Ethiopian Journal of Science and Technology <p>The <em>Ethiopian Journal of Science and Technology</em> (EJST) publishes high quality original&nbsp;&nbsp; research articles, reviews, short communications, and feature articles on basic and applied aspects of science, technology, agriculture, health and other related fields.</p> <p>Other websites associated with this journal:&nbsp;<a title="" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> en-US <p>The copyright belongs to the journal.</p><p>The articles in Ethiopian Journal of Science and Technology are Open Access distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (<a title="The articles in Ethiopian Journal of Science and Technology are Open Access distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( BY4.0)." href="/index.php/ejst/manager/setup/The%20articles%20in%20Ethiopian%20Journal%20of%20Science%20and%20Technology%20are%20Open%20Access%20distributed%20under%20the%20terms%20of%20the%20Creative%20Commons%20Attribution%20License%20(http:/" target="_blank"></a>).</p> (Dr Melaku Wale) (Dr Tsegaye Kassa) Fri, 22 Sep 2023 11:37:24 +0000 OJS 60 Performance analysis of deep and machine learning algorithms for loan evaluation model <p>In this study, we present a loan evaluation model that uses machine and deep learning algorithms using data obtained from a local bank in Ethiopia. We examined two important experiments: the first used a one-dimensional convolutional neural network deep learning method, while the second employed machine learning methods such as support vector machines, XGBoost, random forests, decision trees, and Naive Bayes classifiers. We train and implement the algorithms to decide whether to accept or reject a loan application. A comparison of the model performance under different performance metrics is provided. According to the experimental findings, machine learning algorithms outperform deep learning algorithms in terms of classification accuracy, precision, recall, and area under the curve (AUC). Therefore, from the experimental results, we draw the conclusion that Ethiopian banks should think about utilizing machine learning models for their loan evaluation process rather than relying on more subjective traditional methods.</p> Tamiru Melese, Tesfahun Berhane, Abdu M. Seid, Assaye Walelgn Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 22 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using gesho (Rhamnus prinioides) fruit extract and evaluation of their antibacterial activity <p>Nowadays, the applications of metal nanoparticles are growing rapidly in different fields due to their unique properties such as size and shape. Among these nanomaterials, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are commonly used in many applications due to their unique optical properties, relatively high stability, and strong conjugation ability with biomolecules. Several eco-friendly approaches have been used to synthesize the nanoparticles. Many scientists are focused on green synthesis of nanoparticles from plant extracts. In the context of this, we have investigated the fruit of <em>Rhamnus prinoides </em>L’Herit to make innumerable sources of cost-effective, non-hazardous reducing and stabilizing compounds utilized in preparing Ag NPs. During the synthesis of the nanoparticle, we used 5% (w/v) of 50 mL <em>R. prinoides </em>fruit extract and 3 mM of 50 mL silver nitrate solution. The formation and characterization of Ag NPs were confirmed by UV-Vis spectrophotometry, XRD and FTIR methods. Thus, the formation of a deep red colored solution and the UV-visible absorption peak at 416 nm was taken as an initial confirmation of Ag NPs formation. The result was due to the excitation of the surface plasmon resonance in the Ag NPs. While the FTIR spectroscopic study showed the involvement of <em>R. prinoides</em> fruit extract in the reduction of Ag<sup>+</sup> ions to Ag NPs. The particle size of the synthesized nanoparticles, in accordance with XRD result, was calculated using Debye Sherrer’s equation and the result was found to be equal to 21 nm. The antibacterial activity of the silver nanoparticles against pathogenic microorganism strains of <em>Escherichia </em><em>coli</em> and <em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>was confirmed by the disc diffusion method and was found to inhibit the growth of the bacteria with an average zone of inhibition size of 23 mm against <em>E. coli</em> and 13 mm against <em>S. aureus</em>. The results showed that green synthesized Ag NPs exhibited significant antimicrobial potency.</p> Muluken Aklilu Solomon Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 22 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of agricultural diversification and off-farm income on household food security in rural Ethiopia: A dose-response analysis <p>In developing countries like Ethiopia, food insecurity is a widespread problem that affects about 58% of the population, especially in rural areas, where diversifying agriculture and finding off-farm employment is crucial to improve household food security. Despite previous studies investigating the relationships between farm diversification, off-farm employment, and food security, the results have been mixed, and the impact may depend on the intensity of the interventions. This study aimed to examine the effects of farm diversification and off-farm employment intensities on food security using cross-sectional data from 295 randomly selected rural households in Ethiopia. To estimate dose-response functions, we used a generalized linear model adjusted for generalized propensity score as treatments are continuous and not necessarily normally distributed. The findings revealed that diversifying crops in rainy season up to a certain level (0.3) and specializing in dry season improved food consumption and dietary diversity, which highlighted the importance of income generated from diverse farming and specialization in the respective season. Additionally, livestock diversity could improve food security, mainly from diverse food groups (0.6) may suggest that livestock husbandry is more nutrition sensitive than cropping. The study recommends that households focus on cash crop production during dry season to increase income and promote diversification up to certain level (0.3) during rainy season to improve food security through subsistence and income pathways. Off-farm employment is also suggested as a means of enhancing household resilience to withstand shocks and improve agricultural productivity.</p> Fentahun Tesafa, Messay Mulugeta, Solomon Tsehay Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 22 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Physicochemical and bacteriological assessment of groundwater quality in Etsako east local government area of Edo state, Nigeria <p>One of the environmental determinants of health is the quality of drinking water. Good quality water is devoid of impurities and pathogenic microbes. Water samples from 12 boreholes at two locations in Etsako East Local Government Area (LGA) were analyzed to evaluate their quality. The physicochemical parameters were measured using standard methods and Total Heterotrophic Bacterial Count (THBC) was performed using nutrient agar. The Total Coliform Count (TCC) was performed using the multiple tube technique also called the most probable number (MPN). The physicochemical properties of all the borehole water samples analyzed were within the WHO permissible limits except pH, which was acidic in Agenebode region. The heavy metal concentrations did not conform to the WHO recommended standards, e.g., in Agenebode, Lead was 0.62±0.00 mg/L and Cadmium 0.01±0.00 mg/L and in Okpella it was 0.43±0.00 mg/L and 0.02±0.00 mg/L, respectively. The bacteriological parameters such as total coliform counts and total heterotrophic bacteria counts in Agenebode (277±406.57 MPN/100mL), (34.67 × 10<sup>3</sup>±23.67 CFU/mL) and Okpella (786.67±583.19 MPN/100mL), (41.50 × 10<sup>3</sup>±24.09 CFU/mL), respectively, also exceeded the WHO permissible limits. In one of the locations (Agenebode) a total of four bacterial groups were isolated from the water samples, i.e., <em>Staphylococcus </em>spp<em>.,</em><em> Neisseria </em>spp<em>.,</em><em> Streptococcus </em>spp., and <em>E. coli</em>, while in the other location (Okpella) a total of five bacteria were isolated from the water samples, i.e., <em>Staphylococcus </em>spp.,<em> Klebsiella </em>spp<em>., Enterococcus </em>spp<em>., Enterobacter </em>spp<em>., Yersinia </em>spp<em>.</em> The heavy metals contamination and high bacteria load of the water samples render them unfit for human consumption.</p> Young Godwin Irobehian, Ugbenyen Anthony Moses, Ajayi Olulope Olufemi, Onobun Desmond Odiamehi Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 22 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Reproductive and productive performance of Zebu × Holstein-Friesian crossbred dairy cows in and around Sendafa town, Oromia Region, Ethiopia <p>The research aimed to investigate the reproductive and productive performances of crossbred dairy cows in and around Sendafa town, Oromia region, Ethiopia. For the survey, 156 (78 from urban area and 78 from peri-urban area) respondents which had crossbred dairy cows were selected. For the monitoring study, a total of 24 dairy farms and from which 180 crossbred dairy cows were purposefully selected, i.e., 60 from large scale, 60 from medium scale, and 60 from small scale. The findings revealed that the average age at first service of crossbred dairy heifers was 21.5±1.5 months for large, 22.1±1.2 for medium, and 23.9±1.5 for small-scale production in urban dairy farms and 22.2±2.4 months for large, 22.7±2.5 for medium, and 24.8±2.1 for small-scale production in peri-urban dairy farms. The average age at first calving was 32.6±2.8 months for large, 33.0±2.1 for medium, and 32.7±2.7 small-scale production in urban dairy farms and 33.7±3.8 months for large, 33.4±3.0 for medium, and 34.5±3.1 for small-scale production in peri-urban dairy farms. The overall numbers of services per conception for crossbred dairy cows was 1.6± 0.6 for urban and 1.6±0.8 for peri-urban production systems. The findings revealed that days open for different genotype levels of crossbred dairy cows varied across production systems. According to the monitoring results, crossbred dairy cows with genotype levels of 25%, 50%, 75%, and &gt;75% produced an average daily milk yield of 7.2±1.0, 8.9±1.2, 11.5±2.4 and 12.7±2.3 litres per day in urban dairy farms and 8.2±0.8, 8.5±0.5, 9.7±1.4 and 11.5±3.6 litres per day in peri-urban dairy farms, respectively. The average daily milk yield was increased from parity one to parity four, then decreased to parity five across all production scales and systems. The overall lactation length for all genotype levels was 323.0±46.7 days for urban and 319.0±45.6 days for peri-urban production systems. It is concluded that the crossbred cows' age at first service, age at first calving, days open, and calving interval are all longer, and the milk yield also does not match to their milking potential. As a result, it is recommended that crossbred dairy cows' reproductive and productive performances be enhanced by improving the farm management practises.</p> Beshada Taye, Asaminew Tassew Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 22 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000