Gastrointestinal helminths and their predisposing factors in different poultry management systems; Haromaya, Ethiopia
Among several diseases, gastrointestinal parasites affect poultry production through retarded growth and reduced productivity. The severity varies according to management system and associated predisposing factors. Epidemiology of chicken gastrointestinal helminths were studied using coprological and necropsy examination, with the objectives to estimate the prevalence, identify species of helminths and associated predisposing factors in Haromaya town from November 2011 to April 2012. Fecal samples from selected chicken were collected from both intensive and extensive farms. Coprological examination on 384 chicken and 24 post mortem examinations were conducted. Out of 384 samples examined, 51.8% were positive of which a high prevalence of 110(28.6%) Ascaridia galli followed by 33(8.6%) of Heterakis gallinarum, 11(2.8%) of Raillietina species and 44(11.5%) mixed infection were recovered. Factors for the occurrence of GIT helminths were investigated using logistic regression models; where each assumed predisposing factor analyzed using uni-variable and followed by multi-variable logistic regression to determine the interaction and power of influence among factors. Accordingly, statistically significant difference (p<0.05) was observed when prevalence of helminths compared with breed, sex, age and management system separately using univariable logistic regression; whereas, when all predisposing factors subjected together using multi-variable backward stepwise analysis, it showed that the odds of local, Fayoumi and White Leghorn breeds had odds of (OR= 6.4, 50.8 and 6.9) more likely to be affected than Bovan Brown breed with significant difference (p<0.05). Male birds were 1.9 times more likely to be affected than female birds and birds in extensive management system were 2.8 times more likely to be affected than intensive farming system. The study indicated that gastrointestinal (GIT) helminths were more prevalent in extensive management system than in intensive management system, the finding was associated with poor management system or due to poor bio-security. Therefore, there is a need to improve hygienic situation, especially in area where extensive management system prevails.
Keywords: Gastrointestinal; Haromaya; Helminths; Poultry; Production systems