Evaluation of the antidiarrhoeal activity of 80% methanol extract and solvent fractions of the leaves of Lantana camara linn (Verbenaceae) in mice
Lantana camara L. is one of the medicinal plants traditionally used for the treatment of diarrhoea in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to evaluate antidiarrhoeal activity of the 80% methanol extract and solvent fractions using mice model of diarrhoea. The 80% methanol extract was prepared by maceration and the fractions were obtained by successive soxhlet extraction with chloroform and methanol followed by maceration of the marc with water. The antidiarrhoeal activity of the extract and fractions were investigated using castor oil-induced diarrhoea (for 80% methanol extract), enteropooling and small intestine transit models (the three models for the fractions). The test groups received various doses (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) of the extract or fractions, whereas positive controls received Loperamide (3 mg/kg) and negative controls received vehicle (10 ml/kg). The 80% methanol extract reduced the number and weight of feces at all tested doses significantly as compared to the negative control. The methanol and aqueous fractions showed a significant reduction on the number and weight of wet feces and weight and volume of intestinal content when compared with negative control. All the fractions produced a significant antimotility effect at all tested doses as compared to negative control. This study confirmed the antidiarrhoeal activity of the crude extract and further revealed all the three fractions possessed varying degree of antidiarrhoeal activity, with the methanol fraction being the most active fraction in all the three models.
Keywords: Lantana camara, antidiarrhoeal activity, castor oil induced diarrhoea, gastrointestinal transit, antienteropooling