Gender and Behaviour Gender and Behaviour is an interdisciplinary journal dedicated to articles, that reflect psychological and behavioural aspects of gender in general. Gender and Behaviour welcomes scholarly manuscripts from authors all over the world on a wide array of subjects concerning psychological and behavioural aspects of gender in general. Ife Centre for Psychological Studies en-US Gender and Behaviour 1596-9231 Copyright for articles published in this journal is retained by the journal. Zooming in the determinants of sexually transmitted infections amongst students at institution of higher learning in South Africa <p>Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in adolescents and youth present a huge challenge within the healthcare system and continue to be a major global health concern. There is less research on the determinants of STIs in students at institutions of higher learning. From this context, the researchers had the notion to learn more about the factors that contribute to STIs in South African institutions of higher learning. A narrative literature review was employed, and purposive sampling method was used to collect secondary data. Several published student feedback surveys were examined and analysed. This paper highlights that risky sexual behaviours like sexual activity without protection, having multiple sexual partners, alcohol use; incorrect and inconsistent condom use; lack of knowledge about STIs; gender and age factors and healthcare system factors all contribute to high prevalence of STIs at universities. This paper therefore recommends continuous health education campaigns on risky sexual behaviour and condom use, as well as the development of self-esteem and social support networks.</p> Tiisetso Aubrey Chuene Mathibedi Frank Kgarose Copyright (c) 2024 2024-02-17 2024-02-17 21 3 21922 21932 Recommendable strategies for the universities to enhance employee morale <p>Institutions of higher learning in South Africa are experiencing a high employee turnover from quality employees joining other employers. The paper focuses on drawing attention to the management of the universities in South Africa regarding the strategies to be adopted to enhance the morale of employees, which is a topic that is difficult to resolve globally. Each university has its mission statement with its own values and institutional goals to be achieved. The plans are the responsibility of the management to succeed. However, it is for every stakeholder as it cascades from management to departments until it reaches individual employees. Many studies have revealed obstacles that contribute to damaging morale, but there is not much said about the interposition of management in correcting and intervening in those factors. Therefore, the quantitative approach was adopted to collect primary data from 108 employees using a questionnaire, and all data collected were analysed using SPSS 24 and generated into tables. The paper reveals human resource planning, internal and external interventions, and performance management as motivation tools to enhance employee morale in the institution of higher learning. The paper recommends that the university regularly implement team-building meetings, developing employee assistance programs, wellness programs, and training for management to be adopted as strategic tools to enhance employee morale in higher learning institutions. The study supports the institutions’ management for higher learning on strategies to considered to enhance employees' morale. In addition, it further adds value to the literature on solutions to the existing problems faced by the initiations of higher learning.</p> Njabulo Khumalo Copyright (c) 2024 2024-02-17 2024-02-17 21 3 21933 21939 Increasing female visibility in leadership positions by dismantling male hegemony in Zimbabwean State Universities <p>Using a sample of 21 purposively selected participants from 2 State Universities in Zimbabwe in Midlands and Masvingo provinces respectively. The study sought to establish if male hegemony alongside the consequences of contemporary discrimination enhanced lack of gender knowledge in the promotion of female academics to positions of leadership. A qualitative approach was used in line with the interpretivist paradigm. A case study design was adopted to support the data collection techniques. Qualitative data were inductively analysed and consisted of identifying, coding and categorizing patterns found in the data through face-to-face interviews and focus group interviews. Findings reveal that male hegemony and vestiges of contemporary discrimination are still present in universities and continue to subordinate female academics’ critical mass to positions of leadership due to persistence of lack of gender knowledge and micro-politics. As part of educating the university community about gender knowledge, gender related programs, training and workshops had been carried out in collaboration with external and internal gender experts and activists. Results further illuminate that the promotion of gender knowledge and tackling male hegemonic tendencies and consequences of contemporary discrimination are not optional accessories but sine-quo-non for addressing the dearth of female leadership in universities. The study recommends that as a benchmark to promoting visibility of females in leadership positions gender policies be implemented by involving policy implementers and policy makers starting from the policy formulation process. Gender audits remain vital as they will provide a context to re-envision universities as spaces that are more inclusive and gender just. Formalized monitoring and evaluation should be carried out regularly using a monitoring and evaluation framework this will promote female visibility and a move towards gender equality. Additionally, universities should mainstream gender into their strategic plans towards promoting and sustaining gender equality and equity. As a way of addressing gender imbalances in decision making processes, gender awareness-raising and capacity-building programmes should be ongoing and regularly reviewed in order to determine their effectiveness in curbing ideals of male hegemony in university spaces.</p> Bellita Banda Chitsamatanga Copyright (c) 2024 2024-02-17 2024-02-17 21 3 21940 21951 Gender gap in financial inclusion: an empirical analysis in Nigeria context <p>This study identifies the gender gap in financial inclusion precisely of business owners in Southwest Nigeria. The Study used questionnaire-based survey and collected the data responses from 409 business owners in Southwest region of the country. Descriptive statistic was used to identify and compare gender gap in financial inclusion among business owners. This study reveals that more male respondents use formal financial services than female respondents with a gender gap of 11.3%. However, the reverse is the case for informal financial services, more female business owners use informal financial services than their male counterparts. There is also a wide gender gap (13.1%) in accessing credit or bank loans from formal financial institutions. Out of those that are financially excluded in the study sample, females have the larger percentage. Study recommends that the stakeholders (Government, Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) and other financial institutions) need to develop appropriate products and services within the scope and reach of female business owners. Formal financial services providers should influence female business owners at all levels to sensitise and educate them on the need to be formally included.</p> Oke Dorcas Funmilola Copyright (c) 2024 2024-02-17 2024-02-17 21 3 21952 21960 A scoping review on covid-19 and gender-based violence: A child marriage-based study in Africa <p>Researchers have documented the disastrous consequences of trying to contain COVID-19, where the socioeconomic situations of many economies, institutions like industries, schools, universities, and other service providers were seriously affected. Even cases of gender-based violence including child marriages increased. However, consolidated information on gender-based violence targeted toward women and girls during the pandemic in Africa is not available. The purpose of this paper is to examine studies from 2020 to 2022 to understand how the COVID-19 pandemic influenced gender-based violence in Africa. The study aims to provide valuable insight for guiding policy makers and practitioners during future pandemics. A scoping review was conducted to understand how the COVID-19 pandemic increased gender-based violence and child marriage. We searched Google Scholar, JSTOR, ProQuest, and Online newspapers, blogs, and podcasts focusing on COVID-19, gender-based violence, and child marriages in Africa. The results revealed that gender-based violence and child marriage increased during COVID-19. Women and girls bore the brunt of the social and economic consequences of the pandemic with reported high levels of intimate partner violence. Further findings indicated that increased poverty, school closures, and weakened law enforcement were critical factors that promoted child marriages during COVID-19. The paper offers valuable insights, which could be a useful reference for future pandemic measures in Africa. It revealed key factors contributing to child marriage during COVID-19 and by extension related future pandemics. Policy makers and practitioners will also benefit from the study findings. As findings will inform the development of policies that protect and focus on women and girls against violation of their rights and ill treatment during and after pandemics. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first to provide a scoping review on gender-based violence in the form of child marriage after COVID-19 in Africa.</p> T Mabemba UP Ejoke HN Ntombela ED Du Plessis Copyright (c) 2024 2024-02-17 2024-02-17 21 3 21961 21974 Bonferroni test of religious affiliation and fertility behaviour among young women in Nigeria: Evidence from 2013 NDHS survey <p>Despite that numbers of sub - Saharan African countries are witnessing fertility reduction, Nigeria is witnessing fertility increase. One of the factors attributed to this is variations in socio-demographic characteristics of which religious affiliation was enlisted. Different religious affiliation in Nigeria has a way of indoctrinating members into forcefully accepting the less effective method of contraception through imposition, which translated into more births and which could hamper the country’s population policy of limiting the number of children to four per couple. This study therefore examined the relationship between religious affiliation and fertility behaviour of young women in Nigeria using 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (DHS). Data was analysed at univariate (frequency distributions), bivariate (ANOVA and Bonferroni test) to examine the relationship between religious Affiliation and Fertility behaviour and multivariate levels (Poisson logistic regression). Findings revealed that the women with more than three children were more among Islamic religious group than other religious groups. The findings revealed and concluded that there is significant relationship between religious affiliation and fertility behaviour after controlling for other covariates (p&lt;0.005). The study thereby recommend campaign among religious leaders, faithfuls against high fertility among young women in the country.</p> Shittu Babatunde Sarafa Odusina Emmanuel Kolawole Oladejo Abdul-Ganiy Awoleye Oladayo Gabriel Copyright (c) 2024 2024-02-17 2024-02-17 21 3 21975 21981 Microinsurance, gender disparity and the performance of SMEs in the agriculture sector in Nigeria <p><strong>The second author was removed from the original published article. </strong></p> <p>Mitigating the possible consequences of negative occurrence is managed differently across male and female owned businesses. This is due to their perception of risk and the accessibility of resources. However, since risk management comes at a cost to the insured, the novelty of micro insurance in the Nigerian business environment avails small businesses the opportunity to be insured. This study therefore examined the influence of micro insurance access on the performance of selected male and female owned SMEs in the agriculture sector using multi-stage sampling technique. A total of two hundred and fifty (250) copies of questionnaire were administered equally to agriculture product exporters but only two hundred and twenty-nine (229) copies were useable for this study representing 91.6% response rate. The stated hypotheses were tested using regression analysis at 0.05 level of significance. The findings revealed that the business efficiency of female owned SMEs were more significantly influenced by their accessibility of micro insurance, while the customer satisfaction and employee retention of male owned SMEs were more influenced by their accessibility of micro insurance when compare with their counterparts in the agriculture sector. It is however recommended that the responsibilities of micro insurance firms should go beyond insuring the SMEs, rather they can act as business and managerial advisors to the SMEs in order to ensure sustainability of both parties. However, understanding this disparity is critical for policy makers in the pursuit of meeting up with SDG 5 on gender equality and empowerment.</p> Akinseye Olowu Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-10 2024-06-10 21 3 21982 21993 Cyberbullying knowledge and intervention strategies: perspectives of educators in a Johannesburg secondary school, South Africa <p>Many educational institutions are using technology-enhanced learning especially after COVID-19. Studies have shown that increased access to technological tools is a precursor to incidents of cyberbullying. Using Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory, the study explored educators’ knowledge and intervention strategies regarding cyberbullying in a secondary school located in Johannesburg, South Africa. A qualitative descriptive research design was used. A sample of eight educators working in the school were recruited using a purposive sampling technique. Data were collected using one-on-one interviews. Thematic analysis method was used to analyse the data. Findings revealed that the educators had sufficient knowledge of cyberbullying and how it affected learners. The study further revealed that the school had put in place interventions to prevent and manage cases of cyberbullying amongst learners, which included the use of grade controllers to monitor and report cases of cyberbullying to educators. However, interventions were found to be ineffective due to parental disengagement and learners not reporting cases of cyberbullying to the educators. Recommendations for the prevention and management of cyberbullying cases and future research are provided.</p> Talya Blumenfeld Hlologelo Malatji Roshini Pillay Copyright (c) 2024 2024-02-17 2024-02-17 21 3 21994 22003 Bridging the female gender’s socio-political and economic gaps in the rural areas of Nigeria through indigenous communication system <p>Studies have long established that women are the more oppressed and subjected gender in Nigeria. Women daily face issues of structural sexual harassment, rape, domestic violence, economic and political inequality in Nigerian societies. This paper investigated bridging the female gender’s socio-political and economic gaps in the rural areas through indigenous communication system. Many factors account for why women, especially the ones in the rural areas suffer socio-political and economic inequality. Some of these issues border on marital problems, patriarchic issues, economic and financial problems and issues of violence against women as well as failure of media to proportionally report issues that concern women, especially those in the rural areas. Spiral of Silence Theory was adopted to explain this research paper. The theory posits that majority keeps silent in the face of overwhelming views expressed by the minority in order not to be seen as dissidents. However, the silent minority is actually the silent majority. The theory is relevant to this study because women are actually the silent majority, but keep silent because of many cultural issues that have been placed on women’s march to social justice and economic and political equality. The study, however, recommended that it is imperative for the indigenous communication media to shoulder the responsibility of mobilizing, enlightening, educating and informing the rural women of political activities in their communities, state and nation at large. When indigenous communication media shoulder the responsibilities of education and enlightenment, the widening economic and socio-political gaps among women in the rural areas are filled. Besides, education, enlightenment campaigns, mobilization and information, as responsibilities of indigenous communication media, empower women in the rural areas of Nigeria to become self-aware and weaponize their resolve to fight for social justice and economic and political equalities. Each local government in Nigeria should create an office space for a Chief Traditional Newsperson of their communities to strengthen indigenous communication system in Nigeria. to bring government actions, programmes, policies, and activities closer to women in the rural areas of Nigeria.</p> James Adebayo John Copyright (c) 2024 2024-02-17 2024-02-17 21 3 22004 22011 Missus versus mistress: an analysis of the representation of the institution of polygamy in sue Nyathi’s <i>The Polygamist</i> <p>This paper interrogates representations of the institution of polygamy and the negative impact it has on African women’s identities, economic status, psychological wellbeing as well as health in Sue Nyathi’s novel The Polygamist. The paper does not set out to condemn polygamy, but instead focuses on exploring the negative effects associated with this practice as they are represented in the selected novel under discussion. My argument in that Nyathi’s novel reveals that women are frequently pressurized into polygamous marriages due to poverty, hence there is a direct relationship between the institution and levels of economic prosperity. However, these economically dependent women experience many negative outcomes in their polygamous marriages, such as physical and sexual abuse, co-wife rivalry and unequal distribution of resources. These issues are not only represented in the novel, but also reflect current realities in Zimbabwe. Using theoretical insights from gender studies and methods of textual analysis focusing on the first-person narrative style, characterization and diction in Nyathi’s text, I explore the paternalistic dominance of the patriarch in the novel, as well as the gendered violence and psychological effects to which the female characters are subjected to. However, Nyathi, as an African feminist writer, also employs the literary technique of imaginative reconstruction to counter-hegemonically represent the text’s female characters as women who are able to redefine and reassert their identities, thereby challenging gender-based dominance and the cultural valorization of patriarchy and polygamy. This counter-hegemonic presentation of the female characters is significant, as it highlights the notion that women have the power to defy patriarchal oppression, both physical and psychological. Furthermore, it offers a study of the negative effects of polygamy on women’s mental health, and foregrounds the need for protective measures against this aspect of the practice.</p> Kimméra Pillay Copyright (c) 2024 2024-02-17 2024-02-17 21 3 22012 22019 Cultural victimization of young mothers through the Gokhonya rituals of the Vhavenda culture in the Limpopo Province of South Africa <p>Most young women in Vhavenda communities have, in the last decades, faced tremendous pressure to undergo specific physio-healing practices to remove Gokhonya or Goni from their vaginas to prevent the death of newborn children and infertility in women. The assumption from the Vhavenda cosmology is that, a red spot behind the head of a newborn signals Gokhonya's presence. Failure to remove Gokhonya, risks a premature death of the child. In this study, the socio-psychological impact of this practice on young women in the Vhavenda communities is explored using 10 purposively selected young women in the village in the Limpopo Province of South Africa and drawing from Erickson's Psychosocial theory. The study analyses how the rituals are administered in the Vhavenda communities, the traditional beliefs behind the rituals and the psychosocial impact of such rituals on their conceptualisation of "motherhood." The results from the study found that women have strong beliefs in the practices, and they continue to do it as they believe that without the removal of Gokhonya they risk losing their children and their fertility. The study found that this Gokhonya is believed to be a small whitish growth, thou different in colour depending on responses that grow either in the vagina or the anus. Old women or traditional healers uses their hands cut out the vagina skin with a razor for blood to come out and insert other healing materials like coffee and sugar to remove out the Gokhonya. The contradiction is that this is not common in other cultures, and in western medicine, it is something that warrants no attention. The question then remains whether Gokhonya is a myth or a reality.</p> Pelewe Mphephu Rendani Tshifhumulo Copyright (c) 2024 2024-02-17 2024-02-17 21 3 22020 22028 Exploring knowledge, uptake, and strategic interventions for pre-exposure prophylaxis in south African rural communities: A case of Ga-Makushane Village, Phalaborwa, South Africa <p>Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) has been proven effective in preventing the transmission of HIV among high-risk individuals. However, in South African rural areas, the awareness and uptake of PrEP remain relatively low. This study aims to explore intervention strategies to strengthen the awareness and uptake of PrEP in these underserved communities. This study adopted a quantitative research design. The study used both primary and secondary data collection techniques. Both open-ended online questionnaires and a literature review were employed. The study was conducted in Ga-Makushane village, Phalaborwa, South Africa, with a sample size of thirty (n=30) participants selected using probability sampling. The empirical result shows that a minority of 33% (n=10) of participants reported they have knowledge and awareness of PrEP, while the majority, 67% (n=20) have no knowledge and awareness. In Ga-Makhushane Village, the survey findings revealed that there is no availability and accessibility of PrEP. This conclusion is supported by 63.3% (n=19) of the participants. Based on the findings above, a set of targeted intervention strategies was proposed, including community education and sensitization campaigns, training programs for healthcare providers, peer support networks, mobile clinics, and tailored messaging through culturally appropriate communication channels. These strategies aimed to address the unique socio-cultural and geographical contexts of rural areas and empower individuals with accurate information and access to PrEP services. The study concluded by offering recommendations and intervention strategies to improve the awareness and uptake of PrEP in South African rural areas.</p> Treasure Malatjie John Mamokhere Copyright (c) 2024 2024-02-17 2024-02-17 21 3 22029 22038 Gender factor and entrepreneurial orientation among the final year students of tertiary institutions in Ondo Metropolis <p>Gender factors in entrepreneurial orientation encompass various dimensions, including societal, economic, and cultural aspects. The study explores the relationship between gender factors and entrepreneurial orientation among the final-year student of tertiary institutions in Ondo metropolis. A survey research design was used. The study population comprises of 3,880 final-year students offers entrepreneurship course from the tertiary institutions in Ondo metropolis. A sample of 357 students was randomly selected using simple random sampling techniques. The study exploited a structured and validated questionnaire and achieves a return rate of 291(81.51%). The Cronbach alpha reliability test was done and confirmed the reliability of the instrument with a coefficient of 0.863. Descriptive analysis and structural equation model (SEM) statistics were employed to test the research hypotheses. The findings revealed a significant influence of gender factors on entrepreneurial orientation among final-year students in tertiary institutions in Ondo metropolis. The structural equation model substantiates the direct effect relationship of the hypotheses, demonstrating that gender factors positively and significantly influence entrepreneurial orientation (β1 = 0.260; β = 0.080; β = 0.287 at p &lt; 0.05). The study therefore recommends that effective entrepreneurship education programs should be design for final year students. Also, final-year students of tertiary institutions need to acquire the desired entrepreneurial skills. Thus, the government and other stakeholders are encouraged to provide support through entrepreneurial training, financial inclusion, and mentorship programmes to bridge the gaps in entrepreneurial mindset among the students.</p> A. O. Ahmodu F. O. Aribaba M. O. Akinrinlola F. B. Adeniyi O. R. Ogunniyi Copyright (c) 2024 2024-02-17 2024-02-17 21 3 22039 22046 Media influence on the body image of black women in a South African township <p>The purpose of this study was to explore the perceived impact of the media on the body image of young black women in Ga-Rankuwa Township. Most studies conducted on body image focused on Western civilization. As a result, there appears to be a scarcity of research on black South African women. Therefore, it was in the best interest of the researcher to focus on the South African context, as it is a culturally diverse country undergoing significant political, socioeconomic and nutritional transformation (Gitau et al 2014). Mwabe and Roman (2009) conducted a study on body image satisfaction among black female South African students. The study showed that the majority of black female students are satisfied with their bodies. This might be due to the fact that, in the past, black African women had greater body image satisfaction because they lived in a society where body image was not an issue (Wassenaar et al, 2000). In addition, Poran (2006) proposed that sub-racial culture protects black women from negative body image cognition. Therefore, this study will aid in understanding how the media has altered and distorted young black women’s belief systems regarding body image. Findings from this study may assist black South African women in understanding how the media influences their views regarding body image. The study utilised a phenomenological approach and exploratory qualitative design. Eight young black women between 18 and 35 years of age were selected using a convenience sampling technique. The study was best suited to use a phenomenological approach as it allowed the researcher to delve into the perceptions, viewpoints, understanding and feelings of young black women (Giorgi, 2012). Data were collected using in-depth interviews. The data were transcribed and analysed using thematic content analysis to highlight the recurrent themes. The theoretical framework was based on the Social Learning Theory, which emphasises observing and modelling others’ behaviours, attitudes and emotional reactions. The results of this study showed that the media has an impact on how young women perceive their body image. Although some participants stated that the media has a detrimental effect on them, others stated that it is informative. Moreover, other aspects such as family, culture, peers and romantic relationships were also explored in relation to how young women in Ga-Rankuwa Township perceive their body image. Findings of the study also indicated that the media also plays a role in how young women perceive their body image.</p> Reneilwe Mabotja Tebogo Rosina Nganase Copyright (c) 2024 2024-02-17 2024-02-17 21 3 22047 22057 <i>Kwanele!</i> (It’s Enough): Violence against women and its mental health consequences in South Africa <p>Violence against women and young girls in the global village, and in particular, in the South African context continues to remain a tragedy that not only affects victims of abuse but also affects families and communities directly or indirectly. A notable body of knowledge underlines that South Africa is in fact one of the countries with the most cases of abuse and oppression against women and young girls. This is enough to indicate that more work needs to be done to eradicate and denounce this challenge at scholarly and non-scholarly levels, respectively. In view of this reality, this article aims to explore the nature and extent of this conundrum hinging on scoping literature review as a qualitative research technique. The objective is to reflect on and comprehend its causes, consequences and intricacies in order to propose effective strategies for prevention, intervention and support for survivors. The findings indicate that challenges that continue to engulf women and young girls remain uncovered in the broader African context, and this creates a repetitive episode of incidents where women and young girls are subjugated. Among other foremost discussions, it becomes clear that ethnological perceptions or stereotypes as well as unreported cases of violence against women and young girls are to be implicated given that they delay progress towards gender justice and social cohesion in South Africa. Thus, it remains compelling that violence against women is regarded as a catastrophe that necessitates urgent measures. The closing remarks of this article provide some of the potential recommendations that can be considered to mitigate this conundrum.</p> Mlamli Diko Copyright (c) 2024 2024-02-17 2024-02-17 21 3 22058 22068 Perspectives of LGBTI organisations on queer visibility and sexual justice activism in South Africa <p>This article is a comparative historical analysis of the queer community’s visibility politics during the apartheid and post-apartheid periods in South Africa. It analyses different visibility strategies within black and white queer communities in post-apartheid South Africa,and explores the sexual justice activism of LGBTI organisations in post-apartheid South Africa. It argues that these two separated queer communities occupy different spaces that have different political goals. Beyond examining queer apartheid visibility politics, it also explore the ways in which these different visibility politics have historical remnants. It uses Lesbian Gay Bisexual Transgender Intersex (LGBTI) organisations both during and post-apartheid in order to locate the white queer community that became invisible in post-apartheid South Africa. Where do we locate the white queer community in post-apartheid South Africa? How do both black and white LGBTI organisations advocate for sexual justice in apartheid and post-apartheid South Africa. The intervention of this study considers the political, social and economic dynamics that have regulated South Africans based on their race during apartheid; and the Acts that segregated and oppressed black South Africans during apartheid. It also considers the shift from visibility (apartheid) to (in)visibility (post-apartheid) of the white queer community; the transition from apartheid to democracy and the attempts of multiracial LGBTI organizations that emerged post-apartheid to actively exclude white bodies while simultaneously reclaiming their identity and the history that erased black queer experiences. It shows that just like how the two queer communities were separated during apartheid, they remain separated in post-apartheid.</p> Samukezi Mrubula-Ngwenya Copyright (c) 2024 2024-02-17 2024-02-17 21 3 22069 22079 Evaluation of a faith-based intervention for intimate partner violence with men and women referred by the court in South Africa utilising the DASS42 <p>Intimate partner violence is a nefarious and major social and public health concern affecting millions of women, men and children globally. The criminal justice system plays a pivotal role in mandating interventions for perpetrators of partner abuse in efforts to eradicate violence and to ensure the safety of victims. The predominant interventions worldwide and in South Africa are based on the Duluth model. However, research indicates that the effectiveness of these programmes are limited, partly due to their theoretical underpinning of patriarchy being seen as the root cause of abusive behaviour. This study used a quantitative research approach to assess the impact of a gender inclusive faith-based intervention for perpetrators of intimate partner violence. It involved administering the full Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales as a pretest-posttest to measure changes in these negative affective states, which are highly correlated with partner abuse. The sample consisted of a cohort of 19 respondents who were court-referred for assault. The results revealed that holistically, all the scores decreased (i.e., indicated lower levels of depression, anxiety and stress), where the score for stress proved to be statistically significant pretest-posttest. This is a noteworthy finding because stress is implicated in the reoccurrence or continuation of abuse. The findings suggest that the intervention has the potential to deter violence between couples.</p> Delia Anastasia Bernardi Francois Steyn Copyright (c) 2024 2024-03-08 2024-03-08 21 3 22080 22091 The role educators’ play in dealing with learners who experience bullying within the school in selected in Kwamthethwa <p>The terminology of bullying is considered a behaviour that is aggressive towards a victim, and its intentional acts are carried out by a group or an individual repeatedly and over time against a victim who cannot easily defend him or herself. Bullying has become a public concern because of the lack of safety in schools. Bullying involves a forceful interaction between the perpetrator and the victim; hence, the bully dominates in power while the victim decreases. Specifically, the study aims to explore the role of educators in addressing bullying in the selected schools in the KwaMthethwa area. Two research objectives were used to guide the study. These research objectives are to: establish the forms of bullying experienced by learners within the school premises and determine the role educators play in dealing with learners who experience bullying in the school. The study was underpinned by the Empowerment Theory (ET) by Swift and Levin. The study adopted an interpretivism research paradigm to enable teachers to voice their feelings and experiences of bullying in their schools among learners. A qualitative research approach was used during data collection. The study collected data using semi-structured interviews and the data was collected from teachers who are counselling learners who experience bullying within the school premises. The study acknowledged that learners are experiencing bullying within the school premises. Hence, learners are experiencing several types of bullying not limited to physical, emotional, psychological, verbal, and sexual bullying, as well as online bullying. Teachers play a critical role in ensuring that incidences of bullying are addressed because they are assigned to deal with learners who bully one another. This study contributes to current literature discourse on bullying; interrogates the applicability of empowerment theory and models to bullying research; adds new data, information, and knowledge on bullying research, particularly in South Africa; and proposes practical solutions to addressing bullying in schools.</p> Philisiwe Shabalala T. P. Mngomezulu B. Twala L.O. Makhonza Thembelihle Maseko Copyright (c) 2024 2024-02-17 2024-02-17 21 3 22092 22101 Influence of Nollywood movies on mindsets and sexual behaviours of adolescents in Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Nigeria <p>This study explored the influence of Nollywood movies on the sexual mindsets and behaviour of adolescents in Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Nigeria. The study employed exploratory research design. Data was collected through focus group discussion. Data generated were transcribed using Express Scribe of Microsoft Word and analyzed thematically using ATLAS ti version 23.0.7. Findings show that Nollywood movies exposes the adolescents to all manners of sexual contents, negatively influences their mindsets, and sexual behaviours. The participants affirmed that Nollywood monies were of great bad influence on them. We concluded that the proliferation of Nollywood movies with unbridled sexual contents will continue to negatively impact on sexual mindsets of the growing people which will translate into risky sexual behaviours among them. We recommend that the regulatory body of the Nigeria Movie Industry should rise to their responsibility in censoring and ensuring compliance to the rule by the producers.</p> R. E. Ochiaka N. F. Ugwu V. I. Makinde J. K. Opele T. T. Alade O. K. Onyekwere A. B. Adams Toyin Segun Onayinka Copyright (c) 2024 2024-02-17 2024-02-17 21 3 22102 22112 Influence of gender and other structural factors on violent delinquent behaviours among students in Sub-Sahara Africa: Echoes from Nigerian experience <p>The rising rate of violent delinquent ways of behaving among teenagers and youths is troubling, and pressing consideration is expected to alter the course. The main objective of this study is to explore how violent juvenile delinquency among students-adolescent and youths- are influenced by gender and social structures like family, peer group, and school management. The quantitative research utilized questionnaires to gather essential primary data from randomly selected sample of 150 respondents. The result reveals a significant contribution of structural factors of gender, school management, peer groups to violent delinquent behaviors. It shows that they altogether affect the degree of youngsters' violent delinquent behavior. In this study, family structure only had a composite effect. However, a number of previous studies demonstrate a strong link between family structure and juvenile delinquency. They suggest that family structure should be taken into consideration as one of the factors in violent delinquency. This study reveals that, school management made the most significant contribution (Beta = .479; t = 2.809; P &lt; 0.05) to the prediction, thus stronger in relationship between it and violent delinquency, while socio-economic status has the least contribution (Beta = .175; t = 2.034; P &lt; 0.05) to the perceived delinquent behaviour of the studied population, thus has weakest relationship. Other variables made significant contributions in the following order: peer influence (Beta = .425; t = 2.482; P &lt; 0.05); family structure (Beta = 1.185; t = 4.265; P &lt; 0.05) and gender (Beta = 1.096; t = 3.725; P &lt; 0.05).</p> Oseremen Felix Irene Adegoke Kayode Adekanmi Copyright (c) 2024 2024-02-17 2024-02-17 21 3 22113 22125 An analysis of the abolishment of the principle of male primogenitutre using western values <p>Male primogeniture is deeply rooted in South African tradition, it was central to Customary Law of Intestate Succession where the first-born son or the closest male related to the deceased will succeed in the role and position of the decedent This practice perpetuated gender inequality by discriminating against female heirs and younger sons, limiting their rights to inheritance and succession to property and leadership roles. Resistance movements and advocacy efforts emerged over time to challenge male primogeniture, aiming to promote gender equality and the rights of all family members, in particular women. The end of apartheid in 1994 marked a significant turning point, as South Africa adopted a new, more inclusive constitution that sought to address discriminatory practices like male primogeniture. Undoubtedly, post-1994 constitutional democratic South African legislative and judicial arms of government seemed to have made frantic efforts to distort, eliminate and abolish the principle of male primogeniture which was practiced in terms of customary law of succession by the indigenous African people in South Africa. Even though there is a need for the judiciary to develop customary law in line with the Constitutional values especially in the areas of the equal right to equality and dignity for all including women, the process of legislating and adjudicating customary law was the reliance on common law and western ideas. These ideas are being used to measure and ascertain the validity and recognition of customary law, and as such, the courts usually reach decisions and conclusions based on the values of common law instead of harmonizing customary law to meet the lived experiences without necessarily incorporating western ideas in Customary Law. Regarding succession, this is wider in scope than the concept of inheritance, which referred to the transfer of properties. Male primogeniture is indigenous customary practice, but it is currently being negatively regulated through statutory legislation and judicial pronouncements. Hence, the need for the examination of the practical problems associated with the abolishment of the principle of male primogeniture due to the use of western values to interpret customary law of succession. The paper emphasizes that even though legislation is necessary for regulating customary law, it should be done in line with the constitutional values with the aim for customary law to be more accurate and administered properly not to distort customary law.</p> Winners O. Malepe Kola O. Odeku Copyright (c) 2024 2024-02-17 2024-02-17 21 3 22126 22134 Exploring the interplay of masculinity, mortality, and cultural customs in Wole Soyinka’s <i>The Strong Breed</i> <p>This paper explores the interplay between masculinity, mortality, and cultural customs in Wole Soyinka’s The Strong Breed. The paper aims to address the existing research gap in the play, regarding the examination of male characters and the theme of death. Despite the extensive research conducted on the play, there has been limited exploration of these specific aspects. The paper delves into the deeply ingrained gender roles, rituals, and beliefs that shape the characters’ lives. The true man in the play is a man who is willing to die for the sake of others. Masculinity, as portrayed by the protagonist Eman, becomes a complex and tragic force driving both destruction and redemption. At the heart of the narrative are the cultural customs that define the character’s existence. In this paper, the traditional representation of death and dying is a catalyst for envisioning masculine identity. As such, this paper will be premised on the essential viewpoints of masculinities</p> Beatrice N. Onuoha Copyright (c) 2024 2024-02-17 2024-02-17 21 3 22135 22143 Correlation between interpersonal dependency, fear of negative evaluation, and imposter phenomenon among female healthcare workers <p>Females have been indicated to experience Imposter Phenomenon (IP) than men. Several females tend to see their achievement as undeserving and sometimes feel that they are not intelligence as others might think. The study examined the correlation between Imposter Phenomenon, Interpersonal Dependency and Fear of Negative Evaluation among females in healthcare. A total of 115 female healthcare workers from diverse departments in Federal Neuro-Psychiatry Hospital, Lagos participated in this study. Data were analyzed using statistical techniques such as Pearson correlation, regression analysis, independent t-test, and ANOVA. The findings of this study revealed noteworthy insights into the relationship between IP and the variables under examination. Specifically, the results indicated a significant correlation between interpersonal dependency and IP, suggesting that individuals with higher levels of interpersonal dependency may be more prone to experiencing feelings of fraudulence. Also, fear of negative evaluation emerged as another significant predictor, indicating that those with heightened fear of being negatively evaluated may be at higher risk of IP. Additionally, educational level was examined as a potential predictor, with implications for interventions aimed at mitigating IP among healthcare workers. The study underscores the importance of addressing these psychological factors in healthcare settings to promote the mental well-being and professional growth of female healthcare workers. This study's implications and limitations are discussed in light of the existing literature on IP. The findings provide valuable insights for healthcare institutions seeking to support and empower their female staff to overcome IP and achieve their full potentials.</p> Gbenusola Akinwale Victor Ojakorotu Precious Victor Copyright (c) 2024 2024-02-17 2024-02-17 21 3 22144 22154 Interrogating the improvement of gender equality in South African secondary schools as an aftermath of post Covid-19 pandemic <p>This paper critiques the improvement of gender equality in secondary schools of Limpopo Province in South Africa, twenty-nine years into the country’s democracy and independence. The paper is both conceptual and empirical in nature. Documents review and interviewing techniques were employed to collect data from three former perpetrators of gender inequality in secondary schools and the other three victims of such heinous acts. Research findings revealed that firstly, failure to acknowledge that gender inequality is improvable, is a problem. Secondly, failure to acknowledge that equitable schooling could marginalise gender inequality, is a problem. Thirdly, inappropriate socialisation of perpetrators, is behind their inability to embrace the female gender as equal gender. Lastly, failure to learn from the lessons bequeathed by post Covid-19 pandemic regarding gender parity, is a problem. As part of the conclusion, the researcher recommends for the de-institutionalisation of the inferiority versus superiority complex tendencies in the society with regard to the existing female and male genders. Furthermore, the researcher recommends for the appropriate re-socialisation of the perpetrators of gender inequality to change them to be more humane and inclusive in their dealings with their counterparts. Lastly, the researcher recommends for the re-organisation and re-structuring of secondary schooling environments as part of attempting to contain the rooted challenge of gender inequality in secondary schools.</p> Ngwako Solomon Modiba Copyright (c) 2024 2024-02-17 2024-02-17 21 3 22155 22164 Influence of entrepreneurship self-efficacy and proactive personality on intention towards technopreneurship among undergraduate students <p>Several factors can influence a student's desire to launch a new technology-based business (technopreneurial intentions (TI)). When creating technical educational programs, it is critical to consider these areas in order to ensure that new graduates have job opportunities. The study investigated the influence of entrepreneurship self-efficacy (ESE) and proactive personality (PP) on TI among undergraduate students from two tertiary institutions in Osun State, Nigeria. A total of 440 undergraduates with a Mean age = 22.00 years, σ = 3.19, ♀ = 242) where conveniently sampled. 264 participants were selected from 3 faculties (Faculty of Social Sciences, Faculty of Science and Faculty of Agriculture) in Obafemi Awolowo University while 176 undergraduates were also selected from 3 faculties (Faculty of Science, Faculty of Administration, and Faculty of Education) in Foreign Links College of Education. These students were from different States of the federation therefore, they are representatives of student’s population. The research method used was descriptive research method. Three standardized psychological scale were used for this study and these includes ESE (α=.82), PPS (α=.82.), TIS (α=0.91) scales. Data collected were analysed with both descriptive and inferential statistics. The result showed a significant influence of ESE on TI t(438) = -8.16 p&lt;.05. The result also showed a significant influence of PP on TIF (29, 410) = 12.618; p = &lt;.01). It was therefore concluded was that these variables should be considered by the government and university management and other stakeholders when creating programs to reduce graduate unemployment.</p> Ojewumi Aderemi Kehinde Copyright (c) 2024 2024-02-17 2024-02-17 21 3 22165 22176