Prevalence of camel tuberculosis and associated risk factors in camels slaughtered at Akaki Abattoir, Ethiopia
A cross sectional abattoir based study was conducted from February 2014 to October, 2015 on camels slaughtered at Akaki municipality abattoir to determine the prevalence of Tuberculosis in camels and assess the association of risk factors with the prevalence of Tuberculosis in camels using single intra-dermal comparative
cervical tuberculin (SICCT). Of the total of 387 camels investigated, overall camel
tuberculosis prevalence of 9.82% (95% CI: 6.84%-12.8%) at a cut off value ≥ 4mm and prevalence of 17.05% (95% CI: 13.3%-20.82%) at a cut off value ≥ 2mm, were recorded. Pearson chi-square test reveals, there was statistically significant association of prevalence with the origin of camels at a cut off value ≥ 2mm (χ2 = 13.461, P=0.000). However, there was no statistically significant association (P>0.05) of risk factors of age, sex, body condition and origin of camels with the prevalence at a cut off value ≥ 4mm.The multivariate logistic regression analysis shows at a cut off value ≥ 4mm, being old aged (adjusted OR= 0.999, 95% CI: 0.450-2.22), female (adjusted OR= 2.226, 95% CI: 0.5099-9.719) were identified as risk factors for positive tuberculin reactivity. Similarly, the multivariate analysis at a cut off value ≥ 2mm, showed being moderate body conditioned (adjusted OR= 1.583, 95% CI: 0.7399-3.385) was identified as risk factor for higher tuberculin reactivity. The present study aimed to determine tuberculin reactivity of camels and assess associated risk factors with the prevalence. It was concluded that Tuberculosis is an existing phenomenon in camels. It is therefore, recommended that detailed epidemiological investigations should be conducted for the better understanding of the epidemiology of the disease in camels of pastoral communities with particular emphasis to zoonotic significance in camel rearing areas of Ethiopia.
Keywords: Akaki abattoir, Camel Tuberculosis, Ethiopia, Prevalence, Risk factors, Comparative Tuberculin testing.