Ethiopian Veterinary Journal 2020-11-10T10:20:26+00:00 Prof. Kassahun Asmare Open Journal Systems <p>The <em>Ethiopian Veterinary Journal</em> (Ethiop. Vet. J.) is a multidisciplinary peer-reviewed journal intended to promote animal health and production of national and regional/international importance. The journal publishes review articles, original research articles, short communication as well as technical notes in English. Under special circumstances, articles in Amharic may be considered for publication.<strong></strong></p> Prevalence of wound, its associated risk factors and wound management practices in carthorses of ten selected towns of Ethiopia 2020-11-10T07:11:03+00:00 Mihret Teferi Reta Tesfaye Hanna Zewdu Gizaw Gemechu Gebre Tefera Tibetu Ashine <p>No Abstract.</p> 2020-11-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Prevalence and risk factors of swine tuberculosis in central Ethiopia 2020-11-10T07:20:00+00:00 Kassa Demissie Jirata Shiferaw Girmay Medhin Aboma Zewude Asegedech Sirak Takele Abayneh Gezahegne Mamo Gobena Ameni <p>There is paucity of information in the epidemiology and pathology of tuberculosis in swine though the endemic occurrence of bovine tuberculosis was elucidated in Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was employed to investigate the epidemiology of <em>Mycobacterium tuberculosis</em> complex and&nbsp; <em>Mycobacterium avium</em> complex in swine. The study was conducted from September 2016 to December 2017 using single intradermal comparative tuberculin test, gross pathology and histopathology. Tuberculin test was carried out in farmed swine of central Ethiopia while the necropsy at Addis Ababa Abattoirs Enterprise, Ethiopia. Of the total 329 heads of swine tuberculin tested by bovine purified protein derivative antigen, an animal level prevalence of 3% (95% CI: 2-6) and a herd level prevalence of 11% (95% CI: 1-49) were observed at a cut-off value of &gt;2mm. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed the protective exposure effect of body condition to tuberculin test positivity in swine (Adjusted OR: 0.06; 95% CI: 0.0-1.1; P: 0.055). Swine were predominantly in close proximity with dairy cattle which is an important risk factor for the transmission of bovine tuberculosis from cattle to swine. Necropsy study of tuberculosis-like lesions in 640 heads of swine revealed an overall lesion prevalence of 4.1 % (95 CI: 2.8-6.0). In conclusion, the present study demonstrated the occurrence of swine tuberculosis in low prevalence in farmed swine and swine slaughtered at<br>Addis Ababa Abattoirs Enterprise in central Ethiopia. Further in-depth study covering larger sample size and wider areas is warranted so as to identify the prevalent species and their zoonotic importance.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Abattoir; Epidemiology; Ethiopia; Pathology; Swine; Tuberculosis </p> 2020-11-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Effects of skin and hide defects on quality grades and physical characteristics of crust leather 2020-11-10T07:27:14+00:00 Tewelde Tsigab Abrha Bsrat Redae Alemayohu Mengstu Ashebre Arefe Niraj Kumar Birhanu Hadush <p>Leather is one of the important export commodities in Ethiopia. However, itsquality and physical characteristics are affected by diseases, handling&nbsp; and storage problems. A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify major hide and skin defects and assess their effect on quality grades and physical characteristics of crust leather. A total of 6530 hides and skins were inspected at Sheba Tannery and Leather Industry Private Limited Company (PLC) through standard operative procedures. For tests on physical characteristics of crust leather, top 6 defects of skin and hide were identified thereby each 5-crust leather per defect were evaluated by standard experiments for determining testing tensile strength, tear strength and percentage elongation at break. The overall hide and skin rejection was 32.7%. The rejection in wet blue hide (23.5%) was higher than for wet blue salted and dry goatskins (5.1%) and pickled sheepskins (4.1%). Scratch (20.5%), Wound (14.6%) and Cockle (12.7%), were the most common pre-slaughter skin and hide defects found in wet blue hide, goatskin and pickled sheepskin, respectively. Knife cut with proportion of 21.1%, 17.5% and 4.5% respectively in wet blue hide, goatskin and pickled sheepskin was the major slaughter defect. Putrefaction was of the most common post-slaughter defect in wet blue hide (5.3 %), pickled sheepskin (1.6%) and goatskin (2.7%). Among the identified major defects, statistically significant reduction (p&lt;0.05) were noted in tensile strength, tear strength and percent elongation of the crust leather. Major skin and hide defects lead to considerable economical losses through reducing quality and physical performance characteristics of crust leather. Hence, innovative leather grade&nbsp; correction technologies are timely important.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Defects; hide; physical characteristics; quality; skin </p> 2020-11-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Ovarian follicular dynamics in Boran and Crossbred heifers in Ethiopia: Implications for assisted reproductive techniques 2020-11-10T08:16:55+00:00 Jeilu Jemal Tamrat Degefa Tefera Yilma Sayid Ali Lemma Alemayehu <p>The study was conducted to characterize the follicular dynamics of purebred Boran (<em>Bos indicus</em>) and Boran * Holstein Friesian crossbred heifers&nbsp; during estrous cycles; for use in ovum pick up and in-vitro embryo production. Insight of reproductive physiology of cattle would help to understand and exploit the reproductive potential of elite animals for breed improvement. Follicular development, growth and atresia during estrous cycles were evaluated using a trans-rectal real-time B-mode ultrasound system for three consecutive estrus cycles. Luteal activity was evaluated by serum progesterone level. Follicular aspirations were done to investigate the potential of Boran cattle and their crosses for transvaginal oocyte production; using a vacuum pressure pump and Aloka SSD Prosound-2 ultrasound device. Boran heifers (n=15) manifested two (n = 6, 40%), three (n = 5, 33%), four (n= 3, 20%) and five (n=1, 6.7%) follicular waves. Crossbred heifers (n=14) showed one (n= 2, 14%), two (n= 6, 43%) and three (n= 6, 43%) follicular waves. Interovulatory interval was 21.1 ± 3.4 and 21.4 ± 2.7 days for Boran (n=45) and crossbred (n=42) heifers, respectively. The progesterone level in Boran and Crossbred heifers during diestrus was 9.5 ± 11.0 and 4.6 ± 8.8 ng/ml, respectively. The maximum diameter of the ovulatory follicle for crossbred heifers was higher (15.4 ± 1.6 mm) than the diameter of the Boran (14.0 ± 1.9 mm) heifers (p&lt;0.005). Differences (p&lt;0.005) were observed in the size of both right (26.6 ± 5.14 and 28.6 ± 5.1 mm) and left (21.7 ± 4.85 and 24.1 ± 5.07 mm) ovaries of Boran and Crossbred heifers, respectively. Difference (p&lt;0.005) was also observed in follicular count of the&nbsp; right ovaries of Boran (4.84 ± 1.96) and Crossbred&nbsp; (5.13 ± 2.05) heifers. Oocyte recovery rate in once weekly collection scheme for Boran and their crossbred heifers was (n=19, 42.08%) and (n=17, 42.55%), respectively. The recovery rate for twice weekly collection scheme was (n=24, 34.53%) and (n=23, 40.44%) for Boran and crossbred heifers, respectively. Follicular dynamics in Boran heifers is characterized by a higher incidence of cycles with two, three and four waves, associated with a low persistence of the dominant follicles; and smaller size of ovulatory follicles and less intense heat signs from their crossbred counterpart. Boran heifers proved to have potential for comparable number of follicular population and ease of aspiration procedures that can be tapped for advanced<br>reproductive techniques.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Estrus cycle; follicular wave; ovarian follicle; ovum pickup; ultrasound.</p> 2020-11-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Prevalence, organ distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of <i>Salmonella</i> isolated from chickens purchased from markets in selected districts of West Shoa, Ethiopia 2020-11-10T08:25:30+00:00 Edilu Jorga Sarba Kebene Kudama Morka Dandecha Lencho Megersa Bizunesh Mideksa Borena Endrias Zewdu Gebremdhin <p><em>Salmonella</em> is one of the major causes of heavy losses in chicken and foodborne diseases worldwide. The current study was conducted from&nbsp; November 2015 to May 2016 to estimate the prevalence of <em>Salmonella</em> and determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates in chickens. Chickens (n=205) were purchased from local markets of five selected districts of West Shoa Zone, Central Ethiopia. Following clinical examination, chicken were euthanized and 2-3 ml of blood sample was collected immediately. Then after postmortem examination, samples were collected from the liver, kidney, ovary, and spleen. The slide agglutination test was used to assess the seroprevalence of <em>Salmonella</em> antibodies. Isolation of <em>Salmonella</em> was performed according to the ISO-6579 procedure. The isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing (using 13 antimicrobial drugs) following the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. The seroprevalence of <em>Salmonella</em> antibodies was 63.5% (95% CI: 55.9-70.5). The isolation rate of <em>Salmonella</em> was 19.0% (95% CI: 13.9-20.1) at the chicken level and 7.3% (95% CI: 5.5-9.4) at the organ level. The detection rate was 11.2%, 7.0%, 6.1%, and 4.4% for spleen, liver, ovary, and kidney, respectively. The majority of the <em>Salmonella</em> isolates were susceptible to norfloxacin (97.4%) and chloramphenicol (92.3%). All the 39 isolates were resistant to amoxicillin, tetracycline, and nitrofurantoin. Three multidrug resistance patterns to six antimicrobial classes were observed. Four isolates were resistant to five antimicrobial classes. Therefore, regular&nbsp; surveillance of Salmonella and its antimicrobial resistance is needed for a better understanding of the epidemiological dynamics. Awareness creation for chicken farmers about improving farming practices and the risks of antimicrobial resistance warrants special attention.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Antimicrobial susceptibility; Chicken; Prevalence; <em>Salmonella</em>; Ethiopia </p> 2020-11-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Trypanocidal drug utilization practices in tsetse suppression and non-suppression areas of South Omo Zone, Southwestern Ethiopia 2020-11-10T08:35:31+00:00 Tegegn Tesfaye Tekle Olbamo Hagos Ashenafi <p>Trypanosomosis control in Ethiopia is largely rely on use of available trypanocidal drugs although there are other options such as vector control and&nbsp; use of trypanotolerant hosts. A cross-sectional survey aimed at assessing the knowledge, attitude and practices of trypanocidal drug utilization&nbsp; and constraints of trypanosome infection conducted in tsetse suppression and non-suppression areas of South Omo Zone, Ethiopia. The questionnaire based survey was conducted from November 2018 to May 2019. Descriptive statistics was used to summarize the field data obtained from 184 cattle owners. Sixty (60) of the cattle owners were from suppression area and 124 from tsetse non-suppression area. Accordingly, draft oxen and milking cows respectively from tsetse suppression and non-suppression areas were classes of animals which were given priority in trypanocidal drug treatment. About 79.03% and 81.7% of cattle owners respectively from tsetse suppression and non-suppression areas witnessed<br>that they treat their sick animals by themselves; indicating that veterinarians and other animal health experts have very little role in medication of sick animals. Diminazine aceturate (DA) was the main trypanocidal drug preferred by cattle owners in tsetse suppression area while both DA and Isometamidium chloride (ISM) were used in non-suppression areas. About 83.1% of the respondents from tsetse suppression areas and 86.7% from non-suppression area reported treatment failures following the use of trypanocidal drugs. Moreover, about 79.61% and 86.53% of respondents respectively from tsetse suppression and non-suppression areas observed that drugs obtained from private drug stores were less effective compared to drugs obtained from governmental veterinary clinics. Furthermore, the respondents disclosed that DA was the most horrible&nbsp; trypanocidal drug in showing treatment failures despite high preference by cattle owners. It was also noted that treatment frequency was higher<br>in tsetse suppression areas than non-suppression areas regardless of vector suppression campaign. In conclusion, higher dependency of cattle&nbsp; owners on trypanocidal drugs, limited trypanocidal drug availability in the veterinary pharmaceutical market, frequent trypanocidal drug usage and injection by unskilled herdsmen and owners report on trypanocidal drug treatment failures may point out the issue of trypanocidal drug resistance in the area. Therefore, awareness creation to livestock owners on the effect of misuse of trypanocidal drugs and safe trypanocidal drug usage policy should be put into effect to uphold the effectiveness of currently available trypanocidal drugs.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Trypanosomosis; Trypanocidal Drugs; Tsetse suppression; South Omo Zone; Ethiopia </p> 2020-11-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Fore-Stomach Foreign Bodies: prevalence, associated risk factors and types affecting cattle slaughtered at Gondar ELFORA abattoir, northwest Ethiopia 2020-11-10T08:42:04+00:00 Amare Bihon Teketaye Bayeleyegn Ayalew Assefa Yimer Muktar <p>In Ethiopia, recurrent drought and feed shortage coupling with high level of environmental pollution predispose the animals to foreign body&nbsp; ingestion. A cross-sectional study with systematic random sampling approach was employed from November 2018 to April, 2019 with the objectives of estimating the prevalence; identify associated risk factors and to categorize the types of foreign body in cattle slaughtered at Gondar ELFORA Abattoir. Ante-mortem and postmortem examinations were used to collect the data. From the total of 384 animals examined, the overall prevalence of foreign body was 83(21.61%). Adult and old animals were 4.33 (95% CI=0.98, 19.00, p=0.052) and 4.54 (95% CI=1.03, 19.96, p=0.045) times more likely to have a chance of getting foreign body than young animals by keeping another factors constant, respectively. However, the difference is not statistically significant for adult cattle. Moreover, poor and medium body conditioned animals were 2.19 (95% CI=1.04, 4.56, p=0.037) and 1.51 (95% CI=0.72, 3.13, p=0.273) times more likely to acquire foreign bodies than good body conditioned animals by keeping another factors constant. In the positive cases (N=83), 41(49.40%), 34(40.96%), 8(9.64%) and 0(0%) of the foreign bodies were found in the rumen, reticulum, both rumen and reticulum, and omasum, respectively. Majority of foreign bodies identified (79.51%) were non-metallic in nature, including clothes, plastics, rope,&nbsp; sand and stone. Designing and implementation of appropriate solid waste disposal and management practices are strongly recommended to reduce the risk of ingestion of indigestible foreign bodies.</p> <p><strong>Keyword</strong>: Abattoir; Cattle; Foreign body; Fore stomach; Prevalence </p> 2020-11-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of irradiated <i>Salmonella</i> Gallinarum against homologous challenge infection in Bovans brown chickens 2020-11-10T09:51:43+00:00 Solomon Lulie Haile Alemayehu Anwar Nuru Takele Abayneh Tadesse Eguale <p>Fowl typhoid is a systemic poultry disease caused by <em>Salmonella</em> Gallinarum (SG). It is responsible for significant economic loss, due to its severe&nbsp; morbidity and mortality. An irradiated vaccine is one of the possible alternatives to prevent and control fowl typhoid. This study aimed to evaluate the safety, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy of irradiated SG using a randomized control trial in chicken. A field strain of SG was exposed to different doses of gamma irradiation to determine its effect on the viability of SG. Safety and immunogenicity were assessed by administering irradiated SG orally to 3 groups (5 each) of 5 weeks old Bovans brown chickens at 2400, 2500, and 2600 gray (Gy). The protective efficacy of 108colony forming units (CFU) of SG irradiated at 2400 Gy administered orally and subcutaneously was then evaluated using homologous challenge infection and compared with SG 9R commercial vaccine using 40, 5-week old Bovans brown chickens where the chickens were randomly assigned to 4 groups. Chickens in Group 1were exposed to 108 CFU of irradiated SG orally; Group 2 to the same dose subcutaneously; Group 3 to SG 9R strain commercial vaccine subcutaneously, Group 4 to phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) orally. Data related to survival, antibody response, and pathological lesions were recorded. Mann-Whitney U-test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and Fisher’s exact tests were used to examine for statistical&nbsp; significance. Irradiation at 2600 Gy caused complete inactivation of SG whereas SG exposed to 2400 Gy showed better immunogenicity and was safe for chickens. Antibody response in a group of chickens vaccinated with irradiated SG administered subcutaneously (SC) was significantly higher than&nbsp; those vaccinated with the SG 9R vaccine on day 7 (p=0.003) and day 14 (p=0.002) post-immunization. Comparative evaluation of the protective efficacy based on the mortality rate of chickens after challenge showed that 2400 Gy irradiated SG vaccine administered SC and SG 9R vaccine-induced equal protection of 50% while the irradiated vaccine administered orally protected only 10% of chickens against homologous challenge infection. SG was not isolated from the liver, spleen, and feces of chickens that survived challenge infection until the end of the experiment. Irradiated SG administered SC is shown to be a promising vaccine against fowl typhoid. Further studies using a large sample size involving tuning of irradiation dose to improve immunogenicity and use of booster vaccination are recommended.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Chicken; Fowl typhoid; Gamma irradiation; <em>Salmonella</em> Gallinarum; Vaccine </p> 2020-11-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Unilateral testicular degeneration in dogs: Effects on spermatozoal characteristics, testis and cauda epididymis 2020-11-10T10:06:05+00:00 Chike Fidelis Oguejiofor Kenneth Orji Anya Nnaemeka Kingsley Ogbanya <p>Testicular degeneration is an important cause of poor fertility in dogs, but there is little knowledge on its effects on spermatozoa in affected dogs. The study investigated the specific effects of unilateral testicular degeneration (UTD) on spermatozoal characteristics in the testis and epididymis. Ten sexually mature Nigerian indigenous breed of dogs, comprising 5 normal dogs and 5 dogs with UTD were used for the study. The testis and epididymis were removed via orchidectomy for morphological and histopathological evaluation. Sperm in the testis and cauda epididymis were analysed. The samples were grouped into four as N1 (normal right testis), N2 (normal left testis), ND (non-degenerated testis in UTD dogs), and D (degenerated testis in UTD dogs). Data were analysed using one-way ANOVA. There were significant decreases (p&lt;0.001) in testes weight, length, width and volume, and the gonado-somatic index in the D testes compared to the contralateral ND and the N groups. The D group also had significantly lowered epididymal sperm total and progressive motility, viability and concentration (p&lt;0.001), and a decreased testicular sperm&nbsp; concentration (p&lt;0.01). Moreover, there was a decreased percentage (p&lt;0.001) of morphologically normal sperm, with increased prevalence of&nbsp; sperm abnormalities in the D group compared to the other groups. In comparison with the N groups, the ND group had a significantly lowered (p&lt;0.05) epididymal sperm progressive motility, with increased percentage (p&lt;0.01) of sperm with proximal cytoplasmic droplets and looped tails. The findings demonstrated that UTD in dogs adversely affected spermatozoa in the testis and cauda epididymis. There was also evidence of compromised spermatozoa in the epididymis contralateral to the degenerated testis.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Canine; Epididymis; Spermatozoa; Testicular atrophy; Testicular degeneration</p> 2020-11-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c)