Gender imbalances attributed to the post-provisioning model (ppm) on curriculum implementation in South Africa
The aim of this paper is to explore gender imbalances attributed to the Post-Provisioning Model (PPM) on curriculum implementation in South Africa. Research was conducted at secondary schools in the King Cetshwayo district of KwaZulu-Natal province in South Africa. The Department of Basic Education in South Africa introduced PPM in order to deal with curriculum implementation issues. Positivism paradigm underpins this research. In this regard, quantitative data from principals of secondary schools was gathered. The literature findings revealed that school principals experience gender imbalances, poor specialisation and learner performance, overcrowding, high duty load, loss on instructional time, mismatch of educator qualifications, poor promotion of new learning areas, and lack of qualified educators in special needs education. Empirical findings of this research also confirmed such imbalances and other factors of PPM on curriculum implementation. Quality of teaching and learning has been compromised due to PPM in schools. The paper is concluded by the submissions that there is a need to address gender imbalances created by PPM, and to revise or rethink PPM in order to rectify the unjust practices to previously disadvantaged secondary schools. Moreover, there is a need to invest on human resources development and educational infrastructure in order to reduce learner-educator ratios.
Key words: curriculum, equitable distribution, human resources allocation, social justice