Ethiopian Veterinary Journal 2023-08-08T15:19:24+00:00 Prof. Kassahun Asmare Open Journal Systems <p>The <em>Ethiopian Veterinary Journal</em> (Ethiop. Vet. J.) is a multidisciplinary peer-reviewed journal intended to promote animal health and production of national and regional/international importance. The journal publishes review articles, original research articles, short communication as well as technical notes in English. Under special circumstances, articles in Amharic may be considered for publication.</p> Knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) of University students regarding antimicrobial use (AMU) and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Ethiopia 2023-08-08T13:48:59+00:00 Fufa Abunna Girma Gebresenbet Bekele Megersa <p>A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study on 1252 University students was conducted in Ethiopia to assess their knowledge, attitude,&nbsp; and practices (KAP) towards antimicrobial usage (AMU) and antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Verbal consent was obtained from randomly&nbsp; selected students to participate in this study. A logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between the socio- demographic profiles of the students against their knowledge, attitude, and practices toward antimicrobial resistance and antimicrobial&nbsp; usage. The Kruskal-Wallis and chi-square tests were used to examine how the median scores in each of the knowledge, attitude, and&nbsp; practice categories varied across study participants. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. The overall median AMR and&nbsp; AMU knowledge score was 13 (IQR=11, 14). The median AMR and AMU attitude score was 15 (IQR: 13, 15). The median score of AMU and&nbsp; AMR practice was 10 (IQR: 10, 11). Logistic regression analysis revealed that the students’ birthplace was found to be a significant factor&nbsp; (p &lt;0.01) regarding the knowledge of students. The analysis further revealed that students’ birthplace, field of studies, and good&nbsp; knowledge were significant factors (p&lt;0.01) affecting their attitudes. Students with good knowledge had 3.9 times more positive attitudes&nbsp; than those with poor knowledge (OR = 3.9, CI = 3.0 -5.2, p &lt; 0.01). Students from VM had 1.6 times better attitudes than&nbsp; students from HS and NHS (OR = 1.6, CI=1.2- 2.1, p = 0.002). Finally, students in the field of veterinary medicine and those having good&nbsp; knowledge had 1.4 and 0.5 times better practice than their counterparts (OR=1.4; CI=1.2, 2.1, p&lt;0.01 and OR= 0.5, CI=0.4, 0.6, p&lt;0.01,&nbsp; respectively). In conclusion, there were critical gaps in knowledge, attitudes, and practices among University students regarding&nbsp; antimicrobial usage and antimicrobial resistance. Hence, students are encouraged to exhaustively utilize the digital era to advance their&nbsp; knowledge. Interventions to raise awareness should also target students majoring in fields other than health sciences.&nbsp; </p> 2023-08-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i> isolates from cow’s milk in dairy farms at Shinshicho town, Kembata Tembaro Zone, Southern Ethiopia: Prevalence, risk factors, and antimicrobial susceptibility profile 2023-08-08T13:53:18+00:00 Abriham Markos Feyissa Begna Yeshihareg Afera Tadele Tolosa <p><em>Bovine mastitis</em> is an economically important and highly prevalent infectious disease in dairy herds worldwide. <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> is a&nbsp; common microorganism causing infectious mastitis. A cross-sectional study was conducted between December 2018 and September&nbsp; 2019 in Shinshicho town, Kembata Tembaro Zone, Southern Ethiopia, to estimate the prevalence, and assess associated risk factors and&nbsp; antimicrobial susceptibility profile of <em>S. aureus</em> isolates from cow’s milk in dairy farms at Shinshicho town. Lactating dairy cows were&nbsp; screened for mastitis based on clinical examinations and the California mastitis test (CMT) followed by laboratory identification of <em>S.&nbsp; aureus</em>. All the <em>S. aureus</em> isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility tests using a disk diffusion test. Multivariable logistic&nbsp; regression analysis of the effect of different risk factors on the prevalence of mastitis was performed. From a total of 384 lactating cows&nbsp; examined and tested, 41.7 % ( n=160) were found positive for mastitis. Out of the occurrences of mastitis, 5% (n=19) and 36.7% (n=141) were clinical and subclinical respectively. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from 36.84% (n=7) and 39.01% (n=55) of the clinical and&nbsp; subclinical mastitis respectively with a total isolation frequency of 38.75 % (n=62). According to the results of this study, greater herd sizes&nbsp; (OR=2.91, 95% CI: 1.62-5.21), higher parity cows (OR=3.91, 95% CI: 1.73-8.82), late lactation stage (OR=3.36, 95% CI: 1.27-8.91), and&nbsp; muddy floor (OR=2.37, 95% CL: 1.31-4.27) are risk variables linked to the occurrence of S. aureus mastitis. In addition, <em>S. aureus</em> has total&nbsp; resistance to ampicillin, amoxicillin, penicillin-G, and Polymyxin. Similarly, 53.2% of the isolates proved resistant to three or more of the&nbsp; antibiotics used. Therefore, regular antimicrobial susceptibility testing should be performed to select potent modified antibiotics, and the&nbsp; effects and dynamics of genetic determinants of antibiotics should also be studied using molecular methods.&nbsp;</p> 2023-08-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Assessment of dairy farm’s hygienic practice and knowledge of farm workers on milk-borne zoonoses in three selected towns of the Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia 2023-08-08T14:05:52+00:00 Mirtayhu Estifanos Ergano Teshita Edaso Beriso Tilaye Shibbiru Mengistu <p>Consumption of unhygienic milk is the most common source of milk-borne zoonotic diseases. These zoonoses have public health&nbsp; importance and are a major obstacle to trade in livestock and livestock products. A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was&nbsp; conducted from December 2021 to June 2022 to assess milk-borne zoonotic diseases, the habit of milk consumption, and the hygienic&nbsp; practices of dairy farm workers in three purposefully selected towns in the Wolaita zone, southern Ethiopia. Dairy farms and farm&nbsp; workers were selected by a simple random sampling technique. A total of 100 respondents, one per farm, were selected and participated&nbsp; in the interview. The result indicated that 41% of farms used individual towels and 21% used common towels to dry their cows’ udders;&nbsp; however, the remaining 38% of farms did not use any towels at all. The majority (59%) of farms clean the floor once a day and around 92% remove dung manually. Of total farm workers, 43% had no formal education, 28% had primary-level education, 5% had secondary- level education, 2% were college diploma holders, and 22% were first-degree and above graduate workers. Concerning milk consumption&nbsp; habits, 64% of respondents used raw milk, 29% used raw and boiled milk, 3% of interviewees consumed all types of milk&nbsp; (raw, boiled, refrigerated, and processed milk), and 4% didn’t drink milk at all. Furthermore, 50% of respondents were aware of disease&nbsp; transmission through the consumption of raw milk. Regarding respondents’ knowledge of milk-borne zoonoses, 51% of interviewees&nbsp; didn’t know about zoonotic diseases, while the remaining 4% knew about tuberculosis, 32% were aware of salmonellosis, 5% knew about&nbsp; both tuberculosis and salmonellosis, and 8% were aware of <em>tuberculosis, anthrax, mastitis, salmonellosis, </em>and<em> brucellosis</em>. Concerning the&nbsp; knowledge of respondents on disease transmission, 73% of respondents didn’t know that zoonotic diseases can transmit from humans to&nbsp; animals and vice versa. Furthermore, when compared to other educational levels, participants with a degree or higher (86.7%) had&nbsp; better awareness of disease transmission from raw milk consumption, and there was a statistically significant difference (p-value &lt; 0.05).&nbsp; The farms had poor awareness of dairy farm hygienic standards and milk-borne zoonoses. To lessen the animal and public health&nbsp; concerns associated with milk-borne zoonoses, it is critical to create awareness, provide extension services, and provide training&nbsp; programs.&nbsp; </p> 2023-08-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Review on performance responses of dairy cattle against thermal stress 2023-08-08T14:14:49+00:00 Tassew Mohammed <p>This manuscript is aimed at reviewing the performance responses of dairy cattle against thermal stress resulting from climate change.&nbsp; Climate change is the major factor that largely affects the dairy industry. Thermal stress (TS) is the perceived discomfort and&nbsp; physiological strains associated with exposure to excessive ambient temperature. Temperature and Humidity Index (THI) have been&nbsp; adopted to describe thermal conditions that drive thermal stress in dairy cattle. The effects of TS are devastating in the dairy industry if&nbsp; not managed well. The thermo-neutral zone for dairy cattle and calves in the tropics is THI &lt;72. Milk yield reductions of up to 50% have&nbsp; been reported for Holstein cows due to thermal stress under summer climate conditions. Moreover, thermal stress is associated with&nbsp; alterations in milk composition. TS reduces the length and intensity of estrus manifestation. Moreover, 80% of estrus may be unnoticeable during the summer season in temperate regions, which further reduces fertility. Conception rates of dairy cows may drop&nbsp; up to 20–27% in the summer season. Climate-induced thermal stress resulted in a decrease of 3.5 kg and 25 kg in the birth weight and&nbsp; weaning weight of Fogera calves, respectively. Dry matter feed intake was reduced by 9.6%. Commonly used thermal stress reduction&nbsp; strategies included modification of the physical environment, breeding for heat-tolerant dairy cattle, and nutritional management. The&nbsp; productive and reproductive traits are susceptible to the negative impacts of thermal stress with an increase in THI above 68.0 for&nbsp; Holstein Frisian cattle and their crosses and 72 for tropical cattle under an open shed system. Mitigations of thermal stress by breeding&nbsp; heat-tolerant animals, using a loose house system, and season-based feeding should be considered an integral component of the dairy&nbsp; cattle management system.&nbsp;</p> 2023-08-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Bovine mastitis: Prevalence, causes and associated risk factors in Silte Zone, Ethiopia 2023-08-08T14:19:02+00:00 Yared Tesfay Sultan Abda Desie Sheferaw <p>Mastitis is an important disease of dairy cows, and it causes huge economic losses to dairy farm owners due to a decrease in milk&nbsp; production, and reduction in milk quality, and an increase in the cost of cow treatment. A crosssectional study was conducted in Southern&nbsp; Ethiopia’s Silte zone from October 2020 to June 2021 aimed to estimate mastitis prevalence, assess related risk factors, and&nbsp; identify prevalent bacterial causes. Three hundred eighty-four lactating cows were examined for abnormalities in udder quarters and&nbsp; teats. Milk samples were tested for subclinical mastitis via the California mastitis test (CMT) and cultured for causative agents from&nbsp; clinical mastitic and CMT-positive cows. The overall prevalence of mastitis was 54.9% (95% CI=49.9-59.9), of which 52.1% (95%&nbsp; CI=47.1-57.1) was subclinical and 2.9% (95% CI=1.6 -5.1) clinical mastitis. From a total of 1536 quarters examined 41 (2.7%) quarters were&nbsp; found blind and 427 (27.7%) quarters were affected by mastitis. Overall, more hind quarters, 236 (55.5%) were affected than the front&nbsp; quarters, 189 (44.5%) of udder. The prevalence of mastitis was significantly higher during early lactation, ≤4 months (p&lt; 0.05); and it was&nbsp; increased with increasing parity (p&lt; 0.05) and age (p&lt; 0.05). Cows with no bedding were more affected than those with bedding (p&lt; 0.05).&nbsp; Multivariable logistic regression showed that cows with round and flat teat ends were 2.84 and 11.85 times more likely to contract&nbsp; mastitis. Also, cows with pendulous udder, producing more than 10 liters per day milk and during the early 4 months of lactation were&nbsp; 1.87, 6.81, and 2.14 more likely affected by mastitis than normal udder, producing less than 10 liters of milk per day and lactation after&nbsp; five months, respectively. Milk samples collected from 211 mastitis-positive cows were cultured using standard bacteriological technique,&nbsp; and the isolated bacteria were <em>Staphylococcus aureus (29.5%), Staphylococcus epidermidis (14.2%), Staphylococcus </em><em>intermedius (11.6%),&nbsp; Staphylococcus hyicus (11.1%), Streptococcus agalactiae (8.9%), Streptococcus disgalactiae (6.3%), E. coli (5.8%), Streptococcus uberis<br>(5.3%), Klebsiella spp. (1.6%) and Enterococcus spp. (1.1%). </em>Owners should givepro per udder care and are advised to apply dry cow therapy. Extension workers should raise awareness. <em><br><br></em></p> 2023-08-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Knowledge, attitude, and practice of goat farmers towards contagious caprine pleuropneumonia in Amhara region, Ethiopia 2023-08-08T14:27:04+00:00 Asres Zegeye Wudu Temesgen Tsegaw Fentie Sefinew Alemu Mekonnen Adugna Berju Seleshe Nigatu Ambaye Kenubih Belete Haile Wassie Molla <p>Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) is known for its high mortality, morbidity, and economic losses. A cross-sectional study using a multistage cluster sampling technique was conducted in Amhara Regional State from January to June 2019 to assess the&nbsp; knowledge, attitude, and practices of goat farmers towards CCPP in the region. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect&nbsp; information from the goat farmers found in 12 districts. A total of 386 goat producer respondents participated in the questionnaire&nbsp; survey. Out of all the households of goat farmers interviewed, 370 (95.8%) were headed by males, while 16 (4.2%) were headed by&nbsp; females. Of all the respondents, 73.58% did not know the disease. The remaining 26.42% were familiar with the CCPP and had seen the&nbsp; disease in their goats or nearby goat flocks, and from this 4%, they experienced CCPP with their goats. Half of the participants who&nbsp; experienced the disease in their flock reported that mixing with neighboring flocks was the major source of CCPP infection. The goat&nbsp; farmers who are familiar with the disease had a high-risk perception of CCPP with a mean score of 4 out of 5 for the seriousness of the&nbsp; disease and 4.12 out of 5 for the risk of infection. These farmers showed a good perception of the effectiveness of prevention practices&nbsp; with a mean score of 4 out of 5 for the usefulness of vaccinations and reporting disease outbreaks to veterinary authorities. This&nbsp; collective understanding demonstrates their awareness of the disease and the proactive measures they are willing to take to mitigate its&nbsp; impact on their flocks. They have a good practice of vaccinating and treating their goats. Most of the farmers use veterinary clinic services&nbsp; to control CCPP occurrence in their herds. Although the farmers familiar with the disease have a good understanding of the risk&nbsp; of the disease and a positive attitude towards control measures, most farmers are not aware of the disease and hence better animal&nbsp; extension about the disease is needed in the study area.</p> 2023-08-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Seroprevalence of <i>Brucella</i> infection in cattle and small ruminants in South Omo zone, southern Ethiopia 2023-08-08T14:35:50+00:00 Senait Getachew Bersissa Kumsa Yitbarek Getachew Getachew Kinfu Balako Gumi Tesfaye Rufaele Bekele Megersa <p>A cross-sectional study was conducted in selected districts of the South Omo Zone to estimate the seroprevalence of brucellosis and its&nbsp; associated risk factors. Additionally, the knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) of livestock keepers about the disease were also&nbsp; assessed. A total of 1349 sera samples were collected from 450 cattle and 899 small ruminants (450 goats and 449 sheep) kept under an&nbsp; extensive production system. Rose Bengal Plate Test was used for screening and ELISA as a confirmatory test for the detection of antibodies against Brucella species. Based on confirmatory tests, the overall seroprevalence of brucellosis was 2.2 % (95% CI: 1.1 – 4.1%)&nbsp; in cattle, 2.0% (95% CI: 0.9, 3.8%) in goats and 1.3% (95% CI: 0.5, 2.9%) in sheep with higher seropositivity in cattle compared to small&nbsp; ruminants. Seropositivity did not vary significantly (p&gt; 0.05) with agroecology, age, and sex groups in cattle. However, a higher&nbsp; seroprevalence of 2.7% was detected in male cattle compared to 1.6% for females. Seroprevalence was higher in small ruminants from the lowland agroecology (3.0%) than those from the midlands (0.8%). Study respondents had a low level of knowledge on brucellosis with&nbsp; only 43% of them having some information about the disease. Most of the respondents have routinely engaged in practices that can&nbsp; expose them to infections such as assisted delivery (65%), contact with after-birth materials (50%), and handling aborted materials&nbsp; (15%) without any protection. High consumption of unpasteurized dairy products (93%) such as raw whole milk and traditionally&nbsp; fermented dairy product is also common. This study provides information on the occurrence f brucellosis in major livestock species kept&nbsp; at cross-border marginal areas with limited disease information. The existence of various exposure practices implies the need for&nbsp; creating awareness among livestock keepers on general disease transmission and its zoonotic role.&nbsp;&nbsp; </p> 2023-08-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Contributing factors to repeat breeding and postpartum anestrus and pregnancy rate subsequent to hormonal intervention in crossbred dairy cows 2023-08-08T14:47:33+00:00 Kirubel Befekadu Tewodros Eshete Tilaye Demissie Tefera Yilma <p>A cross-sectional study was conducted from January to July 2021 to determine the prevalence and contributing factors to repeat breeding&nbsp; (RB) and postpartum anestrus (PPA) in crossbred dairy cattle in the central highland of Ethiopia. Furthermore; a retrospective study was&nbsp; used to collect data on the occurrence of RB and PPA and the associated risk factors. The pregnancy rate was determined by rectal&nbsp; palpation on day 60 after hormonal therapy using double PGF2α and GnRH in combination with PGF2α. (Ovsynch). The prevalence of RB and PPA was 33.85% and 30.73%, respectively. Body condition score, parity, milk yield, herd size, abortion, and mastitis all revealed a&nbsp; statistically significant association (p &lt; 0.05) with the prevalence of RB and PPA. Cows with a previous history of abortion were 2.58 times&nbsp; at risk of repeat breeding than those without. Similarly, cows with a previous history of mastitis were 2.63 times more at risk of RB than&nbsp; cows that didn’t encounter the disease. Previously aborted and older cows with greater parity numbers were 2.89 and 1.23 times more&nbsp; affected by PPA, respectively. Moreover, endometritis and retained fetal membrane showed significant association (p&lt;0.05) with&nbsp; postpartum anestrus. The pregnancy rates in cows treated with double PGF2α and GnRH + PGF2α (Ovsynch) were 41.46% and 29.17%,&nbsp; respectively. It is concluded that the occurrence of RB and PPA in the research area was influenced by parity, body condition, and daily&nbsp; milk yield of the cow. Reproductive health problems including abortion retained fetal membranes, endometritis, and mastitis affected the&nbsp; prevalence of RB and PPA. Although the use of double PGF2α or in combination with GnRH has resumed cyclicity in RB and PPA dairy&nbsp; cows, the pregnancy rates are yet low. Hence, a study that utilizes detailed hormonal assay profiles and reproductive-related blood&nbsp; metabolites should be done.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> 2023-08-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Comparison of quantitative real-time PCR targeting <i>nuc</i> gene and culture-based plate count methods for quantification of <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i> in raw cow milk 2023-08-08T14:56:07+00:00 Enquebaher K. Tarekgne <p>Staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP) is caused by ingestion of enterotoxins produced by enterotoxigenic <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> when the&nbsp; cell population exceeds 5 Log CFU per gram/ml of food. The Objectives of this study were to evaluate the performance of SYBR Green&nbsp; 1-based quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) targeting the <em>nuc</em> gene for the quantification of<em> S. aureus</em> in milk and to compare the&nbsp; assay with the plate count method. The qPCR and the plate count were applied for the quantification of <em>S. aureus</em> in 92 naturally&nbsp; contaminated and artificially spiked bulk milk samples. Optimized standard curves were generated as the qPCR employed the absolute&nbsp; quantification method. The qPCR assay discriminates<em> S. aureus</em> from other <em>Staphylococcus species</em> with a large difference in&nbsp; quantification cycle (Cq) (Mean <em>S. aureus</em> Cq = 13.83± 0.93; other staphylococci Cq= 30.34 ± 2.65). The standard curve showed 91 %&nbsp; amplification efficiency and 0.98 coefficients of correlation (R<sup>2 </sup>). The detection and quantification limit of the assay was 18 copies of the&nbsp;<em> nuc</em> gene. The precision of the assay as expressed by standard deviation was 0.12 – 0.3 for intra-assay and 0.29 – 0.5 for inter-assay&nbsp; variability. In artificially contaminated milk, the R<sup>2</sup> between CFU ml<sup>-1</sup> and <em>S. aureus</em> cell equivalent (SCE) ml<sup>-1 </sup>was 0.95, which implies, the&nbsp; estimation of CFU ml<sup>-1</sup> in raw milk by qPCR is possible. A statistically significant (p&lt; 0.05) difference in <em>S. aureus</em> count was documented&nbsp; between qPCR and plate count. The average SCE (5.59 ±1.55 Log SCE ml<sup>-1</sup>) estimated by qPCR was one Log higher than CFU (4.46 ± 1.06&nbsp; Log CFU ml<sup>-1</sup>) estimated by plate count. Furthermore, 28% of the samples with &lt; 5 Log ml<sup>-1</sup> <em>S. aureus</em> by plate count had &gt; 5 Log ml<sup>-1</sup> by&nbsp; qPCR. Hence, the qPCR is recommended for routine and research work for its advantage of rapid, sensitivity, and reliability. Further study&nbsp; on validation of the qPCR protocol in different food matrixes for quantification of foodborne pathogens and cost-benefit analysis of the&nbsp; assay is required.&nbsp; </p> 2023-08-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Case Reports: Clinical features and postmorteum findings of sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever in a 2-years old bull 2023-08-08T15:06:15+00:00 Gishu Bariso Bethel Befekadu Abdi Feyisa <p>Malignant Catarrhal Fever (MCF) is a fatal lymphoproliferative disease of cattle and other ungulates caused by alcelaphine herpesvirus 1&nbsp; (AlHV-1) and ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), the main causative agents of wildebeest-associated MCF (WA-MCF) and sheep-associated MCF&nbsp; (SA-MCF), respectively. The virus is mainly spread by aerosols from pregnant or newborn sheep, goats, and wildebeest to&nbsp; susceptible animals. This case report presents the clinical features and post-mortem findings of an unusual case of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) in a two-year-old bull brought to the Professor Feseha Gebreab Memorial Veterinary Teaching Hospital in Bishoftu, Ethiopia.&nbsp; The bull was semi-intensively managed, co-housed, and fed with sheep and other domestic animals. The animal was shivering upon&nbsp; arrival, with naso-ocular discharge and clouding of the eyes. The bull was febrile, with a rectal body temperature of 41.4 <sup>o</sup>C and a&nbsp; respiratory and heart rate of 40 and 48 beats per minute, respectively. On physical examination, the bull was emaciated, with bilateral yellowish mucopurulent naso-ocular discharge, frequent blinking, bilateral corneal opacity, salivation, a foamy mouth, head pressing, and&nbsp; enlargement of superficial lymph nodes. Malignant catarrhal fever was suspected based on the history and clinical signs, and&nbsp; empiric therapy with 10% oxytetracycline, diclofenac, and IV fluid was initiated. The bull died after receiving the third day of treatment. At&nbsp; necropsy, hemorrhages were found in the esophagus, trachea, and small and large intestines. In the kidney, white foci, enlargement, and&nbsp; fatty degeneration were observed. An ulcerated lesion was seen on the abomasum. In the gall bladder, enlargement and&nbsp; vascularization were also noted. The current case report confirms the rare case of clinical SA-MCF based on the history, exhibited clinical&nbsp; pictures, post-mortem findings, and PCR results. Separation of cattle and sheep is strongly advised to prevent SA-MCF, as no vaccine has&nbsp; yet been developed.&nbsp;&nbsp; </p> 2023-08-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Caseous lymphadenitis: A case of sheep and its management in Ethiopia 2023-08-08T15:11:17+00:00 Dessalew Habte <p>Caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) is a contagious and chronic bacterial disease of animals that affects the lymphatic system with the&nbsp; formation of abscesses. This case report documents a sheep diagnosed with CLA that was brought to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of&nbsp; Addis Ababa University College of Veterinary Medicine and Agriculture (AAU-CVMA), Bishoftu on March 06/2022. The primary complaint&nbsp; was weakness, anorexia, and a slight, fluctuating, sickleshaped, enlarged swelling in the neck region between the ear and jaws, which developed due to a laceration by a wire on the fence. Physical and clinical examination revealed increased body temperature (40.7<sup>o</sup>C)&nbsp; and respiratory rate (44 breaths/min) and mildly fluctuating swelling on lymph nodes. Anorexia, coughing, general ill thrift, exercise&nbsp; intolerance, and enlargement of subcutaneous tissues and lymph nodes around the neck region were observed. Aspiration of the&nbsp; swelling revealed thick, pale greenish-cheesy pus. Using the Ethiopian Differential Diagnosis and Information Environment App-based diagnosis and bacterial culture of the pus revealed the case as CLA. It was managed by surgical removal of the pus, topical wound spray,&nbsp; and systemic administration of fortified procaine penicillin for five days intramuscular and once topically on the site, respectively. The&nbsp; sheep recovered after a month. In conclusion, CLA is a challenging suppurative disease of sheep and goats that can be successfully&nbsp; treated by topical wound management and systemic penicillin therapy.&nbsp;</p> 2023-08-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023