 119 (59.7%) were females with mean (±SD) age of (49.8±8.7) year. The prevalence of MetS was 66.7% in NCEP-ATP III and 53.5% in IDF definitions. The most prevalent component of MetS was elevated triglyceride (56.6% in ATPIII and 62.3% in IDF criteria), followed by abdominal obesity (61%) IDF and elevated blood pressure (55.4%) NCEP-ATPIII criteria. The regression analysis showed that increased age, being female, high BMI, having diabetes for over 5 years and poor glycemic control were significantly associated with metabolic syndrome.
CONCLUSION: The prevalence of MetS and its components among T2DM patients were high, suggesting that diabetic patients are at increased risk of CVD and other complications. Efforts should be geared towards addressing these abnormalities through lifestyle modification, health awareness and medications in order to reduce this complication.