Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences <p><em>Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences</em> is a general health science journal addressing clinical medicine, public health and biomedical sciences. In rare instances, it covers veterinary medicine.</p>Other websites related to this journal: <a title="" href="" rel="nofollow" target="_blank"></a> Jimma University en-US Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences 1029-1857 Copyright belongs to the journal. Table of content <p>Table of content.&nbsp;</p> Yibeltal Siraneh Copyright (c) 2021-09-01 2021-09-01 31 5 10.4314/ejhs.v31i5. Editorial message <p>Editorial message from the E-I-C.&nbsp;</p> Abraham Haileamlak Copyright (c) 2021-09-01 2021-09-01 31 5 10.4314/ejhs.v31i5. Characteristics and Outcomes of Mechanically Ventilated Pediatric Patients in A Tertiary Referral Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Cross Sectional Study <p>BACKGROUND፡ A few studies are available from Africa on the use of mechanical ventilation (MV) in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Knowledge of the outcome of patients on MV is critical for better use of resources. We aimed to assess the characteristics and outcomes of mechanically ventilated pediatric patients in Tikur Anbessa Specialized Referral Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.<br>METHODS: A cross-sectional study was done from September 2016 to February 2018. Data were reviewed from the patients’ medical records. SPSS version 21 software was used for data entry and analysis.<br>RESULTS: There were 536 patients admitted to PICU; out of these, 202 (41.2%) were on MV. Sixty-three-point six percent of the participants were males and 130 (59.1%) died. The most common indications for the initiation of MV were respiratory problems 46 (20.9%) and 30.59/1000 ventilator days developed complications. Ventilator-associated pneumonia accounted for 18.6% of the complications with 20.9/1000 ventilator days. Survival of medical cases was better than the surgical cases (including trauma); [AOR= 0.13, 95% CI (0.04-0.41)] and those who have MV for more than 3 days are 79% more likely to die (p=0.003). Those who have multi-organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) [AOR= 0.181, 95% CI (0.08, 0.412)] and high PIM II severity score [AOR= 35, 95% CI (1.7,11)] had higher mortality rate.<br>CONCLUSIONS: higher PIM II score, MODS, length of stay, and being a surgical patient increased the risk of mortality. Early resuscitation and thorough follow up of these ventilated patients are necessary.</p> Tigist Bacha Netsanet Tsegaye Wagari Tuli Copyright (c) 2021-09-01 2021-09-01 31 5 10.4314/ejhs.v31i5. Predictors of Mortality among Adult People Living with HIV and Its Implications for Appointment Spacing Model Approach Care <p>BACKGROUND፡ Ethiopia has been motivated to achieve a goal of “appointment spacing model approach care.” However, little has been documented on the predictor of mortality and challenges of sustainable HIV care. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine predictors of mortality among adult people living with HIV/AIDS on antiretroviral therapy (ART).<br>METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted on 676 adult people living with HIV who enrolled to ART clinic from September 01, 2012 - August 30, 2016. Multivariable Cox Regression analysis was done where adjusted hazard ratio (AHR)with corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) at P value ≤ 0.05 cut of point was used to identify predictors of mortality.<br>RESULTS: The total person-time contributed was 28,209 personmonths with an overall mortality incidence rate of 11 per 1000 person-months observation. The cumulative mortality incidence among females over the study period was 16.8% (64/382). Severe undernourishment and moderate malnutrition at baseline, younger age, female sex, single, divorced, illiterate, lack of disclosure, advanced WHO clinical stage, seeking treatment outside catchment area, rural residence and immunological failure were found to be independent predictors of mortality.<br>CONCLUSIONS: Poor nutritional status at baseline, advanced stage of HIV disease, occurrence of treatment failure, female sex, substance abuse, lack of social support, immunological failure, clinical failure, and younger age, low level of education and poor physical access to healthcare facility were found to be important predictors of mortality. Intervening, those factors as routine and part of the appointment spacing model care can improve survival of PLWHA.</p> Aderajew Nigusse Tekelehaimanot Tefera Belachew Esayas Kebede Gudina Masrie Getnet Demuma Amdisa Lelisa Sena Dadi Copyright (c) 2021-09-01 2021-09-01 31 5 10.4314/ejhs.v31i5. Incidence and Predictors of Mortality among Preterm Neonates Admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at Debre Markos Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia <p>BACKGROUND፡ Prematurity is the most frequent cause of neonatal death and the second leading cause of under-five mortality. Preterm related complications accounts for 35 % of neonatal deaths within the first week after birth. So far, most studies done in Ethiopia have focused on estimating the prevalence and determinant factors of premature neonatal death. The current study aimed to assess the incidence and predictors of mortality among preterm neonates admitted to neonatal intensive care unit at Debre Markos Referral Hospital.<br>METHODS: An institution-based retrospective follow up study was conducted among premature neonates admitted to Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at Debre Markos Referral Hospital from July 2019 to October 2019. Around 498 patients were selected randomly. A multivariable cox proportional hazards model was fitted to identify predictors of mortality.<br>RESULTS: A total of 498 preterm babies were followed, and the mean age for follow up at the time of admission to NICU was 15 hours ± 38 SD. Death rate in preterm was estimated to be 27.11% (95% CI: 23.3%, 31.1%). Preterm neonates with gestational age of less than 32 weeks (AHR=1.51; 95% CI: 1.02, 2.24), respiratory distress syndrome (AHR=1.49; 95% CI: 1.03, 2.17), perinatal asphyxia (AHR=1.74, 95% CI: 1.01, 2.76) and congenital malformation (AHR=3.38, 95% CI: 1.21, 8.77) were statistically significant predictors of mortality among preterms.<br>Conclusion: The incidence of death in preterm neonates is relatively low. Gestational age less than 32 weeks, perinatal asphyxia, respiratory distress syndrome and congenital malformation were found as predictors.</p> Ermias Abebaw Alemayehu Reta Getiye Dejenu Kibret Fasil Wagnew Copyright (c) 2021-09-01 2021-09-01 31 5 10.4314/ejhs.v31i5. Risky Sexual Behavior and Associated Factors among Street Youth in Dilla Town, Gedeo Zone, South Ethiopia, 2018 <p>BACKGROUND፡ Street youth are exposed to situations that make them vulnerable to sexual and reproductive health problems. The majority of street youth are living in conditions of severe deprivation, which place them at all kinds of health risks. Street youth have risky sexual behaviors that increase the likelihood of adverse sexual and reproductive health consequences. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the prevalence and associated factors of risky sexual behavior among street youth in Dilla town, Gedeo zone, South Ethiopia, 2018.<br>METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 279 randomly selected street youth after locating and identifying them through census using a structured pre-tested questionnaire. Descriptive and binary logistic regression analyses were used. Statistically significant was declared at alpha&lt;0.05.<br>RESULTS: The prevalence of risky sexual behavior among street youth in Dilla town was53.9% (95% CI –(48, 60.2)). Female sex (AOR=9.57, 95% CI- (1.76, 52.07)), age (AOR=1.23, 95% CI-(1.08, 1.39)), educational level (AOR=3.00, 95% CI- (1.08, 8.33)) and alcohol intake (AOR=2.27, 95% CI – (1.11, 4.68)) were statistically significant with risky sexual behavior.<br>CONCLUSION: A substantial number of street youths were engagedin risky sexual behavior, while female sex, increase in age, educational level, and alcohol intake of street youth were found to contribute to aggravate the problem. This calls formobilizing interventions considering the above factors to bring behavioral change in reducing risky sexual practices.</p> Simret Fikre Girma Tenkolu Zerihun Berhanu Mamo Copyright (c) 2021-09-01 2021-09-01 31 5 10.4314/ejhs.v31i5. Physical Violence and Associated Factors among Women of Reproductive Age in Gedeo Zone, Southern Ethiopia <p>BACKGROUND፡ Physical violence against women of reproductive age is a significant public health problem worldwide. This study aimed to assess physical violence and associated factors among women of reproductive age.<br>METHOD: A community-based cross-sectional study design was implemented from August 1 to September 30, 2018, including women of reproductive age in Gedeo Zone Southern Ethiopia. A stratified, two-stage cluster sampling technique was used. Finally, the study population was selected from the respective source population using a simple random sampling technique. Data were checked, coded, and entered Epi data version 3.1 and exported to SPSS version 20 for analysis. The wealth index was computed using the principal component analysis. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were computed to identify the determinants of physical violence among women of reproductive age.<br>RESULTS: Experiencing at least one type of physical violence among women of reproductive age was 14.7% (95%CI: 11.7, 17.4). Study participants whose spouse had any habit (AOR: 3.56; 95%CI: 1.75, 7.25) and whose spouse had watched pornography counterpart ((AOR: 1.58; 95%CI: 1.02, 3.17) had significantly higher odds of experiencing physical violence among women of reproductive age. Spouses had any habit like alcohol drinking, chat chewing, cigarette smoking, and seeing pornography significantly increased physical violence among reproductive-age women. Therefore, the responsible stakeholders should work on the means to the spouse can alleviate any form of habit like alcohol drinking, chat chewing, cigarette smoking, and seeing pornography could decrease physical violence in women of reproductive age.</p> Zemenu Yohannes Kassa Siraneh Abebaw Abeje Tebeje Ashegu Nebiha Hadra Copyright (c) 2021-09-01 2021-09-01 31 5 10.4314/ejhs.v31i5. Clinical Presentation of Retinoblastoma in Ethiopia: A Case of Jimma University Medical Center Pediatric Oncology Unit, Southwest Ethiopia <p>BACKGROUND፡ Retinoblastoma (RB) is one of the most curable childhood cancers if early detected and treated. Late presentation complicates the management of RB results in dismal treatment outcome. Objective: The aim of this study is to report the clinical presentation pattern of retinoblastoma patients seen at Jimma University Medical center (JUMC).<br>METHODS: The study was a retrospective review of retinoblastoma cases managed at JUMC between August 2016 and July 2020.<br>RESULTS: Among pediatric oncology cases registered retinoblastoma, accounting 8.5 % (36/423) of all childhood cancer patients in the study period, 29 (90.6%) of them had unilateral retinoblastoma and 3(9.4%) of them had bilateral retinoblastoma. The average age at presentation for bilateral and unilateral retinoblastoma patients was 17 (range 3-30) months and 37.5 months (range 8-84) respectively. The first symptom observed by the family was leukocoria in 21 (65.6%) of the patients but 24(75%) of the patients presented with advanced stage (proptosis and fungating orbital mass) of the disease. The longest and the shortest lag time of presentation from the first symptom was 17 months and 2 weeks respectively with the mean lag time of 1.4 months in bilateral and 6 months in unilateral<br>cases. Clinically, the majority of the eyes 24/35(68.6%) were extraocular tumors involving orbital tissues at presentation.<br>CONCLUSION: Most of retinoblastoma patients presented at advanced stage of the disease and presented very late after the family observed the disease. Early detection strategies must be designed by the government and responsible stakeholders in mitigating the effects of late presentation.</p> Diriba Fufa Hordofa Kumale Tolesa Daba Aemero Abateneh Mengesha Copyright (c) 2021-09-01 2021-09-01 31 5 10.4314/ejhs.v31i5. Prevalence of H. Pylori in Perforated Peptic Ulcer Disease at Saint Paul’s Hospital Millennium Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia <p>BACKGROUND፡ Helicobacter Pylori is the most common cause of peptic ulcer disease with disputable association with perorated Peptic Ulcer disease (PPD). This study aims to determine magnitude of Helicobacter Pylori in PPD and the outcomes of treatment, at Saint Paul Hospital Millennium Medical College (SPHMMC)<br>METHOD: Between January 9, 2013 and February 7, 2018, all patients operated for PPD were recruited retrospectively. Data was extracted from patient’s medical records using pretested questionnaire. Data analysis was done by SPSS version 20<br>Result: During the 5 years, 46 patients fulfilling inclusion criteria were included in the study. H. Pylori test was positive for stool antigen in 10 (21.7%) and serology eleven (23.9 %) of patients. Overall, nineteen (41.3%) of patients had positive result regardless of the type of test used. Out of 46 patients, twenty-six (56.5%) patients were given eradication therapy and thirty-four (73.9%) patients were given PPI alone or as a part of eradication therapy. During their hospital stay, five (10.9%) patients developed deep and superficial surgical site infection and two (4.3%) of patients have died.<br>CONCLUSION: The prevalence of H. Pylori among PPD patients in this study is lower compared to most studies. Further prospective studies should be conducted in the future to understand association with H. Pylori and provide recommendations on eradication treatment.</p> Mekdim Tadesse Eyasu Musie Berhanetsehay Teklewold Endalkachew Hailu Copyright (c) 2021-09-01 2021-09-01 31 5 10.4314/ejhs.v31i5. Pattern and Outcome of Colorectal and Perianal Surgery in a Referral Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia <p>BACKGROUND: Colorectal and perianal surgery encompasses a broad range of procedures to address various pathologies arising from the colon and anorectum. Data regarding the pattern and outcome of colorectal and perianal disorders requiring surgery remains largely unknown in Ethiopia.<br>METHODS: A descriptive cross sectional one-year review was made and all patients who were admitted and operated for colorectal and perianal disorders were included in the study. Data was collected by chart review and analyzed by SPSS version 23.<br>RESULT: Colorectal and perianal surgeries accounted for 14.6% of the procedures in the study period. Males constituted the major share of the study population. The mean age for perianal and colorectal pathologies were 39.6±13.7 and 44.8± 16.2 years respectively. Among the colorectal disorders redundant sigmoid was the most common indication for admission 41(34.4%) followed by colorectal neoplasms 38(31.9%) while among the perianal conditions, fistula in ano was the most common pathology accounting for 69(43.4%) of admissions followed by hemorrhoids 35(22%). The overall incidence of post-operative complications in the colorectal and perianal procedure groups was found to be 29(24.4%) and 4(2.5%) respectively. There was no mortality in the perianal group whereas there were 11(9.2%) deaths in the colorectal procedure group.<br>CONCLUSION: Colorectal surgeries accounted for a fair share of procedures among the other specialty units. The morbidity and mortality associated with colorectal procedures is fairly high and warrants attention.</p> Daniel Zemenfes Ashebir Hana Abebe Gebreselassie Copyright (c) 2021-09-01 2021-09-01 31 5 10.4314/ejhs.v31i5. Quality of Life in Patients Living with Stoma <p>BACKGROUND፡ Background and Objective: Quality of life of patients can be affected a treatment. A good quality of life is essential to achieve a goal in treating patients. This study aims to assess stoma related quality of life.<br>METHODS: A cross-sectional study was done at St. Paul’s Hospital millennium Medical College from February 1 to July 31, 2019. A structured questionnaire was used to interview patients and review charts of patients to retrieve information on sociodemographic variables, type, and indications of the stoma. Data was collected using structured questionnaire adopted from the City of Hope and Beckman Research Institute after modifications to make it in line with the Ethiopian context.<br>RESULTS: The mean score for the overall quality of life for stomata was 7.42 ± 0.53. Around 70% of patients have adjusted their dietary style due to stoma. More than half of them reported feelings of depression following stoma surgery. Only 34% of patients resumed sexual activity and only 11% were satisfied with it. None of them were enrolled in stoma association or support group. Factors such as type of ostomy (temporary/permanent), adjustment in dietary style due to stoma, depression, change in diet for not passing gas in public, and change in clothing style had significant effects on overall quality of life and its subscales (P &lt; 0.05).<br>CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that living with stoma has a greater impact on the overall aspect of quality of life.</p> Wuletaw Chane Zewude Tilahun Derese Yisihak Suga Berhanetsehay Teklewold Copyright (c) 2021-09-01 2021-09-01 31 5 10.4314/ejhs.v31i5. Insulin Receptor Substrate 1 Gene and Glucose Metabolism Characteristics in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with Comorbidities <p>BACKGROUND፡ Genetic variants that affect insulin signaling play an important role in insulin resistance (IR) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study aimed to evaluate changes of the glycemic profile and IR in T2DM with comorbid obesity and chronic pancreatitis (CP) considering the allele status of the IRS1 gene (rs2943640).<br>METHODS: The study involved 33 type-2 diabetic patients and 10 healthy individuals. The IRS-1 gene rs2943640 C&gt;A polymorphism was genotyped using the TaqMan real-time PCR method.<br>RESULTS: In type 2 diabetic patients regardless of the presence/absence of comorbid obesity and CP glycemic profile parameters significantly did not differ between carriers of allele С or allele A of the IRS1 gene (rs2943640). At the same time significantly higher HOMA-IR (by 2.25 times) was established in carriers of the C allele. In type 2 diabetic patients with both comorbidities (carriers of the C allele) the maximum HOMA-IR was established, which significantly differed from the data of patients with only T2DM and patients with comorbid obesity. In carriers of the A allele significantly higher level of HOMA-IR was found in patients with comorbid obesity and CP vs patients with only T2DM, and also in patients with comorbid obesity vs patients with only T2DM.<br>CONCLUSIONS: Presence of the C allele of the IRS1 gene (rs2943640) may indicate risk of high IR in type 2 diabetic patients regardless of the presence/absence of comorbid obesity and CP; here with CP is a more important factor in IR progression then obesity.</p> Mariya Marushchak Inna Krynytska Copyright (c) 2021-09-01 2021-09-01 31 5 10.4314/ejhs.v31i5. Comparison of Prevalence and Risk Factors of Acute Coronary Syndrome in Patients with Different Ethnicity: A Cross-sectional Study <p>BACKGROUND: Although the main risk factors of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) have been previously identified, there is not yet strong and consistent evidence about the ethnical differences of these risk factors. The aim of this study was to identify and compare the distribution of risk factors of ACS among two ethnic groups in northern Iran.<br>METHODS: This cross-sectional study was done on a total of 250 patients (100 Fars and 150 Turkmen ethnics) with ACS admitted in coronary care units (CCU) of medical centers in Gonbad-e Kavus, a city in the Northeast of Iran. The demographic characteristics, clinical parameters and anthropometric indices of patients in two ethnic groups were recorded. In addition, Beacke’s questionnaire and Cohen's scale were used to evaluate and compare the patients’ level of physical activity and perceived stress, respectively.<br>RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 60.9±11.9 years and they were mostly males (54.8%) and married (84.8%). Findings showed that the prevalence of myocardial infarction in Fars patients was significantly higher than Turkmens (24% versus 15.3%; P=0.04). In addition, there was a significant difference in terms of the history of using opium (P=0.07) and opium sap (P=0.03)‚ socioeconomic status (P=0.009)‚ the place of residence (P=0.001) and type of health insurance services (P=0.001) between two groups. However, the clinical parameters and anthropometric indices and the level of physical activity and perceived stress were not significantly different between two groups (P&gt;0.05).<br>CONCLUSION: This study showed a significant difference in the prevalence and risk factor of ACS in patients with different ethnicity in northern Iran. This finding points to the importance of paying attention to the ethnicity-based difference in ACS prevalence and risk factors, especially in patients who are at high to intermediate risk for ACS, such as Turkmens.</p> Homeira Khoddam Zobeide Alemi Mahnaz Modanloo Copyright (c) 2021-09-01 2021-09-01 31 5 10.4314/ejhs.v31i5. Pre-hospital Care to Trauma Patients in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Hospital-based Cross-sectional Study <p>BACKGROUND፡ Trauma is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Prompt use of pre-hospital care is associated with reduced early and late morbidity and mortality from trauma. This study aimed to assess the time to reach the facility and the pattern of pre-hospital care provided for trauma patients.<br>METHODS: A cross-sectional study design with a structured interview questioner was used for patients presenting to Addis Ababa Burn Emergency and Trauma Hospital Emergency Department from April 1 to May 30, 2020.<br>RESULT: Out of 238 interviewed patients, the most common means of transportation from the scene to the initial health facility were taxi 77(32.4%) and ambulance 54(22.7%). The time of arrival from the scene to the initial health care facility was within one hour, 133(56.1%) and in 1-3 hours 84(35.5%). Some form of care was provided at the scene in 110(46.2%) of cases. The care provided was bleeding arrest 74(31.1 %), removing from wreck 51(21.4%), splinting/immobilizing injured area 38(16%), position for patient comfort 19(8%), and others. Relatives were the most common care provider 49(45%) followed by bystanders 37(33.9%), trained ambulance staff 19(17.4%), and police 2 (1.8%). The main reasons for not providing care were lack of knowledge 79(61.2%), and lack of equipment 25 (19.4%).<br>CONCLUSION: The study showed relatives and bystanders were the first responders during trauma care. However, ambulance utilization for pre-hospital care was low. There was trauma patients delay to arrive to hospital. Only half of the patients presented to the health facility within Golden hour.</p> Tsegaye G/Ananya Menbeu Sultan Biruktawit Zemede Ayalew Zewdie Copyright (c) 2021-09-01 2021-09-01 31 5 10.4314/ejhs.v31i5. A Retrospective Analysis on Cervical Spine Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in Patients with Neck Pain in a Tertiary Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia <p>BACKGROUND፡ Neck pain is a common health problem throughout the world causing significant individual disability and economic burden on health care facility. Many factors are mentioned as a cause or association in relation to neck pain, of which degenerative and posttraumatic cause are the main ones. The aim of this study is to assess cervical spine Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) patterns in patients presented with neck pain.<br>METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 160 patients who had cervical spine Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) for evaluation of a neck pain was done. The study was conducted between February to August 2018 at Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital. The patients’ clinical history and magnetic resonance imaging reports were reviewed from their medical records. All patients who have cervical spine Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) for a neck pain were included in the study. Those patients with acute traumatic neck pain were excluded.<br>RESULTS: From a total of 160 patients, 71(44.4%) were males and 89(55.6%) were females. Degenerative cervical spine findings such as intervertebral disc degenerations were seen in 127(79.4%) patients. Non-degenerative imaging findings such as neoplasm and infection were seen in 10(6.3%) patients only. The MRI was normal in 23(14.4%) of them.<br>CONCLUSION: The most common cause of neck pain from this study is degenerative changes of the cervical spine, which was predominant in the older age groups. Non-degenerative causes such as neoplasm and infection were less common findings.</p> Tewodros Endale Balcha Ferehiwot Bekele Getaneh Abebe Mekonnen Woldeyohannes Copyright (c) 2021-09-01 2021-09-01 31 5 10.4314/ejhs.v31i5. Soil-Transmitted Helminthic Infections and Geophagia among Pregnant Women in Jimma Town Health Institutions, Southwest Ethiopia <p>BACKGROUND፡ Pregnancy is a key step for human’s reproduction and continuity of generation. Pregnant women are among at risk groups for the infection of soil-transmitted helminths (STHs). STHs are highly prevalent in low- and middleincome countries due to the deprived environmental sanitation<br>and personal hygiene. Eating soil (geophagia) is also commonly practiced by pregnant women, particularly in developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of STHs and geophagia, and to assess associated factors among pregnant women in Jimma, Southwest Ethiopia.<br>METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted among 407 pregnant women attending antenatal care (ANC) at different health facilities located in Jimma Town. Data related to sociodemographic and geophagia practice was collected using a structured questionnaire and STH infections status was determined by using McMaster technique.<br>RESULTS: A total of 407 pregnant women were included in this study. The overall prevalence of any STHs was 19.7% (80/407). Ascaris lumbricoides was the most prevalent 45(56.2%), followed by Trichuris trichiura 19(23.8%) and hookworms 12(15%). There were 4(5%) of double infection with A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura. Overall, 71 (17.4%) of the pregnant women responded to practice geophagia. STHs infection was significantly higher among geophagic pregnant women (p&lt;0.01) and pregnant women who practiced geophagia were 3 times more likely (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.3-4.2) to have the STHs compared to non-geophagic. Out of those who claimed soil eating habits, 59.1% preferred reddish soil type. Geophagia practice was significantly higher during the third trimester as compared to first and second (p&lt;0.05).<br>CONCLUSION: Geophagia is a risky behavior and this study showed a significant association of geophagia practice with STH infections, although the causal relation could not be established.</p> Mestawet Getachew Ruth Yeshigeta Abebaw Tiruneh Yonas Alemu Eden Dereje Zeleke Mekonnen Copyright (c) 2021-09-01 2021-09-01 31 5 10.4314/ejhs.v31i5. Neuroimaging Features and Associated Factors in Multiple Sclerosis Patients: A Perspective from a Private Care Center in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia <p>BACKGROUND፡ Brain and spine magnetic resonance image (MRI) have an invaluable importance in diagnosing multiple sclerosis (MS) in low prevalence countries such as Ethiopia. The objective of our study was to characterize the neuroimaging features and associated factors in Multiple sclerosis patients in<br>Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.<br>METHOD: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted in 30 multiple sclerosis patients at Yehuleshet Specialty Clinic, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Both descriptive and analytical statistics were used to analyze the data.<br>RESULTS: We have enrolled 30 patients with confirmed multiple sclerosis and clinically isolate syndrome. The mean age was 34.7 years (1SD=8.9). Female accounted 86.7%. The mean duration of illness was 3.4 years (1SD=3.1) (range: 1 – 11 years). Relapsing and remitting variant was the commonest sub type (66.7%). Alcohol use and head injury were the commonest identified risk factors reported by the patients. Classical radiological features of MS such as white matter lesions involving juxtacortical, U-fiber, corpus callosum (CC), and Dawson’s finger projections pattern were observed in 46.7%, 23.3%, 70%, and 40% respectively. Cervical and thoracic cords were affected in 40% and 6.7% respectively. Global cortical and CC atrophy was observed in 16.7% and 6.7% respectively. Advanced age was associated with lesions of corpus callosum when adjusted for duration of illness and history of head injury (AOR 1.13, 95% CI 1.01-1.28, p=0.04).<br>CONCLUSION: Typical neuroimaging features of MS were prevalent among Ethiopian MS patients. Age was an independent predictor of lesions involving corpus callosum. Global cortical atrophy was common among Ethiopian MS patients.</p> Biniyam A. Ayele Mehila Z. Wuhib Betesaida G. Zenebe Yared Z. Zewde Yonas T. Wolde Guta Z. Metaferia Copyright (c) 2021-09-01 2021-09-01 31 5 10.4314/ejhs.v31i5. Estimation of Stature from Arm Span, Arm Length and Tibial Length among Adolescents of Aged 15-18 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia <p><strong>BACKGROUND</strong>፡ Knowing the relationship between stature and different anatomical anthropometric parameters help forensic scientists, anatomists and clinicians to estimate standing height from mutilated remains of body parts in clinical practices and forensic investigations. It is a necessity when measuring height is unenviable due to certain medical conditions and in field studies. This study aims to estimate stature from arm span, arm length and tibial length among adolescents of age 15-18 in Ethiopia.<br><strong>METHODS</strong>: A school based cross-sectional study was carried out among 416 high school students in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from May to June 2019. Stratified multi-stage sampling techniques were used to select the study participants. Anthropometric measurement including weight, height, arm span, arm length and tibial length was measured. Data entry was done by Epi-Data a version and data analysis was carried out by Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 23. Regression models and multiplication factors were generated for estimation of height from anthropometric parameters.<br><strong>RESULT</strong>: From total participants 51.4% were females and 48.6% were males. The mean height of study participants was 164.36±8.89cm for males and 155.75±5.86cm for females. The correlation coefficients(R) of anatomical anthropometric measurements with height were: arm span (males R=0.843,<br>females R=0.708), arm length (males R=0.806, females R=0.635), and tibial length (males R=0.738, females R=0.611).<br><strong>CONCLUSION</strong>: Stature predicted from arm span, arm length, and tibial length is a valid indicator of height. Arm span was appeared to be the best predictor of stature.</p> Abay Mulu Bereket Sisay Copyright (c) 2021-09-01 2021-09-01 31 5 10.4314/ejhs.v31i5. Variations of Peroneus Tertius Muscle in Omani Population: A Surface Anatomical Study <p>BACKGROUND: Peroneus tertius muscle (PTM) is a muscle of the anterior compartment of the leg. It is a highly variable muscle with a prevalence rate ranging from 42%-100% in different populations worldwide. We sought to explore the frequency of PTM and its existing variants, based on surface anatomical evaluation of the foot, in Omani subjects.<br>METHODS: In this study, a total of 222 adult Omani subjects (total 444 feet) were examined for the presence of PTM. The presence of PTM and its morphological types were identified based on surface anatomical examination using a standard palpation method. Descriptive statistics were used to present the data. The gender influence on the occurrence of PTM was determined by the Chi-square test.<br>RESULTS: The frequency of PTM was observed in 59.9% of total feet. A statistically significant gender difference with male dominance was observed on both right (p = 0.02) and left (p &lt;0.01) feet. Regarding PTM types, the F2 type was most common on both right (38.5%) and left feet (46.2%). The bilateral occurrence of PTM was found in 47.7% of cases.<br>CONCLUSION: The frequency of PTM in Omani subjects is considerably high when compared to other Arab populations. The baseline information on the PTM proportion and distribution of its types is clinically important for physiotherapists and orthopedic surgeons.</p> Srinivasa Rao Sirasanagandla Al Wad Al Balushi Copyright (c) 2021-09-01 2021-09-01 31 5 10.4314/ejhs.v31i5. Complete Resolution of the Pituitary Mass Lesion and Improvement of Pituitary Function with Corticosteroid in Autoimmune Hypophysitis: A Case Report <p>BACKGROUND፡ Autoimmune hypophysitis is the consequence of an immune-mediated inflammation of the pituitary gland, which is rare, and most frequently occurs in females during postpartum periods. It usually responds well to corticosteroid treatment with reported resolution of the pituitary mass lesion.<br>CASE REPORT: A 51 years male presented with a one-month history of lethargy, headache, nausea, proximal muscle weakness with intermittent flushing. He was a diabetic with metformin 500mg twice daily. No other remarkable medical history or family history of autoimmune disease. On examination, he had no neurological deficit with a normal visual field. His initial biochemical evaluation showed features of secondary hypothyroidism as evidenced by low free FT4 and suppressed TSH with normal electrolytes. The subsequent evaluation of his hormonal profile revealed panhypopituitarism. Contrast MRI of pituitary showed an enhanced homogenous mass and minimal stalk thickening with a dural tail and preserved posterior bright spot. He was managed with glucocorticoid 20 mg once daily for two weeks along with levothyroxine and testosterone replacement. After two weeks of treatment, he improved clinically. Repeat MRI imaging of the pituitary showed complete resolution of the homogenous mass.<br>CONCLUSION: Although autoimmune hypophysitis is rare in males, a careful clinical history with necessary hormonal investigations is required for the suspicion about the inflammatory pituitary disorders This current case highlights glucocorticoid as the primary modality of treatment and the need for long-term follow-up with periodic clinical assessment.</p> Kishore Kumar Behera Ranjan Kumar Jena Subhendu Kumar Sahoo Uttam Kumar Soren Copyright (c) 2021-09-01 2021-09-01 31 5 10.4314/ejhs.v31i5. Pattern of Presentation, Management and Early Outcome in Patients with Perforated Peptic Ulcer Disease in a Semi-urban Tertiary Hospital <p>BACKGROUND፡ Perforated peptic ulcer is a life-threatening complication with a high morbidity and mortality. It is the most common indication for emergency operation in peptic ulcer disease (PUD) patients. This study aimed to describe the pattern of presentation, management and early outcome in patients with perforated PUD.<br>METHODS: This was a prospective study of patients who had operation for perforated PUD at Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital (EKSUTH), Ado-Ekiti, Southwestern Nigeria from June 2015 to May 2020.<br>RESULTS: Forty-six patients were studied with their ages ranging from 21-85 years. Their mean age was 49.9±16.3 years while the median was 54 years. Males outnumbered females by a ratio of 5.5:1. Majority (56.5%) of the patients were farmers and artisans. Duration of symptoms was 6 hours to 9 days (mean 2.7±1.9 days). Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs use, herbal concoction, alcohol and smoking was found in 54.3%, 52.2%, 30.4% and 21.7% respectively. More duodenal perforations (63.0%) were recorded. Graham’s patch closure was done for 27 (58.7%) while the remaining (41.3%) had primary closure with omentoplasty. Sixteen (34.8%) had postoperative complications with wound infection predominating. Overall postoperative mortality was 17.4%. Age ≥ 60 years (p=0.04), premorbid illness (p=0.01), delayed presentation ≥ 48 hours (p=0.01), shock (p=0.01) and intraperitoneal effluent ≥ 2000ml (p=0.03) were associated with mortalities.<br>CONCLUSION: Perforated PUD accounts for high morbidities and mortalities in our setting. Abuse of NSAIDs and herbal concoction ranked highest among the risk factors. Efforts at curtailing indiscriminate sales of NSAIDs and herbal concoction will reduce the menace.</p> Olaogun Julius Gbenga Dada Samuel Ayokunle Akanbi Ganiyu Inubile Adekoya Copyright (c) 2021-09-01 2021-09-01 31 5 10.4314/ejhs.v31i5.