Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejpai <p>This journal is the official journal of the Egyptian Society of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology. It is&nbsp;he first Egyptian Journal&nbsp;specialized in the field of allergy and immunology in the pediatric age group. It is&nbsp;a forum for the presentation and promotion of new researches in the field of&nbsp;allergy and immunology, for maintaining contact between basic and clinical allergists and immunologists, and for the exchange of knowledge. Its mission is fostering education through supplying competent reviews of selected subjects and recent information on researches and developments in the field.</p> <p>The journal is distributed for free and its online version is an open access one. Other websites associated with the journal are:&nbsp;<a title="http://www.espai-eg.org/journal.htm" href="http://www.espai-eg.org/journal.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">http://www.espai-eg.org/journal.htm</a></p> The Egyptian Society of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology en-US Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The) The Copyright to this journal belongs to The Egyptian Society of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology. In Memory of Prof. Yehia El-Gamal https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejpai/article/view/211253 <p>With great sorrow, the editorial team of the Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology announce the sad demise of Professor Yehia El-Gamal, the Editor-in Chief, who passed away, on Saturday March 6, 2021 .<br>Prof. El-Gamal established the specialty of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology in Egypt and the Middle East and founded the first specialized unit in this specialty in 1988 which has been accredited as a WAO International Center of Excellence since 2018. Prof. El-Gamal chaired the Department of Pediatrics, Ain Shams University from 1997 till 2001. He founded the Egyptian Society of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (ESPAI) in 2002 which produces this journal since 2003. With his devotion and tremendous efforts, the journal became acknowledged by the Egyptian Knowledge Bank (EKB) and has become indexed in the Web of Science (Clarivate) since 2019. It is, therefore, considered an international publication by the Supreme Councils of Egyptian Universities .<br>Prof. El-Gamal received many prestigious awards including the State Merit Prize in Medicine (2014), the National First-Degree Golden Medal for Science and Art, the Discretionary Award of Ain Shams University (2011) and Egypt's 1st Degree Golden Medal for Science and Art in 2016. He was also granted the WAO Distinguished International Service Award in 2011 and the ACAAI Distinguished International Fellow Award in 2009. He was granted with a group of researchers the Elsevier Atlas Award 2017. The Egyptian Academy of Scientific Research and Technology grants a 15,000 Egyptian pound distinction award carrying his name yearly since 1989 and he was granted the title of Ideal Medical Educator by the Egyptian Medical Syndicate in 1995.<br>As a known international figure, Prof. Yehia El-Gamal was member of the World Allergy Organization (WAO) Board of Directors (2007 - 2011) and Chair of the WAO Bylaws Committee and Co-Chair of its Ethics Committee. He was a Fellow of the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (AAAAI) since 1992 and chaired its Middle East and Africa Region Committee (2008 - 2011). He was also member of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) since 2001 and fellow of the American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (ACAAI) since 2007. He was instrumental in founding the Pan-Arab Society of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (PASAAI) in 2019. He served as member of the Technical Advisory Group (TAG) of the World Health Organization (WHO) for polio eradication.<br>His Scopus h-index is 23 which reflects citations from 145 publications in international, regional, and national periodicals and is member of the editorial board and regular reviewer of many national and international journals and he authored and co-authored chapters in several books including the World Allergy Organization White Book in Allergy. Supervised 30 PhD and 103 Masters’ theses in pediatrics and Allergy/Immunology and he participated in 167 international, regional, and local congresses and scientific meetings.<br>As a mentor and leader, Prof El-Gamal was always a great gift, gracious and wonderful professor, true gentleman, and a kind benevolent father to all of us. We do pay tribute to such a great physician and educator .<br>We are truly saddened by his demise and do miss his sincere mentorship and support but will do our very best to ensure that his legacy stays alive .<br>The Editorial Board</p> Editorial Board Copyright (c) 2021-07-26 2021-07-26 19 1 2 2 The potential effect of dietary changes on the management of food allergies https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejpai/article/view/211255 <p>Food allergy (FA) is a significant public health problem with symptoms ranging from mild urticaria up to severe anaphylaxis. The frequency of food allergy has been rising in the last decades particularly in children where nutritional compromise can ensue together with possible development of other allergic diseases. With the developing technology and knowledge, there has been improvement in the treatment of FA. Diet is a very important factor in the management and changes in the diet of both the child and mother affect the risk of developing food allergies. Consumption of some nutrients such as omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin D, folic acid may be beneficial in preventing FA. The mechanisms proposed are mainly related to their effects on regulating the immune system. Regulatory changes in the intestinal flora, such as dietary consumption and probiotic use, are also on the agenda and show promising results approaches. Although, it has been advised to remove the allergenic food from the diet, yet recently, it has been shown that processing of allergenic foods and early consumption of allergenic foods between 4th -6th months can cause food tolerance in infants. This review aims to provide updates on the effect of adding some nutrients and dietetic changes on the management of FA.</p> Caner Özyildirim Nurcan Yabanci Ayhan Copyright (c) 2021-07-26 2021-07-26 19 1 3 17 The effect of food elimination and probiotic supplementation in asthmatic children with food allergy https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejpai/article/view/211269 <p><em><strong>Background</strong></em>: Both bronchial asthma and food allergy are comorbidities of increase prevalence and growing concern worldwide. <em><strong>Objectives</strong></em>: to detect the prevalence of food allergy in children with bronchial asthma, the effect of food elimination and probiotic supplementation on the clinical outcome of asthma and the quality of life (QOL). <strong><em>Methods:</em></strong> This randomized controlled trial included 226 children aged from 4 to 18, suffering from bronchial asthma, 88 of whom had associated food allergy. Patients who suffered food allergy as diagnosed by history, prick to prick test food elimination and oral food challenge test, were randomly divided into four groups, each comprised 22 children. Group (1): received pharmacological treatment only, group (2): received pharmacological treatment and probiotic supplementation, group (3): practiced food elimination and received pharmacotherapy, and Group (4): practiced food elimination and received probiotic supplementation and pharmacological therapy. For patients in all groups, grading of asthma severity, measurement of total IgE and Pediatric Asthma quality of life questionnaire (PAQLQ) were performed before and after 6 months at the end of the study. Results: There were significant statistical improvements of severity of asthma, total serum IgE level and QOL for all groups before and after intervention. The best outcome was achieved in children who practiced avoidance of food allergen(s) and took probiotic supplementation in addition to the pharmacological therapy (p &lt;0.001). <strong><em>Conclusion</em></strong>: Diagnosis of food allergy in asthmatic children is mandatory and combining pharmacological therapy, avoidance of the offended food allergen and intake of probiotics are encouraged</p> Amal Hassan Atta Rabab Abdelhamid Elbehady Asmaa Fathi Elshobaky Reham Mohamed Elshabrawy Copyright (c) 2021-07-27 2021-07-27 19 1 19 26 Patterns of sensitization to food allergens among allergic adults and children following-up in Zagazig university hospitals, Egypt https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejpai/article/view/211271 <p><em><strong>Background</strong></em>: Data regarding food sensitization and food allergy in developing countries are lacking. We sought to explore the frequency and pattern of sensitization to food allergens among a sample of Egyptian allergic patients. <em><strong>Methods:</strong></em> This cross-sectional study included 1373 allergic patients. They were subjected to thorough history taking, skin prick test, serum specific IgE (sIgE) level. Patients with evidence of sensitization to food were subjected to food elimination followed by an open oral food challenge (OFC) test.<em><strong> Results</strong></em>: Four-hundreds and nineteen patients (30.5%) (76 children and 343 adults) had evidence of sensitization to one or more food allergen. Among children, 41 (52.5%) had urticaria, 31 (39.7%) allergic rhinitis, 13 (16.6%) pollen food allergy syndrome, 16 (20.5%) bronchial asthma, 9 (11.5%) eczema and 7 (9%) had GIT symptoms. Among adults, 152 (44.5%) had allergic rhinitis, 149 (43.6%) urticaria and 57 (16.7%) had GIT symptoms. The most common allergens among children were peanut (31; 39.7%), fish (29; 37%), egg (18; 23%), and strawberry (17; 21.79%) while in adult, they were jalapeno pepper (123; 36%), egg (122; 35.7%), tomato (120; 35.1%), peanut (110; 32.2%), and fish (109; 31.9%). Significant associations were found between sensitization to different types of foods including associations between citrus fruits and mango, and between shrimps and crabs (p&lt;0.001). Out of the sensitized 419 patients, 118 (28.2%) had positive OFC test. <em><strong>Conclusion</strong></em>: A significant proportion of both adults and children with allergic disorders are sensitized to foods. Pepper, peanut, egg, fish, tomato, strawberry are the most common foods to which Egyptian patients are sensitized.</p> Reham Mohamed El-Shabrawy Nehal Mohamed El Shabrawy Dina S. El-Rafey Copyright (c) 2021-07-27 2021-07-27 19 1 27 35 Influence of gold nanoparticles on the immune response to rift valley fever vaccine and related hepatophysiological toxicity, histological, and immunohistochemical alterations https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejpai/article/view/211273 <p><em><strong>Background</strong></em>: Vaccination is a very effective method of stimulating the immune response against infections. Adjuvants are employed to enhance the immune response, but they must be safe, inexpensive, and easy to use. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate gold nanoparticles as immune enhancers for rift valley fever vaccine. <em><strong>Methods</strong></em>: The rats were divided into four groups (10 each): the negative control group, rats immunized with nonadjuvanted rift valley fever vaccine and the last two rat groups immunized with rift valley fever vaccine combined with 40 μM of spherical gold nanoparticles and combined with 40 μM of rod-shaped gold nanoparticles, respectively. <em><strong>Results</strong></em>: Compared with rats receiving no treatment and rats treated with nonadjuvanted vaccine, rats treated with vaccines combined with gold nanoparticles exhibited toxic biochemical, histological and immunohistochemical changes, as shown by significant elevations in liver enzymatic markers and total bilirubin. The magnitude of the biochemical changes was dependent on the shape of the gold nanoparticles: the elevations in liver enzymatic markers and total bilirubin were greater in the group treated with spherical gold nanoparticles than in the group treated with rod-shaped gold nanoparticles. <em><strong>Conclusion</strong></em>: It can be concluded that gold nanoparticles are promising vaccine cellular and humoral immune enhancers/adjuvants via different cytokine pathways.</p> Asmaa A. Abo Elqasem Aly F. Mohamed Copyright (c) 2021-07-27 2021-07-27 19 1 37 49