Evaluation of Post-Operative Antibiotic Administration on Phenotypic Antibiotic Susceptibility and Resistance Profiles of Gram-negative Bacterial Flora of Healthy Local Experimental Dogs Undergoing Partial Gastrectomy
Reliable data that can serve as platform for policy formulation on the use of antimicrobial drugs are compulsory for every country. But baseline data to judge effects of long-term post-operative antibiotic administration in clinical and surgical canine health conditions are currently lacking in Nigeria. This study aimed at providing vital baseline antibiotic profiles of canine bacteria of veterinary and public health importance. Phenotypic antibiotic susceptibility and resistance profiles of some easily recoverable Gram-negative bacterial species of canine origin were determined towards the most commonly prescribed and administered antibiotics in veterinary practices, using agar disk- and modified agar well-diffusion methods. Overall resistance of the bacteria against antibiotics (discs) were- tetracycline
(25.0-57.1%), cotrimoxazole (80.0-100%), nitrofurantoin (20.0-100%), nalidixic acid (0.91-60.0%), gentamicin (18.2-70.0%), ofloxacillin (20.0-42.9%) and augmentin / amoxicillin (100%), except among Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis (60.0-100), with percentage multiple antibiotic resistance (%MAR) of 25.0 - 100%. Overall percentage resistance rates towards antibiotic drugs were- amoxicillin (9.1-100%); oritaxim / oxytetracycline (20.0-100%) and nitaxim (30.0-100%), with %MAR mostly between 50.0 and 100%. Twenty eight antibiotic resistance profiles mere exhibited against antibiotic (discs), commonest profiles being – augmentinamoxicillin- cotrimoxazole; augmentin-tetracycline-amoxicillin-cotrimoxazole-nitrofurantoin- nalidixic acid-gentamicin-ofloxacillin; augmentin-tetracycline-amoxicillin-cotrimoxazole and augmentin-amoxicillin-cotrimoxazole-nitrofurantoin. Twelve antibiotic resistance profiles were exhibited against the antibiotic drugs, with most-resisted / commonest profile being – oritaxim-nitaxim. These were also the most-resisted nitaxim (47.3%) and oritaxim (52.7%) antibiotic drugs. Only 29.1% of the Gram-negative bacteria were totally susceptible to the four antibiotic drugs, while a total of 70.9%, including mono-resistance (21.8%) and multiresistance (49.1%), were recorded. This preliminary baseline report indicated significant phenotypic antibiotic resistance among easily-recoverable, indigenous Gram-negative bacterial species of canine origin, which is of veterinary and human public health significance, and indicative of therapeutic treatment failure.
Keywords: antibiotic resistance, dogs, veterinary public health, veterinary surgery