Active TB, HIV, risk factors, case control study, Southwest Ethiopia
BACKGROUND: Determinants of active tuberculosis among People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) are not well elucidated in countries with limited resources. The objective of this study was to assess distal and proximate determinants of active tuberculosis among people living with HIV/AIDS in southwest
METHODS: A case-control study was conducted from January to March, 2009 in South West Ethiopia. The study population consisted of 162 cases and 647 controls. Cases were adult people living with HIV/AIDS who developed active pulmonary tuberculosis and controls were people living with HIV/AIDS without active tuberculosis. An interviewer administered structured questionnaire was used to collect information on potential risk factors.
RESULTS: After adjustment for potential confounders, male gender (OR=1.7; 95%CI: 1.1, 2.7), a low level of education (OR=2.8; 95% CI: 1.1, 7.1), a body mass index less than 18.5 kg/m2 (OR=4.1; 95% CI: 2.3, 7.4), hemoglobin level less than 10.0 g/dl (OR=2.8; 95%CI: 1.5, 5.2), a CD4 lymphocyte count less than 200 cells/μL (OR=9.8‘95% CI: 5.5, 17.5), a WHO clinical stage IV (OR=4.3; 95% CI: 2.6, 6.8), not taking antiretroviral treatment (OR=3.1; 95%CI: 1.9,4.9), an infection with helminthes (OR=2.2; 95% CI: 1.4, 3.4), a history of contact with a tuberculosis patient in the family (OR=2.0; 95% CI: 1.2, 3.3), and living in a house made of mud wall (OR=3.7; 95% CI: 1.5, 7.5) were independently associated with the development of active tuberculosis in people living with HIV/AIDS.
CONCLUSION: All people living with HIV/AIDS should be screened for tuberculosis but in the presence of the risk factors mentioned above, intensified screening is recommended.
KEYWORDS: Active TB, HIV, risk factors, case control study, Southwest Ethiopia