Gender and Behaviour Gender and Behaviour is an interdisciplinary journal dedicated to articles, that reflect psychological and behavioural aspects of gender in general. Gender and Behaviour welcomes scholarly manuscripts from authors all over the world on a wide array of subjects concerning psychological and behavioural aspects of gender in general. Ife Centre for Psychological Studies en-US Gender and Behaviour 1596-9231 Copyright for articles published in this journal is retained by the journal. Effect of market access on the modernisation of smallholder women agro-food enterprises in free state province, South Africa <p>The study's main objective was to develop an empirical model that could be used to ensure that market access interventions could positively influence&nbsp; the change of these enterprises. The quantitative data were collected using the survey method, while the qualitative data were collected using the focus&nbsp; group sessions. The results showed that market access is highly correlated (r = 0.482, p = 0.000) with business ownership and moderately correlated with&nbsp; management control. The results suggested that when business ownership, management control, and representative are included in the model with&nbsp; market access, market access has minor but positively significant (β=0.059, p = 0.05) role to influence the smallholder women's transformation agro-food&nbsp; enterprise. However, its effect on change is seen to the lowest compared to the confounding variables. These results imply that market access is not the&nbsp; highest priority in effecting this farming system's transformation, rather business ownership, representation, and management control. For the Free&nbsp; State province to modernize this farming system, it is recommended that the extension services should dwell more on ensuring that the women farmers&nbsp; have ownership of land, representation in the value chain, and the management of the corporates dealing with market access.&nbsp;</p> D. Mosia V.M. Mmbengwa J. Swanepoel Copyright (c) 2023-01-31 2023-01-31 20 4 20350 20362 Decolonisation through indigenisation in African literature: An exploration of proverbial language in Chinua Achebe’s <i>Things Fall Apart</i> <p>The call for decolonisation in African societies remains a continual issue, even in contemporary times. One of the ways this is argued to be achieved is&nbsp; through indigenization, a process that involves increasing incorporation of indigenous systems and resources in any context. Considering a literary&nbsp; context and the position of African writers in Africa’s decolonisation pursuit, this study aims to answer the question “is the incorporation of African&nbsp; proverbs in African literary text a valid tool for decolonisation through indigenization?” A textual analytical technique for the analysis of relevant proverbs&nbsp; documented in Achebe’s Things Fall Apart is utilised in this study. The analysis reveals the indigenous African people’s worldview (dignity of labour and&nbsp; hard-work, good character, and respect for elders) that was brought to light and reemphasised through the incorporated proverbs. Beside the&nbsp; incorporation of African proverbs which promotes African identity, culture and uniqueness, this study concludes that African literary texts and the&nbsp; embedded African proverbs are valid tools for decolonisation through indigenization. A deliberate reading of African literary works as well as both formal&nbsp; and informal education on African proverbs will help in correcting obnoxious ex-colonial’s ideologies vis-à-vis deconstructing colonial-related&nbsp; ideas, encouraging acceptable human behaviour, strengthening the mind with ideal values, and thereby promoting African societies sustainability.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Funmilola Kemi Megbowon Chijioke Uwah Copyright (c) 2023-01-31 2023-01-31 20 4 20363 20374 Young unmarried fathers current relationship with their children: The South African Social Work perspective <p>The nature of relationship between young unmarried fathers and their children remains a concern in South Africa. The increasing rate of absent and&nbsp; none involvement is on the high rise. Based on the qualitative research, this article discuses young unmarried fathers' current relationships with their&nbsp; children. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine young and unmarried fathers in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The participants&nbsp; had a total number of fifteen children, four of whom lived with their fathers and paternal families. Findings indicated that high unemployment and&nbsp; financial status of the father and his family impacted significantly on father-child current relationship. All the participants in the study desired to have&nbsp; relationships with their children beyond being just providers. But Care and contact parental responsibilities and rights are reduced to financial support&nbsp; only by maternal family. Thus, comprehensive social work services are recommended not only for psychosocial support but also for family and&nbsp; community education.&nbsp;</p> Thembelihle Brenda Makhanya Copyright (c) 2023-01-31 2023-01-31 20 4 20375 20391 Intermediate transition from an African language to English as a medium of instruction at primary schools in the Vhembe District, South Africa <p>This article examines the intermediate phase transition from an indigenous language to English as a language of learning and teaching at Siambe&nbsp; Primary School in Vhembe District Municipality. The South African Language-in-Education Policy (LiEP) states that the mother tongue should be the&nbsp; preferred medium of instruction in the Foundation Phase (i.e., Grades R-3). From Grade 4 onwards, a First Additional Language (FAL) may be used as a&nbsp; language of learning and teaching. Thus, indigenous South African official languages are utilized in the Foundation Phase as languages of learning and&nbsp; teaching (LOLT), depending on their dominance in their respective areas. This study is an extract from comprehensive research, where a qualitative&nbsp; method and interview were used to collect data from educators at Siambe Primary School through the purposive sampling technique. Data were&nbsp; analyzed using Thematic Content Analysis which is relevant to a qualitative study. The study established that Grade 4 learners at Siambe Primary School&nbsp; struggle to understand the basic concepts in English due to their low level of English proficiency. This article recommends that English could be&nbsp; introduced from Grade R as the language of learning and teaching.&nbsp;</p> Lufuno Netshipise Shumani Eric Madima Fulufhelo Oscar Makananise Copyright (c) 2023-01-31 2023-01-31 20 4 20392 – 20405 20392 – 20405 An analysis of personal naming approaches by younger and older generations among the Bapedi Nation: An onomastic comparison <p>The article aims to explore the naming approaches that have been used and still used among the Bapedi (Sepedi speakers) by both the older and the&nbsp; younger generation. The article employed the qualitative approach where Sepedi personal names were collected randomly and were also analysed&nbsp; qualitatively. As alluded to, two categories of names, those given by the older generation and those by the younger generation are investigated and&nbsp; analysed. The article argues that naming is a linguistic act that is used to express and communicate different messages to the members of the society.&nbsp; However, it is found that the name-giving process among the Bapedi has become problematic in the sense that a practice that used to be a prerogative of&nbsp; and an assignment for elders, that is, grandparents and other senior members of the family in the past is now a project of both the older and younger&nbsp; generation. Unfortunately, in the process of naming the young generation lacks transparency and neither consult the elders nor inform them.&nbsp; However, the article explored if the naming system is used by both groups to effectively communicate and record some of the historical events and&nbsp; happenings in the family prior and during the birth of the child. The research established similarities and differences in the naming process and the&nbsp; names given to the newly born babies.&nbsp;</p> F.M. Kanyane T.J. Rakgogo Copyright (c) 2023-01-31 2023-01-31 20 4 20406 20424 The double life of Ghanaian women <p>While entrance of women into paid work has been celebrated globally as a progress, it has added to their already existing burden of caring for young&nbsp; ones in the family and other household chores; a situation generally referred to as the ‘double burden’ or the ‘second shift’. In exploring this&nbsp; phenomenon, scholars have brought to light the inequity existing in household labour that has left women doing most of the domestic unpaid tasks&nbsp; associated with childcare and domestic work in addition to paid work. This qualitative research addressed the double life Ghanaian professionals&nbsp; experience in combining work and family roles. The data for the study was obtained from 20 respondents who were wives, mothers and career women.&nbsp; The result indicates that women generally want equal male participation in unpaid work in the private sphere. As a result, most women in the study&nbsp; bargain out domestic tasks with men or contest men to get men to take part in unpaid work. It was concluded that instead of women’s actions to get&nbsp; men involved in unpaid work bringing change, it rather brings resistance from the men. This illuminates the fact that gender equality may not be easily&nbsp; achieved in relation to gendered practices around domestic unpaid work.</p> Hubert Bimpeh Asiedu Mary Sefa Boampong Copyright (c) 2023-01-31 2023-01-31 20 4 20425 20439 Risky sexual behaviour among young women: lessons for local policy makers on reproductive health programmes in Nigeria <p>This paper investigated risky sexual behavior and unwanted pregnancy with a view to assisting local policy makers in designing reproductive health&nbsp; programmes to stem the menace of risky sexual behaviours among young girls in Nigeria. This study made use of secondary source of data collection.&nbsp; The data was obtained from the Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) data set of 2013. The 2013 NDHS sample was selected using stratified&nbsp; three-stage cluster design consisting of 904 clusters, 372 in urban areas and 532 in rural areas. Results of the bivariate analysis reveals that there is no&nbsp; significant relationship between risky sexual behaviour and unwanted pregnancy; multiple sexual partner (X<sup>2</sup>= 0.211, p&gt;0.05), use of condom during sex (X<sup>2 </sup>= 2.6254, p&gt;0.05); age at sex initiation (X<sup>2 </sup>= 2.1761, p&gt;0.05). This paper recommended that efforts should be made by local policy makers to reduce&nbsp; the prevalence of unwanted pregnancy among young girls by improving the quality of life, curbing inequality and women endangerment.</p> Daud Ayodele Lamidi Kazeem Oyedele Lamidi Copyright (c) 2023-01-31 2023-01-31 20 4 20440 20456 Exploring mixed gendered peer-to-peer conversations as a primary cancer prevention communication strategy among South African youth <p>Cancer prevention face-to-face conversations are rare, particularly when held between male and female youth. Tailored, audience-specific communication&nbsp; strategies targeting youth are necessary for primary cancer prevention to shape behaviour that could attenuate the spread of leading&nbsp; cancers. This article explores potential effectiveness of using mixed gender face-to-face conversations among university students as a primary prevention&nbsp; communication strategy that could lead to cancer prevention behaviour and promote early detection. Vignettes in qualitative research were&nbsp; constructed to provoke conversations about cancer prevention between a mixed gender group of 21 male and female South African university students.&nbsp; Findings show that the vignettes provoked conversations among participants about self-examination for cancer prevention as well as the types of tests&nbsp; required for common cancers such as breast cancer, prostate cancer and cervical cancer. The discussions revealed that there was a lack of knowledge&nbsp; about self-examination as part of primary cancer prevention. Conversations revealed an openness to discussing self-examination for early detection.&nbsp; Findings from this study provide insight into the potential of using peer-to-peer, face-to-face discussions between mixed genders as a primary prevention&nbsp; communication strategy by health promotion organisations in South Africa and other countries.</p> Elizabeth Lubinga Copyright (c) 2023-01-31 2023-01-31 20 4 20457 20468 Who cares during a pandemic? Exploring the gendered nature of care work among staff at a SOUTH African University during Covid-19 lockdown <p>The objective of this paper is to investigate how staff at a South African university have coped with care work in the home during lockdown. Care work&nbsp; tends to be gendered and we therefore expect that lockdown will have impacted men and women differently. This study used mixed methods to&nbsp; investigate the impact of Covid-19 lockdown on care work perfomed by different categories of staff at a South African university. Findings from thematic&nbsp; analysis reveal common themes which emerged around care work in the home during lockdown. These are, inter alia, the importance of community,&nbsp; balance, partnership and career. Within these common themes, different experiences are further dissected in this article. We conclude that gender norms&nbsp; underpinning care work are complex, fluid and context dependent, but that the lockdown helped participants realise the importance of achieving&nbsp; the right work–life balance.</p> Carike Claassen Alicia Fourie Copyright (c) 2023-01-31 2023-01-31 20 4 20469 20486 Psychosocial factors as predictors of quality of life among the elderly in a South Western Teaching Hospital Nigeria <p>Among the elderly, more concerns have been raised about quality of life and its markers especially due to the incessant rise in hospitalization and&nbsp; admission of old people into the geriatric wards. Scholars have suggested that empirical efforts be geared towards identifying relevant psychological&nbsp; factors which may account for differences in quality of life among the elderly. Consequently, this study investigated the predictive role of psychosocial&nbsp; factors of stress, anxiety, depression, social support, and meaning in life on quality of life among the elderly. The study employed cross sectional survey&nbsp; research design and used structured questionnaire to collect data from 96 elderly persons whose mean age and standard deviation were 68.55 and 8.06&nbsp; respectively. Result revealed that stress, depression and anxiety predict quality of life among the elderly [F (1,98) =10.684; P &lt;.001]. Importantly, anxiety&nbsp; and depression were significant factors that contributed to quality of life among the elderly. Social support (family, friends and significant others) and&nbsp; meaning in life predicted quality of life [F (1,98) =9.609; P &lt;.001]. However, only significant others social support independently accounted for variation in&nbsp; quality of life among the elderly. Study findings have implications for clinical care and management of the elderly.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Mojisola S. Ajayi Joy E. Ukpoju Copyright (c) 2023-02-01 2023-02-01 20 4 20487 20501 “It is such a shameful experience…” barriers to help-seeking among male survivors of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) in Uganda <p>Female-perpetrated Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) against men in Uganda is a subject of debate, with arguments casting doubt about its existence,&nbsp; nature and magnitude. Consequently, the majority of male IPV survivors have become hesitant to seek help following victimisation. Thus, the aim of this&nbsp; paper was to explore the barriers that hinder formal and informal help-seeking among male IPV survivors following abuse by their female intimate&nbsp; partners. Since the study’s focus was on victimised men’s subjective experiences, a qualitative design was employed. In-depth interviews were conducted&nbsp; with a sample of 10 men from the central region of Uganda, who were identified through snowball sampling, as having experienced female-perpetrated&nbsp; IPV. This sample included men who had sought help for their IPV victimisation from a range of sources and those who had not sought any help at all.&nbsp; Drawing on evidence from the male survivors’ narratives, the study revealed a range of barriers that prevented them from seeking help. These are&nbsp; presented in three themes: stereotypical help-seeking anticipations; lack of awareness about victim support services and interruptions during actual&nbsp; help-seeking attempts. The findings make a case for societal recognition of male IPV, development of strategies to enhance men’s help-seeking&nbsp; behaviours, a need for robust male-centred IPV survivor support and resources, as well as training of IPV professionals on gender responsive and&nbsp; inclusive service support approaches.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Deborah Nakalyowa-Luggya Evelyn Lutwama-Rukundo Consolata Kabonesa Japheth Kwiringira Copyright (c) 2023-02-01 2023-02-01 20 4 20502 20517 An epideictic event: The rhetoric of birthday messages among African diaspora communities <p>There are several scholarly articles on birthdays or sentimental messages within a ceremonial context arguing that epideictic rhetoric has the potential&nbsp; for civic contribution or activism (Sheard, 1996; Agnew, 2008; Richards, 2009; Bostdorf &amp; Ferris, 2014). While some scholars have analyzed the birthday&nbsp; cake or sentimental messages in greeting cards (Keith, 2009: D’Angelo,1992) or social media (Morris, 2014), none has focused specifically on the&nbsp; persuasive discourse, verbal or nonverbal, in birthday celebrations among the African diaspora. This paper covers the gap by arguing that there are&nbsp; several levels of rhetorical discourse encapsulated in the birthday discourse among African diaspora, often with personal and public persuasive&nbsp; implications. The paper explored the meaning of epideictic or ceremonial rhetoric in classical rhetoric and using cultural criticism, analyzed the discourse&nbsp; in selected birthday celebrations among African diaspora in the United States of America and Canada published on YouTube and drew some conclusions&nbsp; about the personal and public effects of birthday discourse among the African diaspora. The paper chose cultural criticism as the unit of analysis&nbsp; because, as Harp observes culture permeates all aspects of communication (Hart 1997) and the beliefs, thoughts, values, myths, language, and&nbsp; experiences of the African diaspora influence why and how Africans in the diaspora celebrate birthdays.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Anthony Naaeke Copyright (c) 2023-02-01 2023-02-01 20 4 20518 20524 Socio-cultural predictors of teenage pregnancy in South Africa: A crosssectional study that compares rural and urban areas <p>South Africa remains a country affected by teenage pregnancy accompanied by health, economic and social consequences. This study investigates the&nbsp; residential-specific socio-cultural predictors of teenage pregnancy in South Africa. Data were collected from the 2016 Community Survey conducted by&nbsp; Statistics South Africa, while methods included univariate and bivariate analysis as well as logistic regression to establish the association between socio-&nbsp; cultural factors and teenage pregnancy among rural and urban adolescent women, respectively. Results show that of the 336 244 adolescent women&nbsp; constituting the sample, 4% reported being pregnant. Teenage pregnancy occurred at higher levels in rural areas (4.57%) compared with urban areas&nbsp; (3.43%) with a significant χ2 p-value=0.000. Bivariate analysis revealed significant differences across all variable categories at p&lt;0.05. Furthermore, socio-&nbsp; cultural factors associated with teenage pregnancy were religion [no religious belief odds ratio (OR)=1.27; p-value&lt;0.01], ethnicity (English-speaking&nbsp; young women OR=0.39; pvalue&lt;0.01) and age (OR=1.59; p-value&lt;0.01). Ethnicity and religion had a greater influence in urban areas than in rural areas.&nbsp; These results could be useful in designing appropriate programmes to prevent teenage pregnancy, specifically among target groups at higher risk.&nbsp; Residential-specific community-based awareness programmes should be promoted to prevent teenage pregnancy in both urban and rural areas if sexual&nbsp; and reproductive health among adolescent girls is to improve in South Africa.</p> S. Mkwananzi R.S. Lebelo A. Mashinini A. Ngake M.S. Paledi L.S. Thwala Copyright (c) 2023-02-01 2023-02-01 20 4 20525 20541 Factors influencing positive child birth experiences of first time mothers in healthcare facilities: Narrative literature review <p>Child birth is a substantial event in a woman’s life and a transition to motherhood. First time mothers birth experiences depend on a trustful relationship between the women giving birth and professionals. The relevant literature that focuses on factors that contribute to positive childbirth experiences for&nbsp; first time mothers was explored. A search strategy was conducted using electronic database including Google Scholar, PubMed and EBSCOhost and&nbsp; selected journal articles published between 2010 and 2022. The findings revealed first time mothers were treated with respect and interaction with health&nbsp; care professionals was good. In this light it is evident that health care professionals provide quality care during labour. Midwives to compile health&nbsp; education during antenatal care regarding coping with stress and anxiety during childbirth. All health care professionals working in labour ward&nbsp; should practice good communication skills to creative relaxed and well coming atmosphere. Health systems should value the distinctiveness and&nbsp; importance of each woman’s needs during childbirth. Women and their families often value emotional support and positive experiences of care as&nbsp; significant components of health care. Therefore, healthcare providers should appreciate and respond to women’s needs and preferences.&nbsp;</p> Grace B. Baakeleng Nokwanda E. Bam Copyright (c) 2023-02-01 2023-02-01 20 4 20542 20550 A changing culture in marital practices in South Africa: Experiences of urbanised <i>Makotis</i> and <i>Mamazalas</i> <p>This study explored the views of mothers- and daughters-in-law regarding the changing cultural practices in marital processes. The study was conducted&nbsp; in Pretoria North, South Africa. The social constructionism approach provided a perspective in understanding the views of mothers and daughters-in-law&nbsp; regarding the changing marital practices. A qualitative approach allowed the researcher to obtain data from interviews with 20 mother-in-law and 20&nbsp; daughter-in-law participants who had been involved in a mother-and-daughter-in-law relationship for at least six months. Textual data were analysed&nbsp; through interpretative phenomenological analysis. Six themes emerged from the analysis, namely traditional marital processes regarded as&nbsp; confusing/tedious; the rebellion of makoti against traditional cultural roles; fading customs; the importance of cultural practices in the mother-and-&nbsp; daughter-in-law relationship; lack of cultural knowledge by urban mamazalas, and the role of religion in changing practices. Recommendations are also&nbsp; provided to assist in exploring the impact of cultural practices on the mother-and-daughter-in-law relationship.&nbsp;</p> Tebogo Rosina Nganase Wilna Basson Copyright (c) 2023-02-01 2023-02-01 20 4 20551 20563 Experiences of young males on gender-based violence at a selected village in Limpopo Province, South Africa <p>The scourge of gender-based violence (GBV) on young males is escalating at an alarming rate. It also brings awareness to the society that males are also&nbsp; victims of GBV. The study explored the experiences of young males on GBV at Lwamondo Village, Limpopo province. The study was qualitative in nature&nbsp; and applied phenomenological design to extract participants’ lived experience. A sample of (10) young males who experienced GBV that are aged&nbsp; between 18 to 35 years were identified using purposive sampling through Munna Ndi Nnyi organization. A pre-tested unstructured interview guide was&nbsp; used to collect data and interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to analyse the data collected. The findings of the present study showed that&nbsp; infidelity, unemployment, lack of trust or insecurities, physical abuse, emotional abuse and financial abuse were the main factors contributing to GBV&nbsp; among young males. The findings further revealed that social stigma, family and friends’ separation were challenges faced by young males. Additionally,&nbsp; young males used substance abuse, social support, support from Munna Ndi Nnyi organization and religion as a coping mechanism. The study&nbsp; concluded by making important recommendations to different stakeholders to assist minimizing GBV in societies and future researches on new areas to&nbsp; advance knowledge of the phenomenon.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> C.K. Selowa V. Baloyi M. Chueng Copyright (c) 2023-02-01 2023-02-01 20 4 20564 20581 The awareness and perceptions of sexually transmitted infections among students attending the University of Kwazulu-Natal <p>University students in KwaZulu-Natal are highly susceptible to sexually transmitted infections (STIs) due to their active engagement in risky sexual&nbsp; behaviours. Increased evidence on behavioural change is dependent on the awareness of STIs and comprehensive understanding and perception of&nbsp; one’s own risk. The purpose of this study was to assess the awareness of STIs among students enrolled at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, by examining&nbsp; their sexual risk behaviour. The study used a quantitative research approach, through the use of a purposive sampling technique, to obtain a sample of&nbsp; 142 students between 18 and 35 years old. STAT version 15.1 was used to analyse the data. Outcomes of the study revealed that 78% of the students&nbsp; were aware of STIs. Despite the high awareness, the students still have low risk perceptions especially towards condom use, alcohol consumption and&nbsp; age disparate relationships. Education from schools and social media could eliminate myths and ensure relevant information.</p> Funeka Mthembu Dhee Naidoo Makandwe Nyirenda Nathlee Abbai Copyright (c) 2023-02-01 2023-02-01 20 4 20582 20597 The psychosocial support needed by nurses caring for patients diagnosed with Covid-19 infection in the North West Province, South Africa <p>Nurses caring for patients diagnosed with COVID-19 infection are exposed to many psychosocial challenges. Exploring and describing the psychosocial&nbsp; support needed for the nurses caring for patients diagnosed with COVID-19 is significant to determine what type of support is needed by the nurses. The&nbsp; objective of this study was to describe the psychosocial support needed by the nurses caring for patients diagnosed with COVID-19 infection in the North&nbsp; West Province of South Africa. A qualitative, descriptive phenomenological, contextual design was used to collect data. The study used a non-probability&nbsp; sampling approach and purposive sampling technique to select four focus group discussions (FGDs) from the four hospitalsselected for this study. Data&nbsp; were collected through semi-structured interviews and analysis was done using descriptive phenomenological data analysis to develop themes and&nbsp; categories. Measures to ensure trustworthiness were considered throughout the study. The finding indicated that it is difficult for nurses to care for&nbsp; COVID-19 patients because it is a novel disease. There is no specific treatment for COVID-19 and most patients who were diagnosed with COVID-19 were&nbsp; demised. Shortages of human and material resources to care for COVID-19 patients were also reported. Nurses caring for COVID-19 patients are at risk of&nbsp; being infected and they are physically and psychologically affected. The study shows that nurses caring for COVID-19 patients are physically,&nbsp; psychologically and socially affected by the disease. Therefore, they need the support of their managers through the appreciation of their work, provision&nbsp; of adequate Personal protective equipment (PPE) and human capital to provide quality patient care. Nurses caring for COVID-19 patients need&nbsp; psychological support when they are depressed. They also need colleagues from other wards to encourage them and not see them as the carriers of the&nbsp; disease. Also, the community needs to understand the risks that nurses caring for COVID-19 patients take and support them.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Joan Dikobe Miriam Moagi Leepile Sehularo Copyright (c) 2023-02-01 2023-02-01 20 4 20598 20607 A rare phenomenon: Experiences of abused men by partners in Vhembe District, Limpopo Province, South Africa <p>Intimate Partner Violence or Domestic Violence is a world-wide phenomenon. Domestic abuse is a mixture of physical, sexual, verbal, and coercive&nbsp; behaviours designed to manipulate the other partner. Men abuse is a challenge in communities as men suffer in silence for fear of disclosure,&nbsp; stigmatization by family members, friends, community members and victimization by the service providers. The study aimed to explore experiences of&nbsp; men abuse by partners in Vhembe District, Limpopo Province, South Africa.A qualitative explorative descriptive and contextual research design was used.&nbsp; The population were abused men who were purposively sampled. Data was collected through face-to face interview using an audiotape. Data was&nbsp; analysed using thematic analysis. Trustworthiness and ethical considerations were adhered to throughout the study. Findings revealed two themes,&nbsp; experiences of multifactoral causes of abuse such as lack of financial resources, lack of intimacy, lack of decision-making in relationship and interference&nbsp; from family members and in-laws, as well as experiences of social and professional support. A balance of power in relationships should be advocated for&nbsp; both men and women. Men deserve protection from intimate partner abuse, and also have a right for better living as married men. The SDG no 5&nbsp; reiterate gender equity for all.&nbsp;</p> N.D. Neshunzhi D.U. Ramathuba L.H. Nemathaga A.R. Tshililo Copyright (c) 2023-02-01 2023-02-01 20 4 20608 20619 The effects of rape on the young girls in Ikorodu, Lagos State, Nigeria <p>Rape is a harmful and monstrous act, which has become prevalent in the Nigerian society. There has been an outcry against young girls’ rape in Nigeria,&nbsp; which has attracted the attention of, not only the government and non-governmental organizations in Nigeria, but rate of rape in Ikorodu was increasing&nbsp; as a result of violent criminal gang called ‘Badoo’ cult gang and other criminal groups’ activities. Hence, the study aims to examine the characteristics, the&nbsp; causes and the effects of rape on the young girls in Ikorodu, Lagos State. Using explorative research design, which relied on in-depth interviews and&nbsp; other secondary sources, the study reached the respondents through multi-sampling techniques such as purposive and simple random sampling. The&nbsp; paper is anchored on social disorganization theory as its theoretical underpinning. The findings revealed that the causes of rape are many which include&nbsp; cultism, ritual purposes, drug addiction and alcoholism, disease sharing, revenge purposes, indecent dressing, pride, poverty/unemployment and&nbsp; disappointment in relationships. Among the measures recommended by the paper is that there should be adequate security street light, police patrol&nbsp; and proper counseling by the parents as it concerns girl child.&nbsp;</p> Niyi Adegoke Oyedolapo Babatunde Durojaye Odedokun Ezekiel Adeyemi Copyright (c) 2023-02-01 2023-02-01 20 4 20620 20634 Entrepreneurship as a strategy for empowering female survivors of intimate partner violence in Lagos State, Nigeria <p>Entrepreneurship has become accepted as an imperative means to improve livelihood, boost job creation and ensure economic independence. Economic&nbsp; dependence on their abusers is one of the reasons battered women may not quit abusive relationships, hence the need to have a steady means of&nbsp; sustenance both for themselves and their children. In-depth interview from ten female survivors of Intimate partner violence, were analysed using the&nbsp; content analysis procedure, which was further predicated on the 1988 Gondolf and Fisher Survivor theory. The study revealed that female survivors of IPV&nbsp; were able to cater to their needs through the financial aids received from the State Government and also through their participation in the skill&nbsp; training and acquisition programmes put in place by the State. Entrepreneurship, when embraced can be the solution to this over-reliance of women on&nbsp; their abusive partners. This paper looks at the role entrepreneurship can play in empowering women especially those who suffer economic abuse in&nbsp; intimate relationships.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Akangbe Tomisin Adedunmola Fawole Olufemi Adeniyi Balogun Obasanjo Solomon Copyright (c) 2023-02-01 2023-02-01 20 4 20635 20642 Fostering positive mental health among female teachers in Enugu State, Nigeria: Protective roles of demographic and work-related characteristics <p>This study investigated the role of various demographic and work-related factors in protecting mental health of female teachers. A sample of 2389 out of&nbsp; 22, 566 female primary school teachers were randomly selected in multi-stages from three educational zones in Enugu state, Nigeria. Data were collected&nbsp; with a structured questionnaire and the English version of mental health continuum short form. The mental health scale elicited data on the&nbsp; self–reported mental wellbeing of the respondents which was categorized as flourishing and not flourishing. Four research questions and three&nbsp; hypotheses guided the study. Using descriptive and inferential analysis, findings showed a high (62%) prevalence of positive mental health among the&nbsp; respondents. Older age (&gt;40 years), being married, moderate educational qualification, fewer years of work experience (&lt; 10 years), teaching larger class&nbsp; (&gt; 25 pupils) and working in private, urban schools were associated with flourishing mental health status of the respondents. The findings of this study&nbsp; might be used by the government and public health advocates to carry out mental health sensitization seminars among teachers, particularly among&nbsp; older teachers in public and urban schools, to further equip them with more effective abilities to deal with difficulties unique to them</p> Uju I. Nnubia Vivienne N. Ibeanu Franca O. Okechukwu Copyright (c) 2023-02-01 2023-02-01 20 4 20643 20657 How, what, when and where? A systemic review on dynamics of human trafficking, irregular migration and modern day slavery in Nigeria <p>Human trafficking and irregular migration have become the largest manifestations of modern-day slavery which involves the illegal trade of people for&nbsp; exploitation or commercial gain. Nigeria has been named one of the top eight of the 161 countries in the world identified as being a source, transit, or&nbsp; destination country for victims of human trafficking, and the leading African country with substantial cross-border and internal trafficking. Using a&nbsp; systemic review technique, we search different databases in English language for relevant literature published between 2000 and 2019 that address&nbsp; various dynamics of human trafficking, irregular migration and modern-day slavery in Nigeria. Findings revealed that the victims of human&nbsp; trafficking/irregular migration/modern-day slavery are either coerced or are recruited through their own voluntary cooperation with their assailants.&nbsp; Specifically, the recruitment process often begins with seduction, cajolement and oath taken, through which they voluntarily cooperate with the&nbsp; assailants, who are usually people they know closely such as friend or family member, who often play major roles in the trafficking trajectories of victims,&nbsp; usually for their own profit. Considering the clandestine nature of operation and attendant negative consequences surrounding these phenomena, more&nbsp; research is needed to better understand the complexity surrounding the menace of human trafficking/irregular migration/modern-day slavery in the&nbsp; country. Furthermore, state and non-state actors need to put in more aggressive measures to stem and eradicate these phenomena in Nigeria.&nbsp;</p> John Lekan Oyefara Bamidele Omotunde Alabi Rosebelle Chinwe Nwanna Pius Enechojo Adejoh Copyright (c) 2023-02-01 2023-02-01 20 4 20658 20672 Strategies utilised in combating abuse experienced by men in an intimate relationship <p>Most people in an intimate relationship (i.e. marriage, dating, family, friends, and cohabitation) experience domestic violence. So this paper seeks to&nbsp; investigate the strategies that could be used to alleviate abuse against men in the province of KwaZulu-Natal which can minimise a number of problems&nbsp; such as psychological, physical, emotional, economical, and health to mention a few. The theoretical basis of the study was informed by Social Learning&nbsp; Theory developed by Albert Bandura in 1963. This paper used a post-positivist research paradigm which enabled the researcher to yield multiple&nbsp; perspectives from participants/ target population rather than a single reality. In that light, this paper used both quantitative and qualitative research&nbsp; methods for data collection. The study sampled 60 men who once experienced abuse from their intimate partners. The study managed to get responses&nbsp; from all men as targeted by the study. Notably, the data collected were analysed through the use of qualitative content analysis. The study&nbsp; acknowledged&nbsp; the wealth of knowledge of the concept subjugation by the respondents. The study findings showed quite a number of strategies that&nbsp; could be applied in preventing abuse.&nbsp;</p> Thanduxolo P. Mngomezulu Copyright (c) 2023-02-01 2023-02-01 20 4 20673 20683 Gender inequality in unpaid care and domestic work: A cultural inhibition to women’s entrepreneurship acumen and managerial position in Sub-Saharan Africa <p>Gender inequality which essentially is a social definition of being male and female, remains a persistent challenge to economic growth in sub- Saharan&nbsp; Africa (SSA) because it is cloaked fundamentally in cultural practices. The social categorization of sex as dictated by the society, has attached to it some&nbsp; perceived duties that defines the line of work for both male and female differently. These society appellations assigned works that are reproductive as&nbsp; well as housekeeping in nature as logically belonging to the female gender, notwithstanding other social statuses. The encumbrance of such unpaid care&nbsp; and domestic work which is an indispensable part of gender socialization in SSA, is a major hindrance to women’s economic growth and managerial&nbsp; dexterity. This paper through a thorough engagement with viable literature validated the enormity of unpaid care work as a deterrent to women&nbsp; entrepreneurial opportunities and managerial successes specifically in SSA. The paper posits that except sporadic actions and policies are properly&nbsp; engaged to recognise, redistribute and reward unpaid care work, women’s place in entrepreneurship and managerial positions will continue to be&nbsp; lagging behind and this will invariably continue to hamper the growth and development of women and the economy at large.&nbsp;</p> Olukemi Grace Adebola R.J. Kolawole Copyright (c) 2023-02-01 2023-02-01 20 4 20684 20692 Traditional midwifery and pre-colonial birth security strategies in Owoahiafor, Nigeria, 1929-1970 <p>Human survival is sustained through the management of the population of people from one generation to another. However, the sustained of existential&nbsp; population all over the world is dependent on the process of managing birth and death across the different societies. This study focuses on traditional&nbsp; midwifery in Owoahiafor. It traced the historical origin of the community and how their ancestors engaged in the act of birth management. The study&nbsp; which used essentially key informant interviews found that traditional midwives had processes of managing the birth process from antenatal to the post-&nbsp; natal level notwithstanding their areas of imperfections. It therefore called for the re-training of these traditional midwives into modern act of healthcare&nbsp; management.</p> Kelechi Johnmary Ani Adaeze U. Irondi Copyright (c) 2023-02-01 2023-02-01 20 4 20693 – 20700 20693 – 20700 Patterns and predictors of childhood undernutrition in Nigeria from 2008-2018: A pooled data analysis <p>Childhood undernutrition remain a public health problem, despite several policies and initiatives are being implemented to achieve Sustainable&nbsp; Development Goals 2 and 3, which aim to eradicate all forms of hunger and malnutrition and to improve child well-being by 2030. This study examined&nbsp; the pattern and predictors of Childhood Undernutrition in Nigeria from 2008-2018. The study used a cross-sectional dataset from Nigeria Demographic&nbsp; and Health Surveys years 2008, 2013 and 2018. The respondents selected were 7,394 women of reproductive age with at least one child in the five years&nbsp; preceding the surveys. Data were analyzed using univariate analysis of frequency distribution, bivariate analysis of Chi-square test and multivariate&nbsp; analysis using binary logistic regression model. The stunting and underweight cases among children though slightly decreased over the years, were still&nbsp; on high side. Stunting was 47.5% in 2008, 36% in 2013 and 36% in 2018 while underweight was 31.1% in 2008, 30.5% in 2013 and 22.7% in 2018. The&nbsp; multivariate analysis showed that childhood stunting and underweight was statistically significantly associated with age of mothers, age at first birth,&nbsp; region, religion, level of education, wealth status, place of delivery, birth order, antenatal visit, place of residence, visitation to health facility within the last&nbsp; 12 months, exposure to media and employment status, preceding birth interval, decision making on health care and contraceptive use (P &lt; 0.05).The&nbsp; study concluded that age of mothers, age at first birth, region, religion, level of education, wealth status, place of delivery and birth order were related to&nbsp; childhood under-nutrition in Nigeria. The study ascertained the needs for intervention programmes against childhood under-nutrition would help to&nbsp; mitigate short and long terms adverse outcomes among children in Nigeria. Also, social change programmes on undernutrition taking age of mothers,&nbsp; age at first birth, region, religion, level of education, wealth status, place of delivery and birth order into consideration may help to reduce adverse&nbsp; outcomes of under-nutrition among under-five children.&nbsp;</p> Falade Adekunle Philip Odusina Emmanuel Kolawole Copyright (c) 2023-02-01 2023-02-01 20 4 20701 20714 Effective strategies in HIV and AIDS prevention among adolescent girls and young women in Sub-Saharan Africa: Narrative literature review <p>The global community is geared to ending HIV/AIDS infection by 2030 and yet the HIV incidence remains very high particularly among the adolescent&nbsp; girls and young women (AGYW) aged 15-24 years. This narrative literature review explored qualitative and quantitative studies in order to describe the&nbsp; most effective strategies to reduce transmission of HIV/AIDS infection among AGYW. Results yielded 20 articles that were accessed, analysed and&nbsp; synthesized in this review. Three main themes were identified as strategies that could be used to increase AGYW retention in HIV/AIDS prevention&nbsp; services namely: i) need to strengthen HIV/AIDS prevention; ii) establishing context based services and iii) to monitoring of existing services. The study&nbsp; concluded that there are needs to improve adherences rates by addressing gaps that keep the AGYW from accessing SRH services. The social divisions&nbsp; between the rich and poor AGYW needs to be closed through demand creation for SRH. Hence, the study recommended that context-based strategies&nbsp; may address inherent drivers of HIV/AIDS infection.&nbsp;</p> Nokwanda E. Bam Copyright (c) 2023-02-01 2023-02-01 20 4 20715 20725 Gender health disparities among a nationally representative population sample of aging adults in India in 2017-2018 <p>The aim of this study was to determine the gender health disparity in aging community-dwelling adults in India in 2017-2018. The cross-sectional national&nbsp; sample included 52,393 individuals (≥50 years) from the Longitudinal Ageing Study in India (LASI) Wave 1 in 2017-2018, 53.3% were female and&nbsp; 46.7% male. In the final adjusted logistic regression analyses, women had poorer self-rated health, poorer cognitive functioning, insomnia symptoms,&nbsp; and higher functional disability than men. Current smoking, current smokeless tobacco use, and heavy episodic drinking was more frequent in men than&nbsp; in women, and physical inactivity, general overweight/obesity, abdominal obesity, injury, and recurrent fall were more common in women than in men.&nbsp; Regarding chronic diseases, hypertension, angina, cancer, bone or joint diseases, persistent headaches, back pain or problems, physical pain, periodontal&nbsp; disease, impaired vision, and stress incontinence were more prevalent in women than in men, while the prevalence of stroke was higher in&nbsp; men than in women. Among the 36 health indicators evaluated, 20 had a female health disadvantage, 4 had a male health disadvantage, and 12 did not&nbsp; differ between the female-male groups .</p> Karl Peltzer Copyright (c) 2023-02-01 2023-02-01 20 4 20726 20740 The effect of different mnemonic strategies and gender on ability to recall among secondary school students in Jos, Plateau State <p>Studies have shown that males and females differ in memory associated with gender-stereotyped objects and that mnemonic strategy differs in the&nbsp; ability to recall information. However, specific findings have been inconclusive regarding the specifics of these differences. This study therefore,&nbsp; experimentally investigated mnemonic strategies on student’s ability to recall, adopting an independent group-randomised design. Quantitatively, the&nbsp; effect of mnemonic strategies on recall ability through the ecological validity of self-paced word repetitions, mental imagery and sentence-by-sentence&nbsp; presentations by comparison to normal page reading with respect to comprehension and recall across three groups (A, B and C) were investigated&nbsp; among senior secondary school students in Jos, Plateau state. The results showed that mnemonic strategies do not differ in recall ability (F2, 207 = 0.61,&nbsp; p=.55). Female students recalled more and performed better on mental image mnemonic than male students (t (68) = 3.23, p = .002). Female students&nbsp; recalled more and performed better on sentence mnemonic than male students (t (68) = 2.04, p = .045) and no significant difference was found between&nbsp; male and female students in the recall task on word repetition mnemonic (t (68) = 1.48, p = .145). It was concluded that the ability to recall is influenced by&nbsp; an interaction between stimulus and participant gender. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.&nbsp;</p> Jackson Iheukwumere Osuh Shadrack Bitrus Mwankon Copyright (c) 2023-02-01 2023-02-01 20 4 20741 20753 Board gender diversity and financial performance of listed deposit money banks in Nigeria <p>The study explored the relationship between the board gender diversity and financial performance of the selected deposit money banks in Nigeria. The&nbsp; research design used was ex-post-facto research design with a population of 24 listed deposit money banks in Nigeria as documented by the central bank&nbsp; of Nigeria. The Purposive and quota sampling techniques were used to select the sampling size of five (5) deposit money banks in Nigeria. These&nbsp; five (5) deposit money banks in Nigeria were selected based on the availability of their annual financial statements. The data were obtained from the&nbsp; audited annual financial statements of the selected deposit money banks in Nigeria between 2017 – 2021. The method of data analysis used were&nbsp; descriptive and correlation statistics to test the research hypotheses. The study revealed that the efficiency of female board members was positive and&nbsp; significantly related with the financial performance of deposit money banks in Nigeria. Also, the female CEO and Board gender diversity were negative&nbsp; but significantly weak related with the financial performance of deposit money banks in Nigeria. Based on these findings, the study therefore concluded&nbsp; that the efficiency of female board, female CEOs and board gender diversity were related to the financial performance of deposit money banks in Nigeria.&nbsp; Meanwhile, there is a negative and significant association between board gender diversity and the financial performance of deposit money&nbsp; banks in Nigeria. The study therefore recommended that the female managers and other key players shall incorporate board gender policies and&nbsp; regulations to enhance the financial performance of deposit money banks in Nigeria. Also, deposit money banks in Nigeria should appoint board&nbsp; members based on their skills, competencies, experiences and level of education attained.&nbsp;</p> Babatunde Afolabi Foluso Olugbenga Aribaba Olamide Lateef Ahmodu Morohunmubo Olayinka Akinrinola Anthony E. Oyamendan Copyright (c) 2023-02-01 2023-02-01 20 4 20754 20762 Effects of gender based violence on women in Ikorodu Local Government Area of Lagos State, Nigeria <p>The study examined the effects of gender based violence among women in Ikorodu Lagos State, with the view of how women are violated mainly&nbsp; domestically by their partners. Both primary and secondary sources of information gathering were adopted in this study. The secondary sources include&nbsp; published textbooks, journals and internet materials while the primary source includes use of administered questionnaire to 100 respondents. Four&nbsp; research questions were raised and answered with the use of descriptive statistics of frequency and percentage. Findings revealed that women in&nbsp; Ikorodu are mostly violated by their partners. This is because most of the women depend on their husbands for daily living which give more opportunity&nbsp; to violence in the homes. Empowerment programmes and jobs should be provided for women to make them financially self independent. The&nbsp; government should employ strict laws to counter GBV among women, so as to repel those with such intentions.</p> Agbegbedia Oghenevwoke Anthony Copyright (c) 2023-02-01 2023-02-01 20 4 20763 20775 Factors that facilitate and strategies that can curb female genital mutilation: An integrative review <p>Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) is a serious and disturbing health concern across the world. This study aims to examine and explore factors that could&nbsp; prevent or promote efforts targeted toward the elimination of FGM in all the places where this harmful practice persists. In the last three decades, several&nbsp; attempts have been put in place by several international and national health-related organizations (such as UNICEF. WHO, USAID, and federal&nbsp; ministries of health) to end the practice. Apart from the normal community-based sensitization and stakeholders' engagement on the harmful effects of&nbsp; FGM, many countries like Egypt, Ghana, Senegal, and Uganda have instituted bans on female genital mutilation by criminalizing the practice, as part of&nbsp; the efforts to eliminate this inhumane practice. Though the general knowledge, attitudes, and awareness about the practice have changed over time,&nbsp; there is evidence of collective abandonment of FGM in some local communities. The prevalence of FGM is falling slowly in most countries and the practice&nbsp; has sluggishly declined in some places like Nigeria, Ethiopia, Cote d’Ivoire, and Kenya. Nonetheless, the current underlying population growth in&nbsp; most of the affected countries has constituted an additional challenge toward a timely eradication of female genital mutilation. Hence, a comprehensive&nbsp; understanding of effective strategies that could speedily eliminate female genital mutilation becomes a top priority to achieve the United Nations&nbsp; Sustainable Development Goal of eliminating FGM by the year 2030. Therefore, through an in-depth integrative review, this study explores some factors&nbsp; that are considered capable of facilitating the timely eradication of FGM. The findings of this study show that culture, religion, illiteracy, and sexual control&nbsp; are the key factors that promote the practice of FGM in most societies where the practice persists. The study, therefore, recommends key&nbsp; strategies that could speedily facilitate the effective elimination of FGM. It is also suggested that adequate attention should be given to the emerging&nbsp; female adolescents, who technically constitute the age group that is responsible for future reproduction and national population growth, and this&nbsp; developmental status places them in a crucial position that offers them a unique opportunity to diligently and collectively discontinue this evil practice in&nbsp; their communities.</p> Kamal A. Odunjo-Saka Benjamin Oluwabunmi Omolayo Grace Mobolaji Olasupo Jones-Esan Larry Copyright (c) 2023-02-09 2023-02-09 20 4 20776 20787 Gender disparities and teachers' soft skills as determinants of learners' attitude towards learning mathematics in Ekiti State Primary Schools, Nigeria <p>Learners' attitude towards learning mathematics is fundamental to their performance in the subject as well as in other science-oriented subjects in the&nbsp; primary school curriculum. This study investigated gender disparities and teachers' soft skills as a determinant of learners' attitude towards learning&nbsp; mathematics in Ekiti State primary schools, Nigeria. The study adopted the survey research of the non-experimental design. The population of study cuts&nbsp; across all primary school teachers and learners in the State. Purposive and simple random sampling techniques were used in selecting the sample for&nbsp; this study. In all, the study sample consisted of 97 primary school teachers and 150 learners. Two self-developed research instruments termed "Teachers'&nbsp; Soft Skill Questionnaire (r=0.86)" and "Learners’ Attitude Towards Mathematics Learning Questionnaire (r = 0.71)" were used for data collection. The Data&nbsp; collected in this study were analysed using descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation), and inference statistics (correlation and independent&nbsp; t-test) at a5% level of significance. Results revealed that learners in Ekiti State primary schools possess a positive attitude towards learning Mathematics&nbsp; as a subject; primary school teachers in the Ekiti State have both moderate and high levels of soft skills; significant positive relationship exist between&nbsp; teachers' soft skills and learners' attitude towards the learning of mathematics; negative and non-significant relationship exists between teachers' soft&nbsp; skills and their gender; and there was no significant gender difference in learners attitude towards the learning of mathematics. It is recommended,&nbsp; therefore, that positive attitudes among learners should be encouraged or reinforced; teachers should be professionally trained and retrained on the&nbsp; acquisition of soft skills; suitable working conditions that could foster and sustain teachers' soft skills, should be provided; and equal preference should&nbsp; be accorded both teachers and learners, irrespective of gender disparities.&nbsp;</p> Mensah Prince Osiesi Sunday Ade Adeniran Adebolu Folajimi Adekoya Oluwayemisi Damilola Akomolafe Adenike Lucia Aruleba Sylvan Blignaut Copyright (c) 2023-02-01 2023-02-01 20 4 20788 20802 The effect of women trafficking for prostitution in Nigeria <p>Trafficking of human being is not a new phenomenon in the whole world but there have been increase in prevalent of women trafficking in Nigeria. This&nbsp; has created a great concern for the policy makers, government, Non governmental agencies, religious bodies. This paper therefore seeks to examine the&nbsp; causes, effects and ways of curbing the trafficking of women in Nigeria. The paper employed principally qualitative methodology and secondary sources&nbsp; of data collection. The paper is anchored on rational choice theory for its theoretical framework. The argues that Poverty, war, lack of information, gender&nbsp; inequality and high demand for cheap labor put demographic populations such as women and children at high risk. The paper concludes and&nbsp; recommends that the laws made on human trafficking should be amended in such a that the penalty could include imprisonment, forfeiture of seized&nbsp; assets and even death penalty for traffickers.</p> Niyi Adegoke Ken Amaechi Egbo Copyright (c) 2023-02-01 2023-02-01 20 4 20803 20814 Examining the mediating influence of collective intelligence on the retail sector performance <p>Collective intelligence strongly contributes to the shift of knowledge and power from the individual to the collective. This study provides an&nbsp; understanding of the mediating influence of collective intelligence on retail stores’ performance. The principle of convenience sampling technique was&nbsp; employed in this study to select three retail stores in KwaZulu-Natal South Africa for data collection. A self-administered questionnaire was used for data&nbsp; collection. Simple random sampling was adopted to collect data from 296 employees of the retail stores. Statistical Package for Social Science, version 27&nbsp; and SmartPLS were valuable in analysing the quantitative data. Partial least squares structural equation modelling was used to test the mediating&nbsp; influence of collective intelligence on the relationship between talent development and retail stores’ performance as well as the relationship between&nbsp; Community of practice and Retail stores’ performance. This study found that collective intelligence mediates the relationship between community of&nbsp; practice and retail stores’ performance. The implication for practice was discussed in this study.&nbsp;</p> Miriam Chisom Nnenna Onwugbolu Emmanuel Mutambara Copyright (c) 2023-02-01 2023-02-01 20 4 20815 20827 Patriarchy-induced sexual violence and trauma in Nawal Saadawi’s <i>Woman at point Zero</i> <p>Literary representations of patriarchy have shown the destructive effects of male-chauvinism on women. Most existing studies on patriarchal oppression&nbsp; highlight physical abuses and assaults on women, undermining the psychological injuries suffered by such women. Domestic violence and sexual&nbsp; exploitation have been identified by African writers as some of the common manifestations of patriarchal subjugation. This essay examines the literary&nbsp; portrayal of the repressive experiences of patriarchy in the form of domestic violence and sexual exploitation, which culminates in traumatic memories.&nbsp; Saadawi’s novel, Woman at Point Zero, is subjected to critical, qualitative analysis, highlighting traumatic memories induced by sexual exploitation and&nbsp; patriarchal coercion. The critical discussion of the text focuses on the utterances and conducts of the characters, especially the protagonist, Firdaus who&nbsp; battles with repressive experiences in a male-dominated environment. Caruth’s Trauma Theory is adopted in this study to account for the gradual process&nbsp; of Firdaus’ plunging into deep despair. The textual analysis reveals that social factors like the repressive manifestations of patriarchy in the form&nbsp; of domestic violence and sexual exploitation are capable of engendering trauma in women.&nbsp;</p> Ibitoye-Ayeni Naomi Kehinde Ogunmodede Olabisi Bukola Copyright (c) 2023-02-01 2023-02-01 20 4 20828 20838 The interconnections between armed conflict, Gender-Based Violence (GBV), and Congolese masculinities <p>This paper is derived from a study investigating the relationship between armed conflicts and the understanding of GenderBased Violence (GBV) among Congolese male refugees living in Durban, South Africa. The theories of hegemonic masculinity and social stigma informed this research. Hegemonic&nbsp; masculinity elucidates gender roles, inequality, power, and dominance. The concept of hegemonic masculinity is significant since it frames how socially&nbsp; created and collected conventional notions about dominant masculinities come about. This helps to grasp the stigmatizing culture surrounding GBV in&nbsp; the context of armed conflict. These theories help in linking masculine stigma and GBV, as well as how these connections may affect male survivors. The&nbsp; research used a qualitative approach that included thirty in-depth interviews with Congolese male refugees. It also used thematic analysis to generate&nbsp; the themes from the collected data. The results showed that war had played a significant role in how these men understood GBV. The findings reveal that&nbsp; armed conflicts motivated men to be more violent by promoting violent masculinities and creating a structure that encouraged male dominance at&nbsp; home and in society. The context of armed conflict reinforced power disparity between men and women, leading to increased sexual violence. Moreover,&nbsp; many men felt a sense of security when carrying an arm, which predisposed them to a culture centered on hyper-masculine ideals. The perpetrators also&nbsp; gang-raped men to take control of besieged communities, destabilize them, humiliate the victims, and incite unrest to spread fear and breach social&nbsp; taboos by raping men and boys to undermine the manhood of the victims. Men were emasculated through rape, which generated stigma among the&nbsp; victims, causing them to always feel less manly than their attackers. Men were humiliated everywhere as they became helpless creatures whose&nbsp; masculinities had lost their social meaning.</p> Ndabuli Mugisho Janet Muthuki Copyright (c) 2023-02-01 2023-02-01 20 4 20839 20857