Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of the foot and mouth disease outbreaks in cattle in central Ethiopia

  • Zelalem Mohammed
  • Abde Aliy
  • Yasmin Jibril
  • Haileleul Negussie
Keywords: Cattle; Central Ethiopia; Epidemiology; FMD; Outbreak; Serotypes


Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is an acute highly contagious viral disease of all cloven-hoofed animals that causes significant economic problems in Ethiopia. The objectives of this study were to assess the morbidity and clinical features of FMD in sick cattle and identify causal serotypes of FMD outbreaks in central Ethiopia. Outbreaks of FMD were investigated in a total of 150 herds of cattle from January 2021 to April 2021. Seven epithelial tissue and 23 oral swab samples were collected and subjected to a real-time polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) and Sandwich Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) for detection and serotyping of FMD virus, respectively. A total of 150 herds of cattle were examined, of which 114 (76%) herds of cattle were clinically affected with FMD. In this study, 75.9% animal-level morbidity was recorded. Exotic breeds and adult cattle were more affected by Foot and Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV) with morbidity of 100% and 77.4%, respectively. The clinical features in sick cattle showed that profuse salivation was the most frequently observed clinical sign (40%) followed by oral cavity vesicle formation (30%), and interdigital space lesion (15%). Out of 30 samples subjected to rRT-PCR and ELISA test, 28 (93.33%) and 27 (90%) samples were found positive, respectively. In this study, three types of FMD serotypes were detected in which SAT-2 (n = 13) was the predominant serotype followed by serotype O (n = 9), and serotype A (n = 5). The current study revealed that FMD serotype SAT-2 was highly responsible for the occurrence of FMD outbreaks in central Ethiopia. Although the FMD vaccine produced in Ethiopia contains all the identified serotypes, detailed studies on topotypes identification have to be performed to provide full protection.


Journal Identifiers

eISSN: 2221-5034
print ISSN: 1683-6324