Ethiopian Journal of Science and Technology <p>The <em>Ethiopian Journal of Science and Technology</em> (EJST) publishes high quality original&nbsp;&nbsp; research articles, reviews, short communications, and feature articles on basic and applied aspects of science, technology, agriculture, health and other related fields.</p> <p>Other websites associated with this journal:&nbsp;<a title="" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> en-US <p>The copyright belongs to the journal.</p><p>The articles in Ethiopian Journal of Science and Technology are Open Access distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (<a title="The articles in Ethiopian Journal of Science and Technology are Open Access distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( BY4.0)." href="/index.php/ejst/manager/setup/The%20articles%20in%20Ethiopian%20Journal%20of%20Science%20and%20Technology%20are%20Open%20Access%20distributed%20under%20the%20terms%20of%20the%20Creative%20Commons%20Attribution%20License%20(http:/" target="_blank"></a>).</p> (Dr Melaku Wale) (Dr Tsegaye Kassa) Mon, 20 Jun 2022 18:13:13 +0000 OJS 60 Household food security, child nutrition and food safety among vegetable producers and non-producers in Dugda woreda, Oromia region, Ethiopia <p>Household vegetable production is believed to contribute to household food security. This prompted the study to evaluate household food security status, household knowledge and practices in child nutrition, food safety and water sanitation among vegetable-producing and non-vegetable-producing households in two kebeles found around Meki town, Dugda woreda. For comparison, 147 households who produced vegetables and 147 other households who did not produce vegetatbles were randomly selected. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected using structured questionnaires, key informant interviews and focus group discussions and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Vegetable producing households (49%) generated higher monthly income (ETB 3000 - &gt; 4000) than non-producing ones (ETB 500 to 2000). More vegetable-producing households (61%) were food secured than non-vegetable-producers (16%). Based on Bloom’s cut off point, knowledge, positive attitude and appropriate practice in child feeding practices in all households was poor (&lt; 60%). Vegetable producers and non-producers had good (87%) and moderate (77%) knowledge, and moderate positive attitude towards safe food handling (61%, 64%, respectively). Appropriate food handling practices were poor (&lt; 60%) in both cases. Personal hygiene knowledge and practice were also poor in both types of households although positive attitude towards personal hygiene was moderate in both cases (61%-64%). Knowledge, attitude and practice in water sanitation was poor in both types of households. This study showed that, although vegetable producers earned more income and were in a better food security status, adequate training in child nutrition and food safety, which are important components of food security, is needed.</p> Abaya Alemu , Mogessie Ashenafi Copyright (c) Wed, 01 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Common inhibiting factors for technology shifting from physical to virtual computing <p>Due to the rapid growth of cloud computing demands and the high cost of managing traditional physical IT infrastructure, virtualization technique has emerged as a foremost and key success factor for technology adopters to attain the intended benefits. However, the transition from physical to virtual computing is confronted with overwhelming adoption inhibitors rarely known to adopters. This paper examines inhibiting factors which have triggered to low adoption rate of virtualized computing infrastructure despite being the fastest growing and globally accepted technology. Survey results from 24 companies indicate that lack of relevant virtualization skills, security uncertainties, low computing demands and change management issues are the utmost inhibitors. In public entities, the slowness in the adoption process is highly caused by the low computing demands, lack of virtualization coverage in ICT policies, resistance to change, choice of technology and the lack of virtualization project priority in the ICT master plans. On the other hand, the use of open-source hypervisors and support and maintenance are specific inhibitors affecting the private sectors. This paper is useful for adopters who have virtualized their server resources or have a plan to virtualize in the near future.</p> Said Ally, Noorali Jiwaji Copyright (c) Wed, 01 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Factors influencing desired number of children among Ethiopian women: Application of count regression models <p>The number of children wanted in one’s lifetime is one of the major factors influencing population dynamics. Knowing the factors influencing the desired family size is crucial in regulating the population growth of a nation. This study assesses the desired number of children and its determinants among Ethiopian women. The study used the 2016 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) data where samples were selected using two stage stratified random sampling. A total of 13,941 women with complete information on the study variables were considered in the study. Generalized linear model was used to identify determinant factors for the desired number of children among women in Ethiopia. The average number of children desired per women was 4.9. The random intercept negative binomial regression model was found to best fit the data. The model identified that women’s age, household head, contraception, wealth index, women’s education, religion, marital status, husband’s work, family size and age at first marriage were significantly associated with women’s desire for children (p &lt; 0.05). Women who had attained a higher level of education preferred a smaller family size compared to women with no formal education. Desire for more children was high among mothers from rural areas, women in the poorest economic level and women having no work. Educating women and engaging them in income generating activities should be among the priority policy agendas.</p> Essey Kebede Muluneh, Habitu Liyew Molla Copyright (c) Wed, 01 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Comparative activity of Platinum and Gold nanoparticles catalysts for Carbon monoxide oxidation <p>The activity of Pt and Au nanoparticles catalysts over titania support for carbon monoxide oxidation was investigated. Pt and Au catalysts were synthesised by a high-throughput physical vapour deposition methodology (HT-PVD). A parallel thermographic screening methodology, which enabled the quantification of the activity of Pt and Au catalysts for CO oxidation reaction, was applied. A particle size effect in the catalytic activity of Pt and Au was observed, with the smallest particles exhibiting the highest activity. The activity of Pt and Au catalysts increased with temperature. Au catalyst displayed high activity at 80 ℃, while Pt catalyst had higher activity at 170 ℃. Although CO oxidation on Pt and Au catalysts is particle size-dependent, results show that Au nanoparticles catalyst exhibits the strongest particles size dependence as compared to Pt catalyst.</p> Jovine Emmanuel Copyright (c) Wed, 01 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of groundwater quality: Physicochemical and bacteriological evidence from boreholes in Sangayan Diriya village, northeast Nigeria <p>The poor geology of Sangayan Diriya village has barred residents from getting access to water from the groundwater in their homes from time immemorial. This study was aimed at assessing the quality of boreholes sunk in close proximity to River Diriya wherein eight water samples were aseptically collected from the two available boreholes; borehole A (BA1, BA2, BA3 and BA4) and borehole B (BB1, BB2, BB3 and BB4). Standard procedures were employed for determining physicochemical properties, while pour plate method and most probable number (MPN) were used to estimate total viable bacterial counts and coliform count in the water collected, respectively. Results were compared with World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines and Nigerian Standard for Drinking Water Quality (NSDWQ) permissible standards. Results indicated pH, temperature, total hardness, turbidity, electrical conductivity (EC), sulphate, nitrate, alkalinity, calcium, magnesium and nitrate conformed to regulated standards, but mean phosphate concentration (1.79 mg/L) was above WHO allowable limit. However, out of the six heavy metals estimated in the water samples, i.e., Cadmium, Iron, Copper, Arsenic, Lead and Chromium, mean Iron concentration (1.16 mg/L) and mean Arsenic concentration (0.37 mg/L) were above allowable limits. The highest total viable bacterial count (6.3 × 10<sup>4</sup> CFU/mL) was recorded in BA2. Using the MPN method, BA4 recorded the highest coliform count (14 MPN/100 mL) while BB2 recorded the lowest coliform count (7 MPN/100 mL) each above WHO allowable limit. The findings in this study indicated that the water samples did not meet regulated standards and should be subjected to suitable treatment before drinking.</p> Adeniyi Olarewaju Adeleye, Afeez Oladeji Amoo, Emmanuel Madu Ijanu, Nura Umar Kura, Catherine Iyabo Asaju, Mohammed Bello Yerima, Babangida Yalwaji, Saheed Mohammed Ishaq Copyright (c) Wed, 01 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Zinc, Tin and Silver Porphyrins (TPP, TCPP, TMPP, THPP, TPPS, TMPyP) as photosensitizers in antibacterial photodynamic therapy for chronic wounds: A screening study <p>Continuous proliferation of bacteria in a wound delays its healing process, and could further extend to becoming a chronic wound infection. The effectiveness of different porphyrins as a photosensitizer in antibacterial photodynamic therapy for the inactivation of some wound-colonizing bacteria was studied as a screening experiment. Meso-tetra(4-methoxyphenyl) porphyrin, (TMPP), meso-tetra(4-hydroxyphenyl) porphyrin (THPP), meso-tetra(4-carboxyphenyl) porphyrin, (TCPP), meso-tetra(N-methyl-4-pyridyl) porphyrin, (TMPyP) were synthesized, each complexed with zinc, tin and silver. The in-vitro and photo-toxicity properties of the porphyrins and their complexes were assessed on some selected wound colonizing multi-drug resistant bacterial strains (<em>Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, </em>and <em>Escherichia coli</em>) using agar well diffusion method. Photo-toxicity of the compounds were investigated using a 100-Watt tungsten lamp while the in-vitro toxicity was carried out in the dark.&nbsp; The results were compared with previously reported work carried out by this group on meso-tetra(phenyl)porphyrin (TPP), meso-tetra(4-sulphonatophenyl) porphyrin, (TPPS) and their corresponding Zn, Sn and Ag complexes. Most of the porphyrins showed biocidal activities against three of the test isolates with an exception to <em>Proteus </em>sp. ZnTMPyP and ZnTHPP only showed photo-toxic activities against the four test isolates. While SnTHPP, ZnTPPS, ZnTCPP, and SnTCPP all exhibited both toxic and photo-toxic activities against all four bacterial isolates. The Ag-porphyrins had the poorest inactivation activity.</p> Reama Chinedu George, Nkem Torimiro, Oluwafemi Bamidele Daramola, Afusat Ajoke Olajide Copyright (c) Wed, 01 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000