Cultural Saga: Does Pakhtun Culture Impede Women Employment?
AbstractAim of this research article embodies the measurement of attitude of teaching faculty in Peshawar University to assess cultural impediments with reference to women employment. A sample size of 210 respondents (university male teachers with different cadres) was randomly selected through proportional allocation basis. Chi square (χ2) and Kendall‘s tau-b statistics were used to determine the level of association and strength and direction of relationship. Majority of the respondents i.e. 199(94.8%) opined that illiteracy serves as barrier to women employment in Pakhtun society, family income is controlled by male in Pakhtun culture (94.3%), households men mostly decide over the spending of money earned by female (63.3%), female ratio is less as compared to men in Pakhtun society 209(95.5%) and the utilization of savings is usually determined by male members of the family (64.3%). Moreover, at bivariate level a positive (Tb = .166) with significant relationship (P<0.05) was discovered between female ratio is less as compared to men amongst Pakhtun with women employment. Similarly, a positive (Tb = .166) with significant relationship (P<0.05) was discovered between undue religious injunctions serve as barrier to women paid jobs and women employment. Less number of women to men at household composition with fallacies based on poor interpretation of religious injunctions, where women has been misunderstood under the prevalent cultural shadows with little autonomy in society and economy based on strong patriarchal system, was found as major impediments to women participation in job market. Scholarly endeavors are recommended as remedial paths jointly devised by religious and cultural custodians.
Keywords: Women Employment, Cultural Constraints, Pakhtun Cultural Saga, Attitude Measurement, Feminist Perspectives
Gender & Behaviour, 10(2), December 2012