https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejotmas/issue/feed EJOTMAS: Ekpoma Journal of Theatre and Media Arts 2020-04-15T14:22:10+00:00 Charles O. Aluede charles.aluede@aauekpoma.edu.ng Open Journal Systems <p>Ekpoma Journal of Theatre and Media Arts (EJOTMAS) is committed to the promotion of scholarship in all the areas of Drama and Theatre, Media and Communication, Music and Dance, Performance Studies and other fields in the Arts and Humanities.</p><p>Other websites associated with this journal: <a title="http://www.aauekpoma.edu.ng/" href="http://www.aauekpoma.edu.ng/" target="_blank">http://www.aauekpoma.edu.ng/</a> </p> https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejotmas/article/view/194681 Editorial: EJOTMAS: Raising the research and publication bar at Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Nigeria 2020-04-15T08:26:40+00:00 Osakue Stevenson Omoera omoera@yahoo.com <p>No Abstract</p> 2020-04-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejotmas/article/view/194682 Online self-disclosure among students of higher institutions of learning in Ibadan Metropolis, Nigeria 2020-04-15T08:33:51+00:00 Olayinka Abimbola Egbokhare yinkaegbokhare@yahoo.com Adeola Obafemi Mobolaji adeolamobolaji@gmail.com <p>The popularity of social network sites has influenced communication behaviour in a variety of contexts. Thus, this study examined the online behaviour of social media users as regards self-disclosure, motivations and gratifications. The study adopted Social Penetration Theory by Irwin Altman and Dalmas Taylor and data were gathered through questionnaire from randomly selected 330 respondents and from purposively selected 16 respondents in two sessions of Focus Group<br>Discussion (FGD) among the students of University of Ibadan and the Polytechnic Ibadan. Although some respondents agreed that relationship management (56.1%) and need for self-expression (60.3%) motivated them to self-disclose on Facebook and Instagram, most disagreed that reciprocity (65.0%), mutual self-disclosure (78.2%), social validation (66.3%) and show off (78.6%) motivated them. Also, most respondents agreed that they sought gratifications from intimate relationship (56.1%), killing boredom (55.4%), seeking people’s opinions (67.3%) and maintaining online conversation (58.0%). However, qualitative data revealed that most respondents were motivated by and also sought gratifications from many of the factors aforementioned for online self-disclosure. Therefore, this study recommended that social media users should be orientated on the proper use of social media as it is obvious that many of them lack the requisite online literacy knowledge; with this, social media users will make use of the platform without risking their privacy.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Online self-disclosure, Facebook, Instagram, SPT, Social media users</p> 2020-04-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejotmas/article/view/194736 Issues in preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV: a liberal humanist reading of <i>Song of a Goat</i> 2020-04-15T14:22:10+00:00 Dennis A. Mordi damordi@yahoo.com <p>This article examines the issues in preventing mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV in rural communities in Nigeria. It assesses the cultural practices that propel mother-to-child-transmission (MTCT) vis-à -vis their implications on development. It uses J.P Clark’s play, <em>Song of a Goat</em> as a premise to argue that the dramatic characters in the play as well as traditional symbols and idiolects embody diverse tropes which touch on the components of PMTCT such as stigmatisation, gender inequality and discrimination of persons living with HIV. It further contends that the in/action of the dramatic characters in the play’s plot as well as some aspects of the thematic thrusts convey diverse perspectives which community workers should consider in designing, with participation of beneficiary communities, communication strategies for effective public health awareness campaign and PMTCT intervention programmes. The paper uses liberal humanism as a theoretical bastion to maintain that cultural practices are catalysts that are capable of increasing or reducing PMTCT across rural communities in Nigeria. It concludes that intervention workers should as well look in the direction of play-texts to understand the cultural dynamics at play in apprehending the extant realities in communities and working with the people to reflect on their contexts with a view to forging ways that can instigate behavioural change.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> PMTCT, Liberal humanism, Dramatic characters, HIV, Impotence, Infidelity</p> 2020-04-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejotmas/article/view/194684 Interactive theatre for community conflict resolution and transformation: the Oye-Ekiti Forum Theatre Workshop in perspective 2020-04-15T08:56:51+00:00 Joseph Agofure Idogho joseph.idogho@fuoye.edu.ng <p>The violent conflicts between the students of Federal University Oye- Ekiti (FUOYE) and their host community, Oye-Ekiti and other neighbouring communities where students reside - Ayegbaju-Ekiti, Ilupeju-Ekiti, Itapa and Ikole-Ekiti, as witnessed in recent times have been of a great concern to all and sundry. Interestingly, the viability of drama or theatre as a conflict transformation and resolution tool has continued to gain ground since the twentieth century. It is against the backdrop of using drama for conflict resolution (DCT), therefore, that this paper argues that forum theatre (FT) is an artistic methodology for participatory citizenship that creates a process of collective reflection to produce solutions to community conflicts. The study is theoretically hinged on Mezirow’s transformative learning theory. The theory explains the change process that transforms the human frames of reference to explain Boal’s FT techniques. The techniques give the ordinary people the opportunity to be part of their problems and to find ways to resolve them by themselves. The study adopts qualitative approach, using forum theatre workshop and participant observation in its data gathering and descriptive approach in its data presentation and analysis. The findings revealed that interactive/participatory theatre which forum theatre is a component of possesses the potency for communities’ conflict transformation and resolution when properly applied. The study, therefore, recommends that theatre practitioners and scholars should leverage on interactive/participatory theatre as a tool for projecting good and exemplary governance</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> FT, Transformative learning theory, Community participation, FUOYE, DCT</p> 2020-04-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejotmas/article/view/194686 Geospatial data and artificial intelligence technologies as innovative communication tools for quality education and lifelong learning 2020-04-15T14:10:10+00:00 Chidinma Henrietta Onwubere conwubere@noun.edu.ng <p>The uniqueness of open and distance learning (ODL) lies in its wide reach to a large audience simultaneously in different locations. No better system than geospatial data and artificial intelligence technologies (GDAITs) can achieve this. Globally, the current trend is to use GDAITs to improve the quality of life and productivity. Education is important for any country’s economy as it enhances the overall life expectancy. Application of GDAITs in educational sector, through broadcast digitization, publishing technologies will record greater achievements in the standard of learning and the literacy of populations. At certain ages in life, people develop apathy towards learning, thus, they are cut off from additional education that could provide them with lifelong learning. With GDAITs, they can be reached with quality education anywhere. Students have constraints of time, space, and finance, for acquisition of study materials. GDAITs are able to create and deploy seamless applications which can collapse these constraints and improve the learning curves of learners. This study investigates the exposure of youths to GDAITs and the influence on their learning patterns. Gerbner’s cultivation theory serves as the theoretical framework. A survey of 200 undergraduate Nigerian students was conducted, using random sampling technique. Findings show that Nigerian youths are highly exposed to GDAITs. THw paper concludes that GDAITs contribute positively and negatively to development in diverse human activities. However, it is highly effective in fostering communication education and research in Nigeria. It recommended that information and communication technology should be taught at all levels of education, so that Nigerians can develop critical minds to distinguish what GDAITs can and cannot do. Media houses should continue to establish platforms to check fake news emanating from social media. Also, attention needs to be focused on media content to ensure that there are enough programmes that would enhance communication education in Nigeria, without fake news parasitism.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> GDAITs, Communication education, Learning processes, Social media, Digitization</p> 2020-04-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejotmas/article/view/194688 Dance and content issues: implications for contemporary indigenous dance in Nigeria 2020-04-15T09:08:44+00:00 Princewill C. Abakporo abakporoprincewill@gmail.com <p>Many traditional dances have witnessed downturn in patronage to occasion academic debates geared towards reviving interest in indigenous performances and live theatres in Nigeria. It is within this context that this article closely look at content issues in Nigerian indigenous dance from a diachronic perspective and observed that the seeming dwindling patronage for certain Nigerian indigenous dances is as a result of the inability of indigenous dance creators and performers to package indigenous dance products to reflect popular tastes in contemporary times. Also, it is observed that content issues in art are indicators that human society is constantly in a state of flux and that as humanity responds to these changing realities; art must do the same to remain relevant to the society within a particular period. Drawing on this, the study concludes that Nigerian indigenous dance space could be enlivened when its contents are at par with dominant societal realities and respond to prevailing societal conditions within the time of its creation while retaining its structures and form as a cultural document for the people. It recommended that the approach, packaging, and performance of indigenous dances from formalist and philosophical aesthetic consciousness will aid in the malleability of traditional dance contents to satisfy changing societal and audience needs.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Traditional dance, Indigenous dance art, Nigeria Content issues, Patronage</p> 2020-04-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejotmas/article/view/194690 Balancing gender stereotypes in Nollywood: a consideration of Genevieve Nnaji’s <i>Lionheart</i> 2020-04-15T14:10:55+00:00 Roselyn Vona Doghudje frukama21@yahoo.com <p>The current increase in the protest for women’s right all over the world, amidst the resurgence of feminist critical thinking in mainstream culture, is giving film researchers a lot to reflect on. Based on previous researches, it can be deduced that very little progress has been made to correct the stereotypical portrayal of women in Nollywood films by both male and female producers. In order to examine the stereotypes and investigate the extent to these stereotypes reflect the social reality of both genders in real life,<em> Lionheart</em>, a movie produced by a veteran Nollywood actress, Genevieve Nnaji, with an average rating of 5.6/10 on IMDB (Internet Movie Database) and was nominated for an Oscar award was selected. Quantitative content analysis was applied and findings revealed that there was an effort by the producer to ‘demystify’ the power of men. The issues raised in the movie are topical and relevant to the feminist discourse on women’s representation in film and in the media generally. The movie also provides a way forward for gender-based discourse and serves as a point of reference for other female directors willing to interpret the role of women in a manner that is more accurate and truthfully reflective of their strengths and capacities. The study is anchored on stereotype content model (SCM).</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Gender stereotypes, Nollywood films, <em>Lionheart</em>, Feminist critical thinking, SCM</p> 2020-04-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejotmas/article/view/194691 A syncretic analysis of the duality of dance as art and science 2020-04-15T09:20:01+00:00 Mariam A. Iyeh Mariamiyeh@gmail.com Godwin Onuche godwinonuche10@gmail.com <p>This paper examines the duality of dance as both art and science. It argues on the premise that only the manifestations of dance as an art form has been explored whilst its scientific manifestations have been arguably ignored. It avers that duality is seen in the processes involved in dance choreography. In doing this, it maintains that dance as an art often manifests in the intuition and creativity involved during the creation of dances while dance as science manifests itself during the execution of movements. It argues that the traditional practitioners of dance in Nigeria and Africa are generally aware of the scientific nature of dance, which they adhere to unconsciously while creating dances without knowing it has a scientific posturing. The article insists that intelligence displayed in dance choreographies attests to the above claims. The study uses syncretism and Humphrey-Weidman theory of dance composition as theoretical moorings to contend that the Agbaka dance of the Igala people of Kogi State in North Central Nigeria expresses and displays the scientific nature of dance. Consequently, the dance form is examined from the physiological, psychological and biomechanical perspectives, informing the conclusion that dance practitioners in Nigeria should engage in a conscious exploration and admittance of dance as both art and science.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Syncretism, Art, Science, Duality of dance, Biomechanics, Agbaka dance</p> 2020-04-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejotmas/article/view/194693 An examination of the placement of adverbials in the academic writing of fresh undergraduate students in the University of Cape Coast, Ghana 2020-04-15T09:24:29+00:00 Philip Arthur Gborsong pgborsong@yahoo.com Anita B. Appartaim anita.agyepong@ucc.edu.gh <p>Rules have been formulated on how adverbials are used. Such rules as stated by Quirk and Greenbaum (1973), Hornby (1975) and Swan (1995) are silent on how a few adverbials that have no restrictions regarding their position and order in sentences should be used. This paper, relying on language variation in the second language setting as a theoretical framework, explored how undergraduate students used these kinds of mobile adverbials. The quantitative research design and a simple random sampling were applied to select a total of 100 essays and exercises from fresh undergraduates of the University of Cape Coast, Ghana. Analysing these essays and exercises, we concluded that although the adverbial is an optional clausal element, the undergraduate students used it in providing further information on the other clausal elements. In addition, the undergraduate students often placed the adverbials in the mid position of their sentences.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Adverbials, GE, Undergraduate students, Clausal elements, Effective communication</p> 2020-04-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejotmas/article/view/194694 The utilization of literary techniques in Flora Nwapa’s <i>Never Again</i> and Chimamanda Adichie’s <i>Half of a Yellow Sun</i> 2020-04-15T09:28:51+00:00 Onyeka Ike ikejo@fuotuoke.edu.ng <p>This research investigates the utilization of literary techniques in two Nigerian historical fictions: <em>Never Again</em> by Flora Nwapa and <em>Half of a Yellow Sun</em> by Chimamanda Adichie. Nwapa and Adichie are two creative writers belonging to two different generations of Nigerian writers. While the former is of the first, the latter is of the third generation. In their two different novels in focus, it is observed that they deployed diverse literary techniques in variegated fashions to achieve the same goal – creating fictional works that deal with the sensitive issues of the Nigerian Civil War. Using new historicism (NH) as its theoretical anchor, this study uses historical-analytic and literary methods to posit that no two creative writers apply literary techniques in an identical manner even when their subject matter is the same. Rather, the deployment of literary tools is usually a function of talent, training, idiosyncrasies, orientation and propensities of a particular author. It is, of course, the patterns of such deployments that create and confer identity and uniqueness to various writers across the globe, such that when a section of the work of a known author is read, his or her name comes to mind. Using New Historicism as a critical searchlight, this paper evaluates compares and contrasts the utilization of literary techniques in the two novels aforementioned. Both writers have utilized literary elements in various ways to foreground and portray the cancerous issues of corruption, ethnicity, nepotism and avarice – the issues that led to the unfortunate and devastating Civil War, and till today continues to limit the progress of Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Literary techniques, NH, Never Again, Nigerian Civil War, <em>Half of a Yellow Sun</em></p> 2020-04-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejotmas/article/view/194695 Terror thrillers and tradition: a postcolonial reading of selected African cinema 2020-04-15T09:32:43+00:00 Victor Osae Ihidero vihidero@gmail.com <p>Nigeria, Kenya and Somalia are few of the countries in Africa faced with terrorism and militancy. The rise and expansion of terrorist groups such as Al-Shabaab, Boko Haram, the Niger-Delta Volunteer Force, the Islamic State West Africa Province (ISWAP) and recently, the Avengers, has risen to vent terror on the peoples of Nigeria, Kenya and Somalia. Whilst each of these countries has its own distinct challenges that led to the formation of such terrorist groups, the emergence of terrorism in Nigeria remains complex. One of the ways an explicit explanation has been given to these complexes in Nigeria is through thriller fiction. Nollywood as well as other film industries in Africa has produced several thriller fictions that attempt to explicate the reasons behind militancy and terrorism in Africa. October 1 and Eye in the Sky are two examples of African cinema that have attempted to film the recent rise of terrorism in Nigeria and Kenya. Within the lens of October 1, terrorism in Nigeria, and by extension Africa, is rooted on ethnic and religious divide fuelled by external contact with other cultures; in this case, the culture of imperial England. This study, using the premise of postcolonial reading, examined Kunle Afolayan's award winning terror thriller, October 1 and attempted to bring out the powercultural interplay that bred terrorism in Nigeria. The study found out that the ideology of Boko Haram ("Western education is a sin") terrorist group, as bad as it seems, is a postcolonial stance against [neo]colonialism. However, the ideology lost its steam because it failed to reassert the Nigerian humanity or show any humanist tendencies to reclaiming the African glorious past.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Terror thriller, Traditionality, African cinema, Postcoloniality, Terrorism</p> 2020-04-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejotmas/article/view/194699 Feminism and human rights in Utoh-Ezeajugh’s <i>Our Wives Have Gone Mad Again</i> and Femi Osofisan’s <i>Yungba-Yungba and the Dance Contest</i> 2020-04-15T14:11:52+00:00 Grace Itoro Ibanga grace.ibanga@oouagoiwoye.edu.ng <p>This paper examines the concept of feminism and human rights as captured in Tracie Utoh-Ezeajugh’s <em>Our Wives Have Gone Mad Again</em> and Femi Osofisan’s <em>Yungba-Yungba and the Dance Contest</em>. Feminism is a reaction by the womenfolk to societal misrepresentation whereby patriarchy classifies women as docile, passive, men-haters, witches, etc. Feminism is the clamouring of women’s rights on the platform of equality of sexes. It is an intellectual or political movement with a driving force for the recognition of the legal claims of women to their rights as are available in their societies; which are predominately enjoyed by men alone. Feminism purposes to investigate the nature of gender inequality. The term “gender” is an aspect of the collective unconscious of a complex human experience. It is an archetypal element that demands rituals, sex, aggression, social status gender affects power and authority. It is unsurprising; therefore, that patriarchy employs power and authority to dominate over women. This is because men believe they are the lords umpiring over the use of woman. And that is why feminism portrays women’s and men’s social functions, challenges, experience, interest and feminist politics in different fields of study as anthropology and sociology, communication, media studies, psychoanalysis, home economics, literature and education.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Feminism, Human rights, Sexual objectification, Patriarchy, Womenfolk</p> 2020-04-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejotmas/article/view/194700 Journalism as a profession: the challenges of women in a discriminatory society 2020-04-15T09:52:06+00:00 Olayinka Susan Ogundoyin sayogundoyin@yahoo.co.uk <p>Journalism is one of many professions held in high esteem. The profession, however, is not without its own challenges as women journalists find it difficult to enjoy their career in the face of issues posed by the industry. This study sought to investigate the challenges faced by women journalists in the Nigerian mediascape. It is anchored on the feminist muted group theory (FMGT). The survey research and interview methods were employed to sample 120 women journalists in some Nigerian media outfits. They were purposively selected to respond to the questionnaire and four senior women journalists based on their work experience were interviewed. Four electronic media stations (two television and two radio stations) were considered for the study. Data were analysed through simple percentages and the qualitative data analysed thematically. It was found that women journalists face myriads of challenges, including abuse, sexual harassment and marital issues such as divorce, spending inadequate time with spouse, children and participating less in family functions. In addition, some women are restricted to anchoring less challenging programmes compared to their male counterparts in the industry. Hence, it was recommended that media stations should look beyond sexual stereotyping and assist women journalists to overcome the various challenges by giving them more time to spend with their families and by giving them challenging duties that can boost their selfconfidence and help them attain enviable heights in the profession.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Women journalists, Nigerian mediascape, Sexual stereotyping, FMGT, Challenges</p> 2020-04-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejotmas/article/view/194702 Nigeria’s cultural policy implementation: sustaining cultural diversity through cultural resource management 2020-04-15T09:56:07+00:00 Elizabeth O. Ben-Iheanacho charles.aluede@aauekpoma.edu.ng <p>Nigeria is one of the few African countries with a written cultural policy as well as government established and funded institutions charged with the implementations of this policy. This article interrogates the implementation of the tenets of the policy, given Nigeria’s cultural diversity and the growing demand for tangible, verifiable economic indices of the contributions of the culture sector to both internally generated revenue (IGR) and the gross domestic product (GDP) of the nation. It suggests the need to expand the traditional understanding of cultural resource as land, labour and capital to embrace diverse forms of ‘soft’ cultural capital as assets whose management is critical to individual, community and national economic empowerment. The paper concludes with suggestions on strategies and best practices to enhance Nigeria’s creative economy as integral evidence of continuing implementation of the cultural policy.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Cultural policy, Cultural resource management, Cultural diversity, Creative economy</p> 2020-04-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejotmas/article/view/194703 Skin bleaching and women sexualisation: a discourse analysis of Fela Kuti’s <i>Yellow Fever</i> and Ayinla Omowura’s <i>Oro Kan Je Mi Logun</i> 2020-04-15T10:00:48+00:00 Israel A. Fadipe ia.fadipe@chrislanduniversity.edu.ng <p>Male music artistes have been observed to sexualise women in their songs, especially when commenting on societal problems. Employing van Dijk’s Socio-Cognitive Approach of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA), this paper examined skin bleaching and women sexualisation in the lyrics of Fela Anikulapo-Kuti (Fela Kuti) and Ayinla Omowura. Both songs: <em>Yellow Fever</em> by the latter and <em>Oro kan je mi logun</em> (a matter concerns me) by the former were purposively selected based on popularity and thematic preoccupation, and analysed using linguistic and argumentative strategies. Findings showed persistent sexualisation of women in the songs that were meant to teach morals in the society. Therefore, this exposes the artistes as incurably prejudiced in spite of their best intention.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Skin bleaching, Women sexualisation, Popular music, Fela Kuti, Ayinla Omowura</p> 2020-04-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejotmas/article/view/194704 Constraints in the practice of theatre for development in Nigerian tertiary institutions 2020-04-15T14:12:50+00:00 Jimmy Unekwu Akoh jimmy.akoh@gmail.com <p>This paper investigates the constraints of contemporary Theatre for Development (TfD) in Nigeria tertiary institutions. It kick-starts with a discussion on how TfD in Nigeria adapted the South America and other African countries experiences of using drama to mobilize and conscientize people for development and self reliance. However, TfD from the academia is faced with myriads of challenges. This varies from preliminary concerns, to workshops and post-TfD engagements for possible consolidation. It takes a critical look at some of the constraints; identifying their causes and their impacts on the effective practice of TfD as action research. This study has explored, through qualitative processes, the procedures of TfD in Nigeria tertiary institutions and its coordinated effort to catalyze change in target communities. The study interrogated whether the methodologies have caused reasonable individual and community change in behavior to substantially cause development. While it acknowledges that, theatre has always responded to the environment in several ways, the paper proceeds from the evidence of a near absence of follow-up mechanism of TfD practices from the academia. It admits that although there have been efforts by a few scholars to locate the hiatus, there is still a wide critical chasm in planning, monitoring and evaluation of projects. Thepaper then posits that TfD projects from the academia tends to negate the principles of democracy and that the methodology being used inhibit the creative impulse of the practitioners. It proffers the means through which these constraints could be tackled for TfD in Nigeria tertiary institutions to thrive. Anchored on the ‘trans-theoretical model of change theory’ by Prochaska &amp; DiClemente (1983), this paper concludes that TfD practitioners should commit more time to projects and let the methodology be more change-oriented to meet the yearning and aspirations of the targeted communities.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Development agencies, CBOs, Theatre workers, TfD, Nigerian tertiary institutions</p> 2020-04-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejotmas/article/view/194706 Trends in media framing of industrial crises reporting: implication for media research in Nigeria 2020-04-15T14:13:41+00:00 Julius Abioye Adeyemo juliusabioye11@yahoo.com Olugbenga Elegbe elegbeolugbenga@gmail.com <p>There has been a scholarly argument among media researchers on how best media analysts should study media perspectives on industrial crisis reporting with reference to research methods, theoretical perspectives and methods of data analysis. Content analysis and meta-analytical approach were employed to gather data from published scholarly articles and theses accessed online. One hundred and fifteen (115) studies were content analyzed, collated and identified based on those that focused their issues on media framing of labour crisis. Evidence from the studies analysed shows that the content analysis and in-depth interviews were predominantly adopted for media representations of industrial crisis, the mixed method research were adopted for data collection while media framing, agenda setting and the priming theories were mostly adopted by most of the studies. It is recommended that studies should employ critical discourse analysis to compliment researchers’ effort to examine how different ideological stances are mediated in the media to reflect social-political dominance, inequality and class struggle that characterize industrial crisis.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Industrial crisis reporting, Media framing, Research trends, Discourse analysis, Nigeria</p> 2020-04-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejotmas/article/view/194707 Inventing animate floats: transformation and interpretation in Nigeria’s Abuja Carnival 2020-04-15T14:14:36+00:00 Michael Adérèmí Adéoyè michaeladeoye@ymail.com <p>This study focuses on the technical process through which available materials and space are transformed into motif-based animate floats and desired landscapes for carnival performances. Carnival performances are often guided by underlying conceptual scripts which basically depend on the technical processes of theatre design as a major requirement in connecting the carnival performance with its audience and which has not received adequate attention from existing theatre scholarship. The study adopts Roland Barthes’ semiotic theory, Intertextuality as the framework for analysing the interplay of carnival performances, material objects, technical process of theatre design and the carnival audience. The research design combined case study and survey. Data were collected using in-depth interviews, key informant interviews and participant observation. Ahmed Yerima, whose works in carnival productions informed this study, was selected as a case study. The study concludes that the technical process of theatre design is central to carnival performances because it catalyses the underlying imaginative dramatic scripts into visual pictures and animate carnival floats, thereby eliciting meaning from the conceptual dramatic scripts to the carnival audience. Adequate attention should therefore be paid to theatre design as the process of transforming imaginative scripts into visible pictorial carnival floats.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Materials, Animate objects, Theatre design, Carnival performance, Transformation</p> 2020-04-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejotmas/article/view/194708 The iconoclastic theatre: transgression in Christopher Marlowe’s <i>Tamburlaine</i> 2020-04-15T10:18:29+00:00 Emad A. Alqadumi Al_kadumi78@yahoo.com <p>This article examines Christopher Marlowe’s iconoclasm as a dramatist by probing transgressive features in his <em>Tamburlaine the Great</em>, parts I and II. By depicting instances of excessive violence, from the perspective of this study, Marlowe flouts everything his society cherishes. His Tamburlaine demystifies religious doctrines and cultural relations; it challenges the official view of the universe and customary theatrical conventions of Renaissance drama. It destabilizes the norms and values of the Elizabethans and brings about a crisis between the Elizabethan audience and their own culture. Furthermore, Marlowe’s experimentalism in <em>Tamburlaine</em> expands the imaginative representations to include areas never formerly visited, consequently creating an alternative reality for his audience and transforming the popular English theatre in an unprecedented manner.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Drama, Christopher Marlowe, Elizabethan theatre, Literature, Iconoclasm</p> 2020-04-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejotmas/article/view/194709 The use of specific linguistic features within the context of a casual conversation in a speech community 2020-04-15T14:15:27+00:00 Ekiyokere Ekiye ekiblack2@yahoo.com <p>There seems to be nothing remarkable about the interaction between two interlocutors who have never been in contact with each other. These persons are able to understand themselves in contact situations because most times, a common language of communication is known that can sustain the exchange for the time necessary. However, when such exchange is between individuals with some level of contact or familiarity, the concept of speech community comes into play. The concept is useful but may be problematic at times and one cannot avoid applying this idea when trying to make sense of the process that takes place in the conversation, specifically a causal conversation. The aim of this sociolinguistic study is to explain how individuals are able to build social history, construct interactional talk, maintain relations with each other and reinforce solidarity from a two hour audio recorded conversation (ARC) between an ethnic Indian and a Nigerian in Marylebone, London using interactional socio-linguistic and conversation analytic. By doing so, the concept of a speech community as well as how a group can be identified as being members of a community is understood. A particular focus is paid to such linguistic features as the register of conversation, turn taking, discourse variation, phonological variation and grammatical variation characteristic of London, Nigerian and Indian English observed in the speech of the participants and how these features function to build and maintain relations.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Speech community, Casual conversation, Linguistic features, Sociolinguistics, ARC</p> 2020-04-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejotmas/article/view/194710 Costumes as depiction of cultural identity in Pedro Agbonifo-Obaseki’s <i>Idia</i> 2020-04-15T10:25:40+00:00 Owens Patricia Eromosele owens4pat@gmail.com <p>In Nigeria, costumes present interesting vistas for exploring cultural identity. They have social implications and at times are politically implicated. This may be attributed to Nigeria’s multi-cultural atmosphere that makes costumes a reflection of the cultural identity of the people. Nigerian performances in festivals and play productions provide a platform to study and appreciate this phenomenon. Using the participant observation and literary methods, this article interrogates how costumes can depict the cultural identity of a people. It appropriates the dynamics of costumes as depiction of indigenous identity, using a play production of Pedro Agbonifo-Obaseki’s<em> Idia</em> as directed by Israel Wekpe under the aegis of the Edo State Chapter of National Association of Nigerian Theatre Arts Practitioners (NANTAP) at the University of Benin in 2013. The study reveals that costume promotes the cultural worldview of the people it represents. The conclusion reached is that costumes in Nigeria must depart from such outside influences that undermine their ability to communicate indigenous identity.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Costume, Cultural identity, <em>Idia</em>, Play production, Nonverbal communication</p> 2020-04-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejotmas/article/view/194711 Women as agents of conflict resolution in Femi Osofisan’s <i>Moroutodun</i> 2020-04-15T12:20:37+00:00 Rasheed Oshoke Ogakason rashmanson@yahoo.com <p>Over the years, there have been incidents of class struggle and secessionist agitations especially in developing nations such as Nigeria. This has drawn the attention of the government, security agencies and the ruling class who deem it a threat to the peace and unity of the nation. Many of such agitations are tackled using different strategies to manage the situations especially when it results to crisis and clash of interests leading to destruction of lives and properties. Nigeria, has recorded several incidents of agitations mostly from minority and separatist groups who see themselves as the oppressed and marginalized in the aspects of leadership, governance, power and unequal distribution of the nation’s abundant wealth and resources. The literary world has contributed severally through the works of contemporary African playwrights such as Ngugi wa Thiongo, J.P Clark and Femi Osofisan, who have successfully woven their themes on issues such as conflict, emancipation, oppression and social struggle. This paper is premised on the theory of conflict resolution techniques and dispute management systems and textual analysis as its method. The paper examines the portrayal of women as agents of conflict resolution in Femi Osofisan’s <em>Moroutodun</em>. It further draws the attention to the integral role of women in bringing about peace, positive change and development in the society. The paper concludes that women<br>should be given a chance as men to contribute to peace-building and conflict resolution in the society.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Women, Agents of conflict resolution, Moroutodun, Femi Osofisan, Nigeria</p> 2020-04-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejotmas/article/view/194718 Choreographic metaphors of political terrorism and counter-terrorism in <i>Arodan</i> Dance Theatre 2020-04-15T12:27:00+00:00 Tosin Kooshima Tume kooshima.tume@fuoye.edu.ng <p>In Nigeria, the deliberate intimidation and exploitation of the common man by the ruling class, for political aims, has reached endemic proportions. These strategic intimidations come in diverse forms, and clearly qualify as acts of terrorism. In the Yoruba worldview, ‘<em>Arodan</em>’ is a cautionary concept which is employed by the elders to curb the excesses of troublesome children. However, it has evolved to be a two-edged sword which could either be used for both corrective and<br>curative aims, or manipulated for punitive and evil purposes. <em>Arodan</em>, a dance workshop performance by the students of the Department of Theatre and Media Arts, FUOYE, is built on the Yoruba conceptual frame of ‘<em>Arodan</em>’. The dance theatre is a metaphor which explores the ‘<em>Arodan</em>’ concept to identify Nigerian politicians as the ‘elders’, and the common man as the ‘troublesome child.’ Deploying the social identity theory (SIT), this article, examines the use of choreographic metaphors to enact the forms, features, and effects of political terrorism within the Nigerian space in the <em>Arodan</em> performance. It finds that the<br>desperate yearnings which stem from selfish political interests are cloaked under terrorist acts in Nigeria. In conclusion, the paper affirms that the resolutions simulated in <em>Arodan</em> – national reorientation, political awareness, vigilance, and collective will should be deployed as proactive measures to counter political terrorism in the country at developmental crossroads.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Political terrorism, SIT, <em>Arodan</em> dance theatre, Choreographic images, Nigeria</p> 2020-04-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejotmas/article/view/194720 Community radio: an instrument for good governance in Nigeria 2020-04-15T14:16:16+00:00 ‘Rantimi Jays Julius-Adeoye julius.rantimi@gmail.com <p>Decree No. 38 of 1992 enacted under the administration of General Ibrahim B. Babangida put a stop to fifty seven years of government’s exclusive ownership and operation of broadcasting in Nigeria. However, with the cost of setting-up, management and obtaining license for media station being prohibitively expensive, the system can only be accessed by the rich and powerful in the society, thereby depriving rural communities’ involvement in the development of the country. As part of the panoply of strategies to ensure rural communities’ participation in democratic governance, there is need for the establishment of rural community radio stations, which is very much different from educational institutions’ type currently being paraded as community radios but rather a training room for communication and theatre arts students. Using historical-analytic method, this article looks at the role community radio could play in making good governance in Nigeria accessible to every segment of society, especially the rural populace. Therefore, it is recommended that Nigerian Broadcasting Commission (NBC) policy should consider the inclusion of community radio as the third in the sector of radio broadcasting in Nigeria after public and commercial ownership. Furthermore, since community radio is essentially non-for-profit, government should make the operation licence free or at a minimal cost to the host community.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Community radio, NBC, Good governance, People’s participation, Nigeria</p> 2020-04-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejotmas/article/view/194721 Import of family and peers in a writer’s life 2020-04-15T13:16:30+00:00 Chinedu Ogoke ezudike@hotmail.com <p>A writer anywhere must have roots and familial relationships. In a general sense, it is the energy derived from friends, family or society that drives the human spirit. A major role the family has in the life of a writer is giving him or her space. What this means is that a literaryfriendly family will not come between the writer and his/her writing. When he/she is engaged with writing, the writer’s family excuses him/ her from domestic and other duties. It is also beneficial when the writer is surrounded by a wife/husband and children who are wonderful readers. It is the relevance of the family that inspired this research. The paper investigates how culture, society and the family are significant in the life of every man or woman. It focuses on the experiences of writers in their home countries and overseas. The author discovered that writers in 17th century Europe worked closely together. The practice has hardly caught on among Nigerian writers. The writer could hardly find instances to prove otherwise. It is intended in this work, therefore, to highlight this shortcoming and to show how it contributes to the attainment of desired goals in the writer’s literary endeavours. The bulk of the data for this study was collected through listening to stories of writers and also reading various comments in newspapers and other publications.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Language and culture, Family and peers, Pedagogy, Spousal problems, Writers’ life</p> 2020-04-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejotmas/article/view/194726 Ritual culture phenomenon in Igbo films: a study of <i>Money is Money</i> 2020-04-15T13:22:48+00:00 Teddy Thaddeus Hanmakyugh thamaque@gmail.com <p>Film as a means of communication is a very potent instrument for image making, cultural diplomacy, propaganda, education, information and entertainment. The Nigerian film industry (Nollywood) ranks among the first three top world filmmaking industries in terms of the quantity of productions, popularity amongst Nigerians and the transnational audiences. Culture is the bedrock of Nollywood’s thematic film expositions. One can, therefore, conclude that Nollywood is Nigeria’s cultural ambassador. Although Nollywood films are quite potent in celebrating and promoting Nigerian cultures, some of these films have come under thematic criticisms as they glamourize negative, ritual themes in the name of culture. It is against this backdrop that this article examines the occult ritual of cultural phenomenon in Prince Emeka Ani’s <em>Money is Money</em> (2005) and the negative image it portends for Nigeria globally. The film depicts Andy (Kanayo O. Kanayo), an Igbo youth who deploys occult means as an instrument for making money even at the cost of his life. This paper uses content analysis and literary methods as tools to interrogate the preponderance of the occult themes in Nollywood movies. The findings show that Nigeria has several acceptable cultures as raw materials that could positively portray Nigeria’s cultures globally. However, the unceasing preoccupation with “juju”, the relentless celebration of dark rituals and diabolical cults could make viewers cultivate the perception of reality portrayed by these films. <em>Money is Money</em> celebrates the non-attractive side of Nigeria. Therefore, it is recommended that the Nollywood film professionals tell the global audience acceptable culturally based value themes about Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Igboland, Ritual culture, Nollywood film professionals, Igbo film, Nigerian cultures</p> 2020-04-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejotmas/article/view/194728 A congenial communication climate: the catalyst and panacea for effective organizational communication 2020-04-15T13:28:05+00:00 Bifatife Olufemi Adeseye bifatife.adeseye@fuoye.edu.ng Innocent Afolabi Ariremako Ariremakoinnocent@yahoo.com <p>The spirit of positive relationships should be the sine qua non to communication climate. Social scientists use the term communication climate to describe the quality of personal relationships in an organization. Do people feel respected? Do they trust one another? Do they believe that they are appreciated? The weather metaphor suggested by the term ‘climate’ is apt. Your own experience shows that the mood of a workplace can be described as sunny and calm, cold and stormy, or in similar terms, organizations create an overall climate, which can be healthy or polluted, but within that environment, individual relationships have their own micro climate. For instance, your interactions with one colleague might be described as icy, while you and another person enjoy a warm or cordial relationship. There is no question that communication climate is a key factor in job satisfaction and commitment to the organization. For this reason, communicators need to understand how to create positive climates. This article focuses on how to develop and improve the personal communication skills that are critical to the well being and successes of individuals and corporate organisations. The study adopts trait theory of leadership as its framework. It describes the necessary and proactive ingredients that foster a positive communication climate between people. It goes on to offer pertinent pieces of advice about how to communicate in a variety of person-to-person-situations; leadership styles, congenial climate and emotional intelligence.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Communication climate, Informal networks, Emotional intelligence, Leadership styles, Organizational communication</p> 2020-04-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejotmas/article/view/194729 Aestheticism in visual symbols: catalysts for theatre patronage in contemporary play production 2020-04-15T13:33:07+00:00 Bernard Eze Orji bernard.orji@funai.edu.ng <p>Theatre practice in Nigeria like the world over is in a state of constant flux due to the ever emerging new trends. New concepts, styles, forms are continuously on demand as a result of the insatiable human tastes in performance and coupled with a civilization in which technological advancement and human creativity are not left out in its wake. The emergence of the social media has come to add more pressure on the live theatre from where the film medium stopped. Nigerian theatre patrons and sponsors have little or nothing to do again at the theatre at least, not with mobile phones such as i-phones, i-pads, tabs, blackberry and android, serving as forms of entertainment on the go. Therefore, wooing and keeping the live theatre audience will take extra energy and this can only be achieved if the visual appeal trend is revolutionized with a quantum deployment of visual aesthetics. The beauty of play production is ensconced in visual symbolism since theatre communication makes use of two of the human senses principally – the visual and the aural. These senses are in the main, complementary and supportive, its functions are numerous to the point that a theatre performance will be close to being meaningless without their application<br>– be it in its superfluity, moderateness or aesthetically immoderate. This article, therefore, articulates those visual symbols required by a director and his or her production team to capture and sustain his or her audience in a theatre. Having employed a qualitative research approach, the paper established that visual symbols such as lighting, scenery, costume, sound, and makeup are ready tools at the disposal of the director in achieving the visual aesthetics of a theatre production so as to keep his or her audience and continuously enjoy their patronage.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Aesthetics, Visual Symbols, Contemporary Theatre Production, Theatre Director</p> 2020-04-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejotmas/article/view/194730 The producer-artistic business relationship: a major concern for the survival of theatre practice in Nigeria 2020-04-15T14:17:07+00:00 Olatunji Samson Sotimirin tunjisotimirin@yahoo.com <p>This paper evaluates some of the perennial problems identified by scholars, writers and theatre practitioners as the bane of the growth and survival of theatre practice in Nigeria. These are inadequate funding, non-availability of befitting venues, economic and social insecurity, training and professionalism, orientation of the public sector, technological development, and so on. The central argument, however, is the issue of the business relationship between the producer and the professional theatre artiste. The paper contends that there are many issues concerning the artiste working and struggling to get paid, and artiste being exploited by producers without respectable reward. Consequently, in order to conquer these exploitative tendencies and lack of trust on the part of the producer, the paper submits that it is imperative that the artiste puts his/her professional relationship with the producer on a sound legal footing. This involves not only engaging the use of contracts constricted in agreement with good professional conventions, but also considering the need for the formation of recognized monitoring structures that will be responsible for guiding the actions and behaviour of practitioners. This ought to be done with a governmental support safeguarding the various theatre Associations and guilds as it is the case with other established Associations such as the Institute of Chartered Accountants, Society of Engineers, Nigerian Medical Association and so on. Thus, the method applied to this study is a self-report personality approach where the artistic business of the theatre is evaluated. The paper concludes that although some of the problems highlighted still exist, the situation is gradually improving, especially in terms of the availability of enough befitting venues and regularity of theatre shows at these venues.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Artistic, Nigeria, Theatre practitioners, Producer-artistic business relationship</p> 2020-04-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejotmas/article/view/194731 Song texts as instruments of communication in “Alaga Iduro” and “Alaga Ijokoo” musical performances during engagement ceremonies 2020-04-15T14:17:45+00:00 Olufunmilola Temitayo Oladipo oladipofunmilola@yahoo.com <p>Alaga (<em>Iduro</em> and <em>Ijokoo</em>) are masters of Yoruba traditional marriage ceremonies. Through various musical performances, they conduct Yoruba traditional marriage ceremonies. The article notates and examines song texts as instruments of communication in Alaga (<em>Iduro</em> and <em>Ijoko</em>) musical performances. During traditional ceremonies may be integrated with events, either to set the mood for actions or to provide an outlet for expressing the feelings they generate. Masters of marriage ceremonies, through songs reveal various stages of nuptial performances. The article concludes by analyzing the import of the <em>Alaga</em> song texts to Yoruba marriage rites.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Song texts, Instruments of communication, Musical performances, Engagement ceremonies, <em>Alaga</em></p> 2020-04-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejotmas/article/view/194732 Dance pedagogy and entrepreneurship: a study of <i>Footprints Arts Ambassadors</i>, Lagos 2020-04-15T14:18:52+00:00 Michael Oladipupo Fernandez fernandanse@yahoo.com <p>This work examines the pedagogy of dance and entrepreneurship in the society. In other words, it seeks to engender dynamic essence between theory and practice, dance scholar and choreographer, and their impact on students/dancers with respect to teaching dance as a career for profit making against art for art sake. The teaching approaches provide for managing dance establishments as well as the art and act of dancing. In doing this, we adopted the managerial system of the <em>Footprints Arts Ambassadors</em> in Lagos, Nigeria as a prototype. We apply some fundamental tools of entrepreneurship that determine efficiency and effectiveness of a particular approach to business to empower the trainees. In the deductive method, we carefully derived some assertions and information that would later become helpful for this study through the structured one-on-one interview held with the director of <em>Footprints Arts Ambassadors</em>. In analytical method, we did cursory analysis of dance pedagogy and entrepreneurial study as well as review related literatures, magazines and journals. We identified some pedagogical yardsticks and entrepreneurial approaches which have been used in successfully managing the fledging dance company. We also discovered some considerable factors to establishing a successful arts entrepreneurial company in Nigeria.We found that economic and social trend, as well as some personal entrepreneurial attributesplay key role in an entrepreneur’s approach to arts and theatre management. Therefore, we conclude that, whatever approach, style or operation mode a dance/theatre entrepreneur chooses; his aim should be for the success and development of both individuals and company. Thus, we recommend that dance scholars and practitioners update their teaching approach to making dance pedagogy a viable and self-reliant endeavour, rather than being a tool for entertainment, body therapy and cultural propagation alone.This will undoubtedlyposition dance on the same pedestrian with other art forms globally making wave in the entertainment industrytoday.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Dance pedagogy, Entrepreneurship, Trainees,<em> Footprints Arts Ambassadors</em>, Management</p> 2020-04-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejotmas/article/view/194733 Impact of war on women: Iyorwuese Hagher’s <i>Lamp of Peace</i> 2020-04-15T13:52:00+00:00 Jonathan Desen Mbachaga desenmbachaga@yahoo.com <p>Africa as a continent has been ravaged by wars that have brought untold hardship and retardation to development. Militarization and war places various demands on both males and females. This study concentrates on how females have been used as sex slaves and have now become vulnerable to rape and outright fighting in the wars. Extenuating the effects of war with its irreparable losses and psychological trauma in recent times has been the focus of governments, nongovernmental organizations and philanthropists. The devastation caused by the conflicts, the destruction to communities and the suffering of women and girls cannot be over emphasized. Recent years have seen many regions of Africa involved in wars and internal or external conflicts. From Liberia to Sierra Leone; Angola, The Democratic Republic of Congo to Rwanda; Burundi, Mali, Côte d’Ivoire to Sudan, the story is a sad and saddening one. Therefore, this article discusses the effects of armed conflicts on women and girls, using Iyorwuese Hagher’s<em> Lamp of Peace</em> as a textual reference. It employs the literary method to consider the response of Iyorwuese Hagher as a playwright regarding the outcry against war atrocities against women. The paper argues that glaring gaps still exist regarding the protection of women and girls during armed conflicts. As such, women and girls deserve special attention that focuses on protection as they are both victims of abuse and actors in reconstruction.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> War, Atrocities on women, Protection and rehabilitation, <em>Lamp of Peace</em>, Africa</p> 2020-04-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejotmas/article/view/194735 Journalism practice and application of the contempt of court principle in the Nigerian judiciary 2020-04-15T13:59:08+00:00 Oyakemeagbegha Musah musahoyaks@gmail.com <p>The people’s right to know is a cardinal feature of democratic governance. In the judiciary, the right to know presupposes an open justice system where judges are expected to adjudicate without concealments. As authentic information purveyors in society, the press and the judiciary need collaboration to achieve openness in justice administration and satisfaction of the people’s right to know.Consequently, this paper explores the relationship between Nigerian judges and journalists vis a vis Nigeria’s Chief Judge’s recent directive to the bench to apply “contempt proceedings” in members’ interactions with “wanting” journalists, and the people’s right to know. The paper assessed judges’ professed preconditions for journalists’ presence in court and practical experiences of journalists in Nigerian courts. It identifies a depreciation of values in justice administration behind this morally repulsive relationship between the bench and the press and calls for urgent redress.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Journalism practice, Prejudice, Contempt of court, Justice administration, Judiciary</p> 2020-04-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c)