Detection of Nocardia, Streptomyces and Rhodococcus from bronchoalveolar lavage specimens of patients with HIV by Multiplex PCR Assay
Background: Nocardia, Streptomyces and Rhodococcus are life threatening opportunistic pathogens under immunodeficiency conditions, particularly among patients infected with HIV. Rapid and accurate detection of these infections can improve immune health quality, patient management and appropriate treatment. The aim of this study was to design a novel multiplex-PCR assay for rapid diagnosis of these three organisms directly from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens of patients infected with HIV.
Methods: The genus specific primers were designed for directdetection of Nocardia, Streptomyces and Rhodococcus in a single tube multiplex PCR. This PCR specifically amplified the target genes from pure cultures. It subsequently was applied on BAL specimens of 29 HIV positive patients that had previously been culture negative for actinomycete bacteria, of which Nocardia, Streptomyces and Rhodococcus are members.
Results: Of 29 respiratory clinical specimens, there were positive for Nocardia spp. and one was positive for Streptomyces spp using the multiplex PCR assay. The sequencing of the PCR products identified the species as Nocardia cyriacigeorgica (n=2), Nocardia farcinica and Streptomyces albus.
Conclusion: This novel multiplex PCR assay yielded reliable results for accurate identification of Nocardia, Streptomyces and Rhodococcus from BAL while the results of bacterial culture were negative.