Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences <p>The first issue of the journal appeared in July 1990 with the title 'Bulletin of Jimma Institute of Health Sciences'. The <em>Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences</em> used to appear twice a year until July 2007 but since then it is being published three times yearly by the <strong>College of Health Science of Jimma University</strong>. The journal publishes peer-reviewed articles related to Public Health and Medicine. <br />The objectives of the journal are:<br /><strong>1.</strong> To provide current scientific and technological information on health and related fields for informed planning and decision making.<br /><strong>2.</strong> To contribute to the scientific knowledge and practices in medicine, public health and related fields by providing a formal means for researchers to share their scientific research works, observations and experiences.</p> <p>Other websites related to this journal: <a title="" href="" target="_blank" rel="nofollow noopener"></a></p> Jimma University en-US Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences 1029-1857 Copyright belongs to the journal. Table of content <p>Table of content&nbsp;</p> Yibeltal Siraneh Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-18 2024-04-18 34 2 The African Journal Partnership Program’s Guidance on Use of AI in Scholarly Publishing <p>Commentary&nbsp;</p> Caradee Y Wright Margaret Lartey Kenza Khomsi Frederico Peres Daniel Yilma James Kigera Annette Flanagin Ahia Gbakima David Ofori-Adjei Sumaili Kiswaya Ernest Siaka Sidibé Adégné Togo Adamson S. Muula Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-18 2024-04-18 34 2 Maternal High-Risk Fertility Behavior and Its Associated Factors in Hadiya Zone, Southern Ethiopia: A Facility-Based Cross-Sectional Study <p><strong><em>BACKGROUND: The fertility behavior of women is characterized by maternal age, birth spacing and order, and it impacts the health of women and children. Evidence on the factors associated with maternal high-risk fertility behavior is scant in Ethiopia. Thus, the aim of this study was to identify the factors associated with maternal high-risk fertility behavior in Hadiya Zone, Southern Ethiopia. </em></strong></p> <p><strong><em>METHODS: A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted. Three hundred women of reproductive age admissions to public hospitals in the Hadiya Zone who gave birth in the five years preceding this study were selected using systematic random sampling. Face-to-face interviews were held to gather data using interviewer-administered questionnaires. Descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression models were used to analyze data. Statistical significance was assessed using odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals and declared at a p-value of less than 0.05. </em></strong></p> <p><strong><em>RESULTS: The overall proportion of maternal high-risk fertility behavior was 60.3%. Mother, who lived in rural areas (AOR = 4.85; 95%CI: 2.56, 9.19), had early marriage (AOR = 3.39; 95%CI: 1.87, 6.14) and had unplanned last pregnancy (AOR = 2.62; 95%CI: 1.28, 5.39) were more likely engaged in high-risk fertility patterns.&nbsp; </em></strong></p> <p><strong><em>CONCLUSIONS: In the study area, there was a high overall proportion of married women engaging in high-risk fertility behavior. Mothers with early marriages, unplanned pregnancies, and rural residence were more likely engaged in high-risk fertility behaviors. Plans for interventions aimed at preventing maternal high-risk fertility behavior should center on expanding access to family planning services and ending the practice of early marriage by giving rural women extra care and attention. </em></strong></p> Samuel Kusheta Robel Demelash Elias Kenea Genet Kasa Woineshet Ermako Haregewoin Limenih Wudu Yesuf Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-18 2024-04-18 34 2 Students’ Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices Regarding Solar Ultraviolet Exposure in Karachi, Pakistan <p><strong><em>BACKGROUND: </em></strong><strong><em>Ultraviolet Radiation (UVR) from the sun is a significant environmental component that impacts on human health. Excessive UVR exposure has immediate impacts like burning and tanning, as well as long-term consequences including skin damage, photo-aging, skin malignancies.&nbsp;&nbsp; The objective for this study is to determine the student’s knowledge, attitude and practice regarding solar ultraviolet exposure in Karachi, Pakistan.</em></strong></p> <p><strong><em>METHODS: </em></strong><strong><em>A cross-sectional study was done in Public Sector University; total 361 students were recruited through stratified cluster sampling from different colleges of university. Data collection was done by validated structured questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to determine the association of outcome variables with risk factors and p-value of &lt;0.05 as a threshold of statistical analysis.</em></strong></p> <p><strong><em>RESULTS: Most of the students were appropriate knowledge (71%), positive attitude (51%) and safe practice (54%) regarding ultraviolet solar exposure. Almost half (69%) of participants were used sun protective agents. After adjustment of covariate, female gender (OR 2.20 (95% CI 1.29-4.07) (p-value 0.004), significantly associated with in-appropriate knowledge, third year students (OR 2.93 (95% CI 1.01-8.95) p-value 0.048) were significantly associated with negative attitude. Age group 18-21 years (OR 1.75(95% CI 1.43-5.31) p-value 0.003) were significantly associated with un-safe practice regarding solar ultraviolet exposure harmful effects. </em></strong></p> <p><strong><em>CONCLUSION: This study found that knowledge level was appropriate but attitude and practice level need to improve for prevention of harmful effects of solar ultra violet ray exposure. </em></strong><strong><em>The study encourages students to be more aware of sun protection behavior in order to avoid the long-term effects of sun exposure.</em></strong></p> Mubashir Zafar Tafazzul Hyder Zaidi Nadira Hyder Zaidi Muhammad Waqas Nisar Ahmed Sobia Memon Faheem Ahmed Yusra Saleem Zuhaa Rehman Anabia Akhlaq Sana Sajjad Khan Sana Saleem Rehan Zaidi Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-18 2024-04-18 34 2 Patterns of Major Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Cases in Two Ethiopian Medical Centers: A Three-Year Retrospective Study <p><strong><em>BACKGROUND: Oral and Maxillofacial region is an area that is prone to multitude of disease conditions of developmental nature or acquired which require surgical intervention on many occasions. The aim of this study was to assess the pattern, indications, and types of major oral and maxillofacial surgical procedures carried out at Addis Ababa university Maxillofacial Surgery affiliate hospitals.</em></strong></p> <p><strong><em>METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted on all patients who had undergone oral and maxillofacial surgeries under general anesthesia at Yekatit 12 Hospital Medical College and Saint Peter Specialized Hospital in a period of 3 years from January 2017 to December 2019. Descriptive statistics such as biodata, indication and type of surgery were recorded and analyzed using the Epi info version 7 software.</em></strong></p> <p><strong><em>RESULTS: A total of 689 patients with oral and maxillofacial conditions were managed during the study period. The male to female ratio was 2.48:1, and the mean age of patients was 29.05 years with standard deviation of ±15.5. The predominant indications for surgery were traumatic conditions (50.71%, n=354), followed by neoplastic conditions (18.7%, n=129)). Open reduction and internal fixation were the most common (43.7%, n=313) surgical procedure performed. </em></strong></p> <p><strong><em>CONCLUSIONS: The field of oral and maxillofacial surgery in our climes is a relatively new one. However, it is evolving, and its relevance is growing. With the observed relatively high frequency of traumatic conditions, especially among younger populations, efforts geared at prevention and adequate preparedness for proper surgical management of such patients should be commenced.</em></strong></p> Surafel Adula Demerew Dejene Girma Uma Gelana Garoma Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-18 2024-04-18 34 2 Effect of Positive Thinking Skills on Optimism and Death Anxiety of COVID-19 Nurses: A quasi-experimental study <p><strong><em>BACKGROUND:</em></strong> <strong><em>The COVID-19 pandemic has placed nurses on the front lines, facing challenging conditions and increased stress levels. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of positive thinking skills training on nurses' optimism and death anxiety while caring for COVID-19 patients. </em></strong></p> <p><strong><em>METHODS:</em></strong><strong><em> In a quasi-experimental, two-group, pre- and post-test study, a total of 52 eligible nurses working at Amir al-Momenin Hospital in Zabol, Iran, between October and December 2022, were divided into intervention and control groups. The intervention group received positive thinking skills training via email or WhatsApp, with eight, 60-minutes sessions over two months. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire, the Templer Death Anxiety Scale (DAS), and the Scheier and Carver Life Orientation Test, both before and one month after the intervention. </em></strong></p> <p><strong><em>RESULTS:</em></strong><strong><em> There were no significant differences in optimism and death anxiety scores between the two groups before the intervention. However, the intervention group showed a statistically significant increase in optimism (from 13.11±3.78 to 19.03±2.58) and decrease in death anxiety (from 55.15±7.06 to 41.76±4.48) after the intervention (P &lt;0.001). </em></strong></p> <p><strong><em>CONCLUSION:</em></strong><strong><em> Considering the stressful nature of COVID-19 disease, positive thinking skills training can be recommended as an effective method to reduce death anxiety and improve nurses' optimism, thus enhancing their willingness to continue caring for patients.</em></strong></p> Mohammadreza Doustinouri Mozhgan Rahnama Abdolghani Abdollahimohammad Mahdieh Poodineh Moghadam Elham Shahraki Moghadam Elaheh Asadi-Bidmeshki Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-18 2024-04-18 34 2 Quality of Life Following Traumatic Brain Injury in Iraqi Patients <p><strong><em>BACKGROUND:</em></strong> <strong><em>Knowledge about quality</em></strong><strong><em> of life</em></strong><strong><em> following brain trauma is necessary to </em></strong><strong><em>improve</em></strong><strong><em> public health </em></strong><strong><em>programmes</em></strong><strong><em>.</em></strong></p> <p><strong><em>METHODS:</em></strong><strong><em> A cross-sectional study was conducted </em></strong><strong><em>at</em></strong><strong><em> Ghazi al-Hariri Surgical Specialties Hospital, Dr. Saad Al-Witry Neuroscience Hospital in </em></strong><strong><em>the </em></strong><strong><em>Baghdad governorate, and Baqubah General Hospital in </em></strong><strong><em>the </em></strong><strong><em>Diyala governorate from first January to the end of April 2022. The study's target population was patients aged 18 years and older with traumatic brain injury six to 12 months </em></strong><strong><em>post-injury</em></strong><strong><em>, </em></strong><strong><em>Quality of life was evaluated by a structured questionnaire using the quality of life after brain injury (QOLIBRI) scale</em></strong></p> <p><strong><em>RESULTS:</em></strong> <strong><em>A</em></strong><strong><em> total of </em></strong><strong><em>225 </em></strong><strong><em>participants </em></strong><strong><em>were included</em></strong><strong><em>. The highest proportion </em></strong><strong><em>(</em></strong><strong><em>52.9%</em></strong><strong><em>)</em></strong><strong><em> was within the age group of 18-29</em></strong><strong><em> years</em></strong><strong><em>. The male</em></strong><strong><em>-</em></strong><strong><em>to</em></strong><strong><em>-</em></strong><strong><em>female ratio was 3.09:1. Road traffic accidents were the main cause of brain </em></strong><strong><em>damage, affecting</em></strong><strong><em> 67.6% and 52.7%</em></strong><strong><em>,</em></strong><strong><em> respectively. The average </em></strong><strong><em>levels</em></strong><strong><em> of satisfaction with thinking ability, emotions, independence, and social relationships were 56.9%, 52.9%, 42.2% and 43.6%</em></strong><strong><em>,</em></strong><strong><em> respectively. The average </em></strong><strong><em>levels</em></strong><strong><em> of dissatisfaction with feelings and physical activity were 48.4% and 53.8%</em></strong><strong><em>,</em></strong><strong><em> respectively.</em></strong></p> <p><strong><em>CONCLUSION:</em></strong><strong><em> Most patients with traumatic brain injury had average overall satisfaction with </em></strong><strong><em>their </em></strong><strong><em>thinking abilities, emotions, independence, and social relationships. Majority of them had an average level of discontent with their feelings and a low level of discontent with their physical activity. </em></strong></p> Ula Munther Al-Azzaw Laith Thamer Al-Ameri Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-18 2024-04-18 34 2 Appendico-Ileal Knotting: A Rare Cause of Strangulated Small Bowel Obstruction <p><strong><em>BACKGROUND:</em></strong><strong><em> Bowel obstruction is a common surgical emergency worldwide. It may result into high morbidity or mortality whenever intervention is delayed. It affects all age groups. The most commonly seen etiologies of bowel obstruction are post-operative adhesions, neoplasm and hernia in that order. Intestinal knot syndrome is an extremely rare cause of intestinal obstruction, and when it occurs, it poses diagnostic challenges. We report a case of appendico-ileal knotting causing strangulated small bowel obstruction due to its rarity and diagnostic difficulty. Our objective is to discuss the clinical presentation and management of this rare cause of surgical emergency. </em></strong></p> <p><strong><em>CASE: A-72- year old man was seen at the emergency unit of our center with 4 days history of gradual onset of colicky abdominal pain with nausea and vomiting. He had a two-day history of constipation and a one-day history of fever. He was acutely ill-looking and his vital signs were abnormal. Urgent abdominopelvic ultrasound and plain abdominal x-ray was performed and were suggestive of intestinal obstruction. He had emergency laparotomy, and intra-operatively appendico-ileal knotting was seen with gangrenous appendix and terminal ileum. This necessitated limited right hemicolectomy and ileo-colonic anastomosis. The patient was managed post-operatively and discharged on post-operative day 10.</em></strong></p> <p><strong><em>CONCLUSION: Appendico-ileal knotting is a cause of small bowel obstruction although it is very rare. The diagnosis is commonly confirmed intra-operatively. There are reports of simple small bowel obstruction secondary to appendico-ileal knotting, but this case confirmed that it could also lead to strangulated intestinal obstruction.</em></strong></p> Najeem Adedamola IDOWU Waheed Olalekan ISMAEEL Akeem Aderogba ADELEKE Joshua Adejare FALEYE Suliyat Adebisi ADELEYE-IDOWU Kehinde Aderonke ADEMOYE Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-18 2024-04-18 34 2 Osteopetrosis with Typical Radiological Findings: A Report of a Rare Case <p><strong><em>BACKGROUND:</em></strong> <strong><em>Osteopetrosis is a rare inherited disease caused by a lack of osteoclastic bone resorption, resulting in increased bone mass with insufficient mechanical strength. Patients usually present with complications such as pathologic fractures, cranial neuropathies, and bone marrow failure. Diagnosis is based on suggestive clinical and imaging findings, with genetic testing to confirm diagnosis and identify the subtype.</em></strong></p> <p><strong><em>CASE PRESENTATION: The patient is an eight-year-old girl who came to our hospital with complaints of bilateral arm swelling and visual disturbances for four years and a history of fracture of the left lower extremity two years before presentation. Physical examination revealed nontender bilateral arm swelling and a shorter left leg. The laboratory tests were within normal limits. A skeletal radiograph showed typical radiographic features of osteopetrosis.</em></strong></p> <p><strong><em>CONCLUSION: It is important to consider osteopetrosis in patients presenting with pathologic fractures and cranial neuropathies. Typical imaging findings can provide rapid diagnosis in severe cases.</em></strong></p> Bethlehem Tesfasilassie Kibrom Tesfahunegn Hailemariam Feleke Wubineh Admasu Frehiwot Tsegaye Samuel Sisay Hailu Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-18 2024-04-18 34 2 Hysteroscopic Removal of an Unwanted Remainder in the Uterus after Two Years of Caesarean Section: A Case Report of Gossypiboma <p><strong><em>BACKGROUND:</em></strong> <strong><em>Retained surgical items (RSIs) constitute a rare complication arising after surgical procedures. Their occurrence may be averted through diligent precautionary measures. Perioperative counting of equipment and materials is the most common method of screening for RSIs. Subsequent confirmation of the diagnosis can be achieved through clinical examination and imaging studies.</em></strong></p> <p><strong><em>CASE:</em></strong><strong><em> We report a case of successful hysteroscopic identification and retrieval of gauze inadvertently left within the uterine cavity, after a cesarean section two years back. The patient was later diagnosed with RSIs during routine evaluation for secondary subfertility and vaginal discharge.</em></strong></p> <p><strong><em>CONCLUSIONS:</em></strong><strong><em> Despite the relatively low incidence of RSIs, they represent a significant and preventable source of patient harm, carrying the potential for fatal outcomes and resulting in substantial medical and legal expenditures.</em></strong></p> Faiza Ejaz Zahid Hyder Wadani Farheen Yousuf Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-18 2024-04-18 34 2