Ethiopian Journal of Science and Technology <p>The <em>Ethiopian Journal of Science and Technology</em> (EJST) publishes high quality original&nbsp;&nbsp; research articles, reviews, short communications, and feature articles on basic and applied aspects of science, technology, agriculture, health and other related fields.</p> <p>Other websites associated with this journal:&nbsp;<a title="" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> College of Science , Bahir Dar University en-US Ethiopian Journal of Science and Technology 1816-3378 <p>The copyright belongs to the journal.</p><p>The articles in Ethiopian Journal of Science and Technology are Open Access distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (<a title="The articles in Ethiopian Journal of Science and Technology are Open Access distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( BY4.0)." href="/index.php/ejst/manager/setup/The%20articles%20in%20Ethiopian%20Journal%20of%20Science%20and%20Technology%20are%20Open%20Access%20distributed%20under%20the%20terms%20of%20the%20Creative%20Commons%20Attribution%20License%20(http:/" target="_blank"></a>).</p> Second-refinement of Gauss-Seidel iterative method for solving linear system of equations <p>Although large and sparse linear systems can be solved using iterative methods, its number of iterations is relatively large. In this case, we need to modify the existing methods in order to get approximate solutions in a small number of iterations. In this paper, the modified method called second-refinement of Gauss-Seidel method for solving linear system of equations is proposed. The main aim of this study was to minimize the number of iterations, spectral radius and to increase rate of convergence. The method can also be used to solve differential equations where the problem is transformed to system of linear equations with coefficient matrices that are strictly diagonally dominant matrices, symmetric positive definite matrices or M-matrices by using finite difference method. As we have seen in theorem 1and we assured that, if A is strictly diagonally dominant matrix, then the modified method converges to the exact solution. Similarly, in theorem 2 and 3 we proved that, if the coefficient matrices are symmetric positive definite or M-matrices, then the modified method converges. And moreover in theorem 4 we observed that, the convergence of second-refinement of Gauss-Seidel method is faster than Gauss-Seidel and refinement of Gauss-Seidel methods. As indicated in the examples, we demonstrated the efficiency of second-refinement of Gauss-Seidel method better than Gauss-Seidel and refinement of Gauss-Seidel methods.</p> Tesfaye Kebede Enyew Gurju Awgichew Eshetu Haile Gashaye Dessalew Abie Copyright (c) 2020-04-30 2020-04-30 13 1 1 15 Nutritional and anti-nutritional evaluation of ten genotypes of pepper (<i>Capsicum annuum</i> L.) grown in a derived savanna ecology of Nigeria <p>The selection of pepper genotypes for high yield could be exploited together with high nutritional content and considerable secondary metabolite level. The present study was aimed at evaluating the nutrient and anti-nutrient compositions of ten genotypes of pepper through laboratory assessment. According to the nutrients analyzed, total carotenoid content ranged from 6 - 34 mg / 100 g, β -carotene from 4 – 7 mg / 100 g and ascorbic acid from 83 - 100 mg/ 100g. Most parameters evaluated varied significantly. Moisture content ranged from 84.2% to 77.4%, ash content from 1.5% to 0.8%, protein from 7.5% to 4.6%, fat from 2.7% to 1.8% and fiber from 11.7% to 6.2%. Results also showed that mineral content had the following range: Na with 0.31 – 0.82 mg/ 100 g, K with 24.50 – 40.70 mg/ 100 g, Zn with 21.11 – 26.31 mg/ 100 g, Fe with 0.41 – 0.65 mg/ 100 g and Ca with 5.96 – 121.98 mg/ 100 g. The antinutrients analyzed were also found to be present in varied concentrations across the pepper genotypes. All the genotypes evaluated had values to supply sufficient vitamin A and β– carotene for daily recommendations.&nbsp;</p> Ngozi E. Abu Grace O. Chimdi Eugene O. Ojua Copyright (c) 2020-04-30 2020-04-30 13 1 17 30 Small-scale irrigation and its effect on food security of rural households in North-West Ethiopia: A comparative analysis <p>Agriculture is a limiting factor for food security in Ethiopia as more than 80% of the population depends on it for livelihoods. In many parts of the country, the frequency and distribution of rainfall and the principal source of water for crop production are getting more unreliable and inadequate and frequent droughts, make irrigation farming indispensable. Despite the high potential for irrigation, the study area remained to be one of the food insecure districts in the region and currently it is supported by the productive safety net program. Information is also missing on the extent to which households who have access to irrigation produce more than those who depend on rainfed agriculture. The study contributes to a comparative analysis of the effect of small scale irrigation. The aim of the study was to analyze the effect of small scale irrigation on the food security of rural households. Data were collected from 185 randomly selected rural households in the Goncha-SisoEnesie district of northwest Ethiopia. Descriptive analysis, household food balance model and binary logit regression were employed as tools of data analysis. The result revealed that out of all sampled households, 74% were food secured and 26% were not. The gap in food calorie availability was high ranging from 753-6659 kcal/adult equivalent/day in the study area. Out of 84 irrigation users, 84.5% of them were food secured; whereas only 65.3% of the total 101 non-irrigation users were food secured. In this study, household size, farmland size, access to irrigation, access to credit services, and income from rainfed crop production were the determinant factors of household food security. Small scale irrigation had a direct and indirect positive effect on enhancing household food security status. Thus, the concerned development partners and policymakers should consider the promotion and expansion of irrigated farming in the area.</p> Beneberu Assefa Wondimagegnhu Biazin Alemu Bogale Copyright (c) 2020-04-30 2020-04-30 13 1 31 51 Proximate composition of commercially important fish species in southern Gulf of Lake Tana, Ethiopia <p>The aim of the study was to determine the proximate composition of each sex of <em>Oreochromis niloticus, Clarias gariepinus and Labeobarbus intermedius</em> fish species from the southern Gulf of Lake Tana, Ethiopia.&nbsp;The fish samples were collected during the dry season of 2014 from the three fish landing sites, i.e., Bata, Micheal and Giorgis, where local fishermen sell their catches. Species were identified via morphological examination and color. Sexes were identified by observing genital papilla and gonads after dissection. After measuring weight and length of young fish species, fish weighing 201-310 g were selected for the study. A total of 72 fish, eight and four fish per species and sexes were selected, respectively, for each site. The sample size was determined using “resource equation" method. Only edible fillet was labeled and transferred to plastic bags according to species and sex. Then the sample was transported for proximate analysis to Addis Ababa Food Science and Nutrition laboratory using icebox at about 4 °C. Fish sample composites&nbsp;were prepared&nbsp;by taking the fish samples from the three fish landing sites for each sex and species. Samples&nbsp;were thawed&nbsp;at room temperature and oven-dried at 60 °C for 72 h, then ground into a fine powder. Proximate composition was determined following the procedure of Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). Data analysis was conducted using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Nutrient content significantly varied among fish species; more protein was recorded from <em>O. niloticus</em> and fat from<em> L. intermedius</em>. Also, fat, ash and gross energy content were different between sexes; female fish contained significantly more fat and gross energy than males. In conclusion, consumers are advised to consume these species to obtain required nutrients.</p> Hirut Geremew Melesse Abdisa Goraw Goshu Copyright (c) 2020 Ethiopian Journal of Science and Technology 2020-05-02 2020-05-02 13 1 Diversity, relative abundance, and habitat association of avian species in Tara Gedam Monastery forest and adjacent habitats, Northwestern Ethiopia <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>Birds are important bio-indicators and provide various ecosystem services including pollination, dispersal, and pest control. However, they are threatened by habitat loss, fragmentation, and degradation. Study on species diversity, relative abundance, and habitat associations of avifauna were conducted in Tara Gedam Monastery forest patch and associated habitats from July 2016 to April 2017. Stratified random sampling approach was used to classify habitats and select sampling plots based on vegetation type. Consequently, forest, bushland, farmland, and plantation habitats were used for data collection. Point count and line transect methods were used to collect data, and Shannon-Weiner and Simpson’s diversity indices were used to estimate the avian species diversity.&nbsp;One-way ANOVA was conducted to compare avian relative abundance and richness among the different habitat types.&nbsp;A total of 98 species of birds belonging to 14 orders and 41 families were recorded in Tara Gedam Monastery forest and associated habitats. Eighty-seven resident bird species and eleven Palearctic migrants were identified of which seven species are endemic to Ethiopia and Eritrea. The highest avian diversity (H’=4.23) was recorded in the study area during the wet season.The highest species similarity index (SI=0.47) was recorded between forest and bushland habitats during the wet season, while the lowest similarity index (SI=0.07) was found between bush-land and farmland habitats during the dry season. Species richness and relative abundance of bird species varied between the wet and dry seasons.&nbsp;Besides birds, Tara Gedam Monastery forest supports a large number of other wild fauna species, which indicates the area’s potential to support biodiversity. Therefore, there must be a collaborative work between the monastery and different governmental and non-governmental organizations to protect the entire ecosystem in order to conserve the whole biodiversity of the area in general and the avifauna in particular.</p> Endihnew Tessfa Dessalegn Ejigu Gezahegn Degife Nega Tassie Copyright (c) 2020 Ethiopian Journal of Science and Technology 2020-04-30 2020-04-30 13 1 65 80