Ethiopian Veterinary Journal <p>The <em>Ethiopian Veterinary Journal</em> (Ethiop. Vet. J.) is a multidisciplinary peer-reviewed journal intended to promote animal health and production of national and regional/international importance. The journal publishes review articles, original research articles, short communication as well as technical notes in English. Under special circumstances, articles in Amharic may be considered for publication.<strong></strong></p> Ethiopian Veterinary Association en-US Ethiopian Veterinary Journal 1683-6324 Copyright is owned by the Ethiopian Veterinary Association Major reproductive disorders and seroprevalence of brucellosis in dairy cows of Kembata-Tembaro zone, Southern Ethiopia. <p>A cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2016 to May 2017 in Kembata-Tembaro Zone, Ethiopia to estimate the prevalence of major reproductive disorders and brucellosis in dairy cattle. A total of 733 dairy cows were selected from Kedida-Gambella and Damboya districts by a systematic random sampling technique. Clinical examination for reproductive disorders (n=733 cows) was carried out to investigate reproductive problems. From each cow, about 10 ml blood sample was collected and serum separated. Serum samples were screened for <em>Brucella</em> antibody by Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT) and positive samples were further tested by Complement Fixation Test (CFT). Results showed that the overall seroprevalence of brucellosis using RBPT and CFT were 2.0% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.15 – 3.35%) and 0.8% (95% CL 0.2-1.5%)., respectively. About 61% of the study cows had exhibited one or more of the reproductive disorders. The major reproductive disorders identified during this study were anoestrus (34.2%), repeat breeding (19.8%), dystocia (12.4%), retained placenta (8.5%), metritis (4.8%), abortion (3.8%), vaginal prolapse (1.8%) and stillbirth (0.9%). Reproductive disorders were significantly associated with the management system, body condition, watering point, and age of the animals (p&lt; 0.05). Accordingly, the disorders were more frequent in the extensive management system, in cows with poor body conditions, and among those using communal watering points. The problems of reproductive disorders were found to increase with age, especially in cows older than eight years of age. The overall seroprevalence of brucellosis reflects a low level of Brucella infection in the study area. In general, reproductive disorders are widely prevalent in dairy cows of the study area and undoubtedly hinder the production performances of dairy farms. Thus, there is a need for further study on the causes of clinical reproductive disorders in the study areas.</p> Mulatu Mitiku Bekele Megersa Desie Sheferaw Copyright (c) 2022-04-29 2022-04-29 26 1 1 17 10.4314/evj.v26i1.1 Prevalence of epizootic lymphangitis and its associated risk factors in cart mules in Bahir Dar city, North Western Ethiopia <p>Epizootic lymphangitis (EL) is one of the most important diseases of equines in Ethiopia, causing a significant economic loss in cart-horse and mule producers. A cross-sectional study was carried out between April and June 2017 in Bahir Dar city to estimate the prevalence of epizootic lymphangitis (EL) and its associated risk factors. Study locations and cart mule owners were selected purposively based on the availability of cart mules. Whereas cart mules were sampled using a simple random sampling technique by a lottery system. A total of 384 cart mules were considered for this study. Both clinical and microbiological examinations were employed to identify EL in-cart mules. Among 384 sampled cart mules, which were subjected to clinical and microbiological examination, 88 (22.9%, 95% CI= [18.7, 22.1]) were positive for EL. Cutaneous form 69 (78.4%, 95% CI= [69.8, 87.0]) was the commonest form of the disease followed by mixed infection 10 (11.4%, 95%CI= [4.7,17.9]), ocular 6 (6.8%, 95% CI= [1.5,12.1]) and pulmonary 3 (3.4%, 95% CI= [0.4, 7.2]). Most EL lesions were observed on forelimbs 24 (27.3%, 95% CI= [17.9, 36.5]), followed by chest and forelimb 18 (20.5%, 95% CI= [12.0, 28.9]), hind limbs 16 (18.2%, 95% CI=[10.1, 26.2]), chest 11 (12.5%, 95% CI= [5.6, 19.4]), and head and forelimbs 8 (9%, 95% CI= [3.1,15.1]). The association between location, sex, and body condition score with the occurrence of EL was examined using the chi-square test. However, none of the examined risk factors considered were significantly associated with EL (p&gt;0.05). In conclusion, a higher prevalence of EL was recorded in Bahir Dar city which could substantially affect the health, productivity, and performance of cart mules. Further extensive mycological and epidemiological research on EL is suggested to develop evidence-based EL control and prevention measures in cart mules.</p> Muluye Fetene Sileshi Aregahagnb Yeshwas Ferede Copyright (c) 2022-04-29 2022-04-29 26 1 18 29 10.4314/evj.v26i1.2 Sero-epidemiology of Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia in the Bench-Maji Zone, southwest Ethiopia <p>Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a highly contagious respiratory disease in cattle that affects close to 30 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. In Ethiopia, it is one of the major diseases causing reduced cattle productivity and lower performance, particularly in the pastoral areas, and poses a threat to the livestock export market. A cross-sectional study aimed at estimating the seroprevalence and assessing the associated risk factors of CBPP was conducted between December 2018 and May 2019. For this purpose, a pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire survey and a serological analysis of serum samples from 715 cattle were carried out in three districts selected from the Bench-Maji Zone. The sera were tested with a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA). Accordingly, a total of 162 (22.7%) cattle were tested seropositive. The seroprevalence was 32.3% in Meanitshasha, 19.2% in South Bench, and 2.8% in the Shey Bench district. The study found that breed, district (agro-ecology), and history of the CBPP outbreak were the risk factors for CBPP seropositivity identified by a generalized linear mixed model. The seroprevalence of CBPP was significantly higher in crossbred cattle (Adjusted Prevalence Ratio (APR) = 4.5; <em>p</em> &lt;0.001), cattle from the Meanitshasha (lowland) district (APR = 13.9; p &lt;0.001), from South Bench (midland) district (APR = 6.9; p = 0.001) and herds with a history of CBPP outbreaks (APR = 1.4; p = 0.009). The seroprevalence found in the present study indicates that CBPP is a common threat to cattle production in the Bench Maji zone. Therefore, all actors involved in the livestock sector should work together to achieve the successful implementation of strategies to control the disease. It is also important to note that a well-coordinated approach should be addressed with an effective vaccination campaign to prevent the further spread of the disease and lower the prevalence of the disease in the area.</p> Wosenyelesh Kebede Rahmeto Abebe Jemere Bekele Harito Copyright (c) 2022-04-29 2022-04-29 26 1 30 48 10.4314/evj.v26i1.3 Prevalence and risk factors associated with bovine tuberculosis in local and crossbred dairy cattle in Debre Berhan milk shed, central Ethiopia <p>Bovine tuberculosis is a chronic and contagious disease of animals and humans with worldwide distribution. A cross-sectional study was employed to estimate the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis and its associated risk factors in dairy cattle found in the Debre Berhan milk shed. The study covered three districts found in the Debre Berhan milk shed for the duration of six months extending from July to December 2018. A single intradermal comparative cervical<br>tuberculin test was used as a screening test of bovine tuberculosis. Face-to-face interview using a structured questionnaire was also employed to collect data on the risk factors associated with bovine tuberculosis. A binary logistic regression statistical model was used for data analysis. The finding showed that the apparent individual animal level prevalence was 17% (106/625; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 14.2-20.2) at ≥ a 4mm cut-off value in 625 heads of dairy cattle tested. The herd prevalence was 16.7% (16/96; 95% CI: 10.1-26) at ≥ a 4mm cut-off value in 96 dairy herds tested. Multivariable logistic regression analysis at ≥ a 4mm cut-off value revealed that dairy cattle in poor body condition (Adjusted Odd ratio [AOR] = 3.7; 95% CI: 1.6-8.4; p = 0.002), large herd size (AOR = 29.5; 95% CI: 5.6-154.1; p = 0.000) and exotic breed (AOR = 3.7; 95% CI: 1.3-10.7; p = 0.018) had 4, 30 and 4 times the odds of tuberculin positivity with statistical significance, respectively compared to their counterparts. The findings in this study complement the works of other authors who conducted bovine tuberculosis studies elsewhere in Ethiopia. In conclusion, the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in dairy cattle of Debre Berhan milk shed<br>was found to be moderately high both at animal and herd levels. Moreover, poor body condition, herd size, and breed were important predictors of tuberculin test positivity. A further in-depth study on the prevalence and associated risk factors using a larger sample size are recommended.</p> Kassa Demissie Gezahegne Mamo Musse Girma Balako Gumi Takele Abayneh Gobena Ameni Copyright (c) 2022-04-29 2022-04-29 26 1 49 65 10.4314/evj.v26i1.4 Occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility of <i>Salmonella</i> in feces and milk samples of lactating dairy cows in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia <p><em>Salmonella</em> is one of the major causes of foodborne diseases that remained important public health concerns worldwide. Antimicrobial resistance in <em>Salmonella</em> is also a global concern. Establishing the status of <em>Salmonella</em> in dairy farms and antimicrobial susceptibility of circulating isolates particularly where animals and humans live in close proximity is vital to devise appropriate intervention. A cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2019 to May 2020 to determine the prevalence of <em>Salmonella</em> and antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates among lactating dairy cows in Addis Ababa. A total of 151 fecal and 151 milk samples were collected from lactating dairy cows and cultured for <em>Salmonella</em>. <em>Salmonella</em> isolation and identification was conducted using standard microbiological techniques and further confirmation was carried out using <em>Salmonella</em> genus-specific PCR. An antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion technique.<em> Salmonella</em> was isolated from 4 fecal samples (4/151) (2.7%) whereas none of the 151 milk samples were positive for <em>Salmonella</em>. One isolate was multidrugresistant (MDR) to seven antimicrobials namely: ampicillin, amoxicillin, ceftriaxone, cephalothin, tetracycline, and sufamethoxazole+ trimethoprim and&nbsp; &nbsp; two isolates were resistant to either tetracycline or sulfisoxazole. All <em>Salmonella</em> isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, amikacin, chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, and gentamicin. In conclusion, a low prevalence of <em>Salmonella</em> among lactating dairy cattle was recorded in this study and it was not detected in milk samples. However, the observed resistance to commonly used antimicrobials particularly third-generation cephalosporin, ceftriaxone in one of the isolates pose a public health concern. Thus, appropriate measures should be instituted to protect the public and animals from infection with multidrug-resistant strains of <em>Salmonella.</em></p> Habtamu Mekonnen Haile Alemayehu Musse Girma Tadesse Eguale Copyright (c) 2022-04-29 2022-04-29 26 1 66 81 10.4314/evj.v26i1.5 Status of small ruminant fasciolosis and diagnostic test evaluation at Haramaya town municipal abattoir, East Harrarghe Zone, Ethiopia <p>A cross-sectional study to estimate the prevalence of fasciolosis and associated risk factors at Haramaya Municipal Abattoir was conducted from November 2017 to April 2018. Moreover, the direct financial loss due to liver condemnation<br>and evaluation of the sensitivity of direct sedimentation technique for detection of <em>Fasciola</em> eggs were performed. A total of 384 small ruminants comprising of 235 sheep and 149 goats were subjected to coprological and postmortem examination. An overall prevalence of 12.8% was found. Forty-four animals were positive for eggs of <em>Fasciola</em> with an overall prevalence of 11.5%. However, it was 14.1% (54/384) in the examination of the same animals exposed to postmortem examinations of fluke-infected livers. The prevalence of fasciolosis based on body condition score was 62.2%, 12.4%, and 4.1% in that order, in poor, medium, and good body condition groups and the difference was statistically significant (p&lt;0.05). Other factors considered like, the monthly prevalence, species, age, and sex of the animals did not show significant differences (p&gt;0.05). The prevalence of fasciolosis was highest in Haramaya (19.0%)<br>followed by Awaday (14.9%), Kersa (10.3%), Midhaga (8.1%), and the lowest prevalence was observed in Babile (5.8%), however, the difference in prevalence across the origin of the animals was not significant (p &gt; 0.05). <em>F. hepatica </em>was a dominant 63.0 % (34/54) species identified followed by <em>F. gigantica</em> 20.4% (11/54) and 5.6% (3/54) and 11.1% (6/54) were due to mixed and immature flukes, respectively. Taking liver examination as the gold standard for diagnosis<br>of fasciolosis, the sensitivity of the direct sedimentation technique was found to be 81.5% and the specificity 100% with almost perfect agreement (k =0.89) between the two methods. The direct financial loss due to liver condemnation was estimated to be 46,318.5 (965 USD) Ethiopian birr per annum. In conclusion,<em> Fasciola</em> spp are important parasites affecting small ruminants in the study area. Control strategies targeted to the parasite and the intermediate hosts (snail) with particular emphasis on mature poorly conditioned<br>animals is recommended.</p> Abebayehu Tadesse Juhar Usman Copyright (c) 2022-04-29 2022-04-29 26 1 82 104 10.4314/evj.v26i1.6 Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of the foot and mouth disease outbreaks in cattle in central Ethiopia <p>Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is an acute highly contagious viral disease of all cloven-hoofed animals that causes significant economic problems in Ethiopia. The objectives of this study were to assess the morbidity and clinical features of FMD in sick cattle and identify causal serotypes of FMD outbreaks in central Ethiopia. Outbreaks of FMD were investigated in a total of 150 herds of cattle from January 2021 to April 2021. Seven epithelial tissue and 23 oral swab samples were collected and subjected to a real-time polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) and Sandwich Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) for detection and serotyping of FMD virus, respectively. A total of 150 herds of cattle were examined, of which 114 (76%) herds of cattle were clinically affected with FMD. In this study, 75.9% animal-level morbidity was recorded. Exotic breeds and adult cattle were more affected by Foot and Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV) with morbidity of 100% and 77.4%, respectively. The clinical features in sick cattle showed that profuse salivation was the most frequently observed clinical sign (40%) followed by oral cavity vesicle formation (30%), and interdigital space lesion (15%). Out of 30 samples subjected to rRT-PCR and ELISA test, 28 (93.33%) and 27 (90%) samples were found positive, respectively. In this study, three types of FMD serotypes were detected in which SAT-2 (n = 13) was the predominant serotype followed by serotype O (n = 9), and serotype A (n = 5). The current study revealed that FMD serotype SAT-2 was highly responsible for the occurrence of FMD outbreaks in central Ethiopia. Although the FMD vaccine produced in Ethiopia contains all the identified serotypes, detailed studies on topotypes identification have to be performed to provide full protection.</p> Zelalem Mohammed Abde Aliy Yasmin Jibril Haileleul Negussie Copyright (c) 2022-04-29 2022-04-29 26 1 105 121 10.4314/evj.v26i1.7 Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of <i>Escherichia coli</i> O157:H7 in raw cow’s milk in Gojo and Shukute towns, central Ethiopia <p><em>Escherichia coli</em> O157:H7 is one of the most important emerging foodborne pathogens and cause life-threatening disease condition in consumers worldwide. A cross-sectional study was carried out from February 2020 to August 2020 in Gojo and Shukute towns, Jeldu district, West Shewa Zone, Oromia region, Ethiopia to isolate and identify<em> E. coli</em> O157:H7 from raw cow’s milk samples and determine antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates. A total of 262 milk samples (127 from Gojo and 135 from Shukute towns) were collected from dairy cows (126 from udder, 115 from milking bucket) and 21 from collection tanks and examined bacteriologically. The isolates were tested with a series of biochemical tests followed by a latex agglutination test for identification and confirmation of <em>E. coli</em> O157:H7. The antimicrobial susceptibility profile of the isolated <em>E. coli </em>O157:H7 was performed using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. The study revealed 1.5% (95% Confidence interval [CI]: 0.4–3.8%) of the collected raw milk was contaminated with E. coli O157:H7. The isolates showed 100% susceptibility to azithromycin, norfloxacin, nitrofurantoin, amikacin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. In contrast, the isolates showed 75% and 100% resistance to ampicillin and cefotaxime, respectively. In conclusion, the consumption of raw milk may constitute a public health hazard due to contamination with <em>E. coli</em> O157:H7. Farmers and farmworkers should be trained on milk hygiene and proper milk handling practices.</p> Mulata Bekele Gudisa Manyazewal Anberber Endrias Zewdu Gebremedhin Lencho Megersa Marami Copyright (c) 2022-04-29 2022-04-29 26 1 122 135 10.4314/evj.v26i1.8 Short communication : Isolation and identification of <i>Clostridium tetani</i> from tetanus suspected equine and their environment in selected sites of central Ethiopia <p>A cross-sectional study was carried out from November 2016 to May 2017 to isolate and identify <em>Clostridium tetani</em>. A total of 71 samples (equine deep wound swabs, feces, soil from the feces contaminated environment) were collected. Isolation of <em>Clostridium tetani</em> was carried out using an anaerobic <em>Viande et Foie</em> (VF) medium. Out of the 71 samples cultured on VF medium, 27 (38%) of them were grown and all were confirmed to be <em>Clostridium tetani</em> using spore staining and biochemical tests. Study site and sample type had a statistically significant association (p&lt;0.05) with <em>C. tetani</em> isolation in which higher occurrences were from the Bishoftu area, environmental, and feces samples. The present study showed the widespread occurrence of tetanus in the equine population inquiring about the need for designing feasible control strategies.</p> Gezahegne Mamo Eskendir Kedir Hika Waktole Fufa Abunna Debebe Ashenafi Asmelash Tassew Muluken Tekle Gobena Ameni Copyright (c) 2022-04-30 2022-04-30 26 1 136 146 10.4314/evj.v26i1.9