Gender and Behaviour Gender and Behaviour is an interdisciplinary journal dedicated to articles, that reflect psychological and behavioural aspects of gender in general. Gender and Behaviour welcomes scholarly manuscripts from authors all over the world on a wide array of subjects concerning psychological and behavioural aspects of gender in general. Ife Centre for Psychological Studies en-US Gender and Behaviour 1596-9231 Copyright for articles published in this journal is retained by the journal. The prevalence and correlates of cancer screening uptake among women and men in a National Population-Based Sample in Guyana <p>The goal of the study was assessing the prevalence and factors associated with cancer screening screening among the general adult population in Guyana. Participants were 2,662, 18–69-year-old inhabitants (Median=37.4 years), 1068 (40.1%) were men, and 1594 (59.9%) women from the national cross-sectional “2016 Guyana STEPS survey”. Survey questions on cancer screening included clinical breast examination, mammography, Pap smear or Vaginal Inspection with Acetic Acid (=VIA), faecal occult blood test (FOBT), colonoscopy, and prostate examination . Results indicate that the prevalence of ever mammography screening was 10.1% (13.8% ever and 6.6% in the past 2 years aged 40-69 years), CBE 29.1%, Pap smear or VIA 23.0% (24.3% ever and 6.6% in the past 2 years aged 21 -65 years), FOBT 13.2% (17.0% ever aged 50-69 years), colonoscopy 2.0% (3.9% ever aged 50-69 years), and prostate examination 6.7% (12.8% ever aged 40-69 years). In adjusted logistic regression analysis, having more than secondary education, being African/Black, Amerindian, and being mixed and other, being married or cohabiting, blood pressure and cholesterol screening and childhood sexual abuse were positively, and current smoking was inversely associated with Pap smear or VIA screening. Being African/Black, being Mixed or other, cholesterol screening and high physical activity were positively, and past smoking and obesity was negatively associated with mammography uptake. Being male, African/Black, and divorced, separated of widowed were positively and childhood sexual abuse was negatively associated with colonoscopy, and being African/Black, Amerindian, Mixed or other ethnicity, and cholesterol screening were positively, and binge drinking was negatively associated with prostate examination. Low cancer screening uptake was found calling for enhanced cancer screening in Guyana.</p> Supa Pengpid Karl Peltzer Chao Zhang Copyright (c) 2022-03-01 2022-03-01 19 3 18269 18279 Attracting women to careers in engineering: An innovative approach to human capital development in Free State, South Africa <p>In Africa, engineering is a male-dominated field that limits the employment opportunities of women. This case study explored innovative ways of attracting women in the Free State to engineering careers. Data were gathered through interviews with female learners, educators and industries on the less representation of women in engineering and what could be done to improve the situation. The study revealed that perception, societal influence, c ulture, discouragement by educators, parents, lack of guidance and role models in rural communities contribute to few African women in engineering careers. The study recommended the adoption of schools by mining companies and industries, emphasis on teaching mathematics and science, career exhibitions, bursaries for hard-working female students and assistance in career choice as an innovative strategy to increase female learners’ interest in engineering. The study concluded that for women to be more attracted to engineering careers, education stakeholders should encourage female students to study science.</p> Tabita Ladzeh Akpey-Mensah Mammo Muchie Copyright (c) 2022-03-01 2022-03-01 19 3 18280 18287 Gender perspectives of financial advisors and selected determinants of trust in the South African Financial Planning Environment <p>The focus of this research is on gender perspectives of financial advisors on the importance of professional and personal trust determinants in South Africa. When it comes to choosing a financial advisor, trustworthiness has been found to be the most crucial component in the advisor-client relationship. Clients may not be prepared to discuss the information required or be honest about the information they share with advisor(s) if trust is lacking in the financial advisor-client relationship. Previous studies have been based on trust from the client's perspective. The study was quantitative in nature and sent through an email link to all active members of the South African professional body. Three hundred and sixty-four completed questionnaires were returned. The female group was much less experienced as a whole, and they ranked following the process, as more critical than that of the male group, who rated level of experience as the most crucial factor. Individual antecedents were found to be superior in establishing a relationship of trust.</p> Liezel Alsemgeest Henda Steyn Copyright (c) 2022-03-01 2022-03-01 19 3 18288 18297 Understanding the motivations for COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in South Africa: Narrative literature review <p>While efforts to promote vaccine knowledge and acceptability in the global and local communities are applauded, affordability of the vaccines to the public is inadequate thus strategies that promote vaccine access and uptake will lead to increased usage of COVID-19 vaccines. To review the relevant literature obtained from a computerised database search that focuses on vaccine hesitancy in order to understand motivations for vaccine hesitancy with a view to address within a South African context. A comprehensive search from different databases, namely, Google Scholar and North-West University Library through the e-Link Catalogue, with journal and conference publications from 2010 to 2021, yielded qualitative, quantitative and mixed-method studies that addressed various topics on vaccine hesitancy. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were set and 25 publications met the inclusion criteria for the review. The motivations for COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy are described as complacency: anti-scientific attitude (unbelief in evidenced-based information) caused by conspiracy beliefs and distrust in information sources leading to lack of compliance to COVID-19 restrictions such as wearing of masks, social distancing and lack of hand hygiene: convenience/lack of access to COVID-19 vaccines; caused by delays in the distribution and use of vaccines till expiry dates were reached and lack of confidence and trust: caused by concerns on safety and effectiveness of vaccines. COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy can be addressed by ensuring that there are no constraints related to the supply and system that administers vaccines; building trust in the safety of vaccines, health services and government authorities and avoiding delays in distribution and use of vaccines. Future studies need to address the root causes of conspiracy beliefs that lead to complacency (anti-scientific attitudes) resulting in delays/refusal of COVID-19 vaccines and noncompliance to evidence-based information that if observed could curb the spread of COVID-19.</p> Nokwanda E. Bam Copyright (c) 2022-03-01 2022-03-01 19 3 18298 18304 “<I>She is trying to control me</I>”: African men’s lived experiences of intimate partner violence in Johannesburg <p>As studies on women’s experiences of gender-based violence (GBV) flourish across the globe, this article contributes to understandings of intimate partner violence (IPV) that characterises African men’s heterosexual relationships. Drawing on evidence from in-depth individual interviews with men in Johannesburg, the study reveals that while the most obvious form of IPV experienced in their relationships is physical aggression from their female partners, they also face frequent instances of emotional and economic abuse. However, sexual coercion as a form of abuse was generally not prominent, though instances were reported. A minority of the men had been both perpetrators and victims of violence in their relationships. The study adds to a growing body of work on the capacity of women to inflict diverse forms of violence against their male partners and also revealed a xenophobic pattern of IPV associated with some of the migrant African men.</p> Emmanuel Rowlands Copyright (c) 2022-03-01 2022-03-01 19 3 18305 18315 Sex work in South Africa: History, forms of sex works and abuses being faced by sex workers <p>This paper traces the origin of sex work, provides insight on sex work definition, and articulates the different forms of sex works phenomenon for proper understanding and comprehension on how they are being treated differently from other forms of works. Furthermore, the paper points out that sex workers do not enjoy the protections available under the human rights laws and as such, they are discriminated against. Methodologically, this paper used literature review research approach. Relevant key words pertaining to the subject were inserted into google scholar search engine and contemporary scholarly works generated were retrieved, reviewed and salient information from them applied to the current paper for purposes of addressing problem identified .</p> Pontsho P. Matlala Kola O. Odeku Copyright (c) 2022-03-01 2022-03-01 19 3 18316 18322 Give to Caesar what belongs to Caesar: The provision of water and sanitation service in South African rural areas <p>During the apartheid regime in South Africa, the provision of services was based on racial segregation. The black majority was excluded from obtaining basic service delivery. Meanwhile, the new democratic dispensation came into existence in 1994 with many promising transitions for a better life for all. However, the promises remain a man ifesto as the service delivery backlog remains one of the challenges of the 21st century in developing countries across the world, including in South Africa. In other words, poor service delivery is a global problem just like the COVID-19 pandemic which requires global solidarity. The objectives of the study; to assess the status and nature of water service provision in South African rural areas. To determine the significance of water and sanitation service provision in South Africa, and lastly, to examine the challenges faced by South African rural municipalities in the delivery of water and sanitation services. Methodologically, a qualitative research design was adopted in this study. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews and existing literature in search of evidence. Moreover, the thematic data analysis method was also used to clearly comprehend the overall challenges of water scarcity. It is found that South African rural municipalities are facing and experiencing problems concerning water service provision. The existing literature, reports, and interviews concur that there is poor water service provision in rural areas. Therefore, given the restricted availability of water resources, the article recommends that the Limpopo municipalities should seek out a variety of water sources and outsource some of the water service responsibilities to private or other state entities.</p> John Mamokhere France Khutso Lavhelani Kgobe Khensani Richard Chauke Copyright (c) 2022-03-01 2022-03-01 19 3 18323 18330 Food insecurity among African women residing in rural and informal urban areas during lockdown in South Africa <p>Women play a critical role by providing food to ensure the survival of their families and the economic disadvantages women suffer can be linked to complexities arising from the intersection of gender with other identity categories such as race and class. The aim of this article is to examine how food insecurity among African women residing in rural and informal urban areas have been affected by COVID-19 and lockdown in South Africa. The paper uses a qualitative literature review and a feminist economic theoretical framework to bring attention to the impact of the coronavirus pandemic on food insecurity among African women residing in rural and informal urban areas. We argue that African women residing in rural and informal urban areas have been seriously disadvantaged in securing food during lockdown due to intra-household inequality.</p> Ntsikelelo Benjamin Breakfast Thandolwethu Nomarwayi Neziswa Titi Copyright (c) 2022-03-01 2022-03-01 19 3 18331 18336 Innovative measures of the South African Government to provide services to the public during COVID-19: A transformational leadership perspective <p>Covid-19 has exposed lack of transformation in the provision of services in government, this has occurred amidst the claims of available e-services across all government departments. Many services, which could have been accessed online, were not available. For example, a considerable number of South Africans were not able to apply for social grants online during the lockdown period, especially those that are residing in the rural areas. Furthe rmore, many schools and universities had to shut down completely as government has delayed in incorporate technology in teaching and learning. Thus, government was forced to be innovative in its approach to deliver essential services and in mitigating the effects of Covid-19 pandemic. Covid-19 pandemic is predicted to remain with the public for a near future whilst trials are being conducted to find a vaccine. Therefore, this article is based on a research that was conducted on the innovative measures that were implored by government to respond to Covid-19 pandemic. A qualitative research approach was used to conduct a desk top analysis. Data was collected through extensive review of literature. Thus, the study concluded that the government is not proactive in making e-services available in remote areas. One of the recommendations is that government has to transform, and that can happen if transformational leadership is pursued across the departments.</p> Maria Matshidiso Kanjere Copyright (c) 2022-03-01 2022-03-01 19 3 18337 18346 The power therein – A case of the African female in Ghana <p>This study was set up on the premise that females in Africa have inherent power, as in capability. The dominant discourse has centered on females being portrayed as the more vulnerable gender, and thus, wielding less power, as compared to their male counterparts, whose power, status and dominance are reinforced through traditional, social and cultural beliefs. A qualitative investigation was, therefore, undertaken in Ghana, among a cross-section of males and females in Accra. The study revealed that females have space in the home, economic and governance settings to exhibit their controls and capabilities. The nurturing or home care role was however found to be outstandin g and serves as the main source of all the powers that females exercised in society. The study, therefore, recommended that, the gender discourse be balanced to project the dominant role of females which emerges from the home, so that the home will not be abandoned in lieu of career advancement or engagement in public life. Thus, commitment of females to the formal sector should not be at the expense of their nurturing roles. The two roles must be well-balanced whiles giving nurturing the priority it deserves.</p> Olivia A. T. Frimpong Kwapong Copyright (c) 2022-03-01 2022-03-01 19 3 18347 18360 The ‘Unmentionable’ as art: Exploring Lucy Azubuike’s Menstrual Series <p>Menstruation for women is often a hushed private experience. However many women artists have chosen to bring it to the public domain through their art. In this paper I try to explore the concept of menstrual art. I also explore the conceptualization of the biological as art form. I also investigate Lucy Azubuike’s menstrual art series as subtexts of gender representation. Using Azubuike’s menstrual series, I analyze the conceptual techniques she deploys to contest the patriarchal gaze that continually attempts to construct women in Nigerian societies, as subservient. I also argue that Azubuike through her art examines themes that convey sentiments of African feminist art.</p> Nkiruka Jane Nwafor Copyright (c) 2022-03-01 2022-03-01 19 3 18361 18365 Women and political power in Africa: Belonging and isolation <p>A growing phenomenon in Africa today has seen to an increasing gender relations and growing political participation compared to what obtained in early post-independence Africa. However with these changes, a notable rooted existence of gender discrimination still persists, and made apparent by the continental political evolution, culture and perception. Thus, a growing feministic concern is bothered on the unfair perception of gender inferiority accrued to women in Africa political settings, and their consequent ostracizing alienation from public and political occupancies and offices. The genesis of this in Africa stemmed directly from the dictates of African traditional culture of feministic sub-serviency to men, male autocratic and authoritative inclination, and the general African perception that women are meant for the homes, occupying their traditional housewifeship and motherhood positions. Therefore, a critical review of the phenomenon was carried for the study. Today, African traditions and persistent male authoritativeness, coupled with women’s resignation to fate and traditions and a self-imposed inferiority, have spurned political gender discrimination in Africa to heights of social injustices and deprivation of rights, and thus hinder women’s initiative for equality of rights, participation and citizenship, and an eventual achievement of various feministic asp irations and dreams. Thus, engendering a politically impaired gender relation in Africa. In submission, for Africa to structurally adapt to a gender expressive and participatory nation-states, re-engineer its gender discriminative structures, and institute a practicable gender tolerance and justice, equality of rights and citizenship, Africans most especially men must do away with its traditional perception of women, most part of the male dominance, and encourage women to their need for political participation and contribution to nation building for the good of one and all.</p> Durojaye Oyedolapo Babtunde Copyright (c) 2022-03-01 2022-03-01 19 3 18366 18374 Influence of homework on pupils’ academic performance in Ilorin East Local Government Area, Kwara State <p>This study, investigates the influence of homework on pupils’ academic performance in Ilorin East Local Government Area, Kwara State. A descriptive survey design was adopted for this study. The sample consisted of 17 randomly selected public and private primary schools, out of which 382 parents’ and 382 pupils’ from primary 2 and 3 were randomly selected. Researcher designed questionnaires were used: the children’s questionnaire on the Homework was used to elicit information from children, while the parents’ questionnaire on the Homework was also used to elicit information from parents. Proforma for Pupils’ Academic Performance was used to collect the record of pupils’ academic performance in Numeracy, and Literacy. The reliability of the instruments was established using PPMC; the results yielded 0.86 and 0.92. Two research questions were generated and answered. There null hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. Descriptive statistics of mean, percentage and standard deviations is used to answer the research questions, and inferential statistics of linear regression and t-test were used to test the five null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The findings indicated that children were sometimes given homework; the weighted mean is 2.39 which is between 1.5 and 2.4, also parents sometimes provided support on their children’s homework; the weighted mean is 2.46 which is between 1.5 and 2.4. It was also discovered that homework was found to significantly influence pupils’ academic performance, (F (1,382) = 17.464, P &lt; 0.05) which also implied that the regular the homework, the better the pupils’ academic performance. It was therefore recommended that homework should be given at least two times a week so that it will not lose its value, parents should be given a comprehensive guideline on how to assist children during homework in order to guarantee the best result. Also every school should consider homework as a strategy to improve pupils’ performance and ensure regular (two times a week) homework. It was therefore concluded that effort should be focus at ensuring regular communication and regular homework.</p> Hafees Tosin Sulyman Copyright (c) 2022-03-01 2022-03-01 19 3 18375 18382 Tyrannical masculinity as gender inversion in Dangarembga’s she no longer weeps <p>This study explores the portrayal of tyrannical masculinity as ‘gender inversion’ in Tsitsi Dangarembga’s She No Longer Weeps. The portraiture of tyranny as a hallmark of hegemonic masculinity is enhanced as male characters are depicted as inverted men, who assert their overarching masculinity as guaran teed by the power structure of patriarchy. The drama text is purposively selected as it reflects the socio-cultural expression of maleness in gender relations within the patriarchal society of Zimbabwe. Connell’s Hegemonic masculinity as an aspect of the g ender theory is employed to underpin the study. Through the monolithic presentation of male characters in the play, this paper submits that Dangarembga’s delineation of tyrannical male characters is an attitude of gender inversion of the image and identity of the man to invoke a change in the patriarchal status quo and achieve the empowerment of the female gender.</p> Ogunmodede Olabisi Bukola Owoeye Omolara Kikelomo Olaniyan Kolawole Dennis Copyright (c) 2022-03-01 2022-03-01 19 3 18383 18390 The debate on transformation in South Africa: Accentuating radical economic transformation from an Afrocentric youth perspective <p>South Africa’s democratic dispensation ushered in a number of initiatives to transform the economy and alleviate divisions of the past. The National Democratic Revolution (NDR) ideology which served as the guiding policy framework to the African National Congress (ANC) and its allies called for radical measures such as nationalisation of strategic sectors. However, the ANC followed neo-liberal path in implementing adopted policies such as the Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP), the Growth, Employment and Redistribution (GEAR) strategy, the Accelerated and Shared Growth Initiative of South Africa (ASGISA) and the National Development Plan (NDP). The persisting triple socio-economic challenges (inequality, unemployment, and poverty) during President Zuma’s last tenure (2014-2018) spurred many calls for Radical Economic Transformation (RET). This article employs Afrocentricity as the alternative lens informed by African experiences that should provide a basis for analysis, understanding and implementation of RET as the proposed strategic policy to reduce inequality, unemployment, and poverty. The central argument of this desktop article is that African experiences should inform studies on any African phenomenon. Methodologically, the article employed Afrocentric qualitative research methodology to provide potential remedies on the research phenomenon.</p> Dominic Maphaka Makhura B. Rapanyane Copyright (c) 2022-03-01 2022-03-01 19 3 18337 18346 Overview and impact of criminalization of sex work in South Africa <p>This paper looks at the sex work phenomenon and points out that it is still being criminalized in South Africa as both the government and criminal justice system are reluctant to decriminalize sex work. Failure to decriminalize sex work is based on the common misconception of what may occur if sex work was to be decriminalized. It is believed that decriminalization of sex work would expand the sex industry leading to the increase of (street) prostitution and child prostitution. However, criminalizing sex work has more harmful effects as opposed to when it is regulated, one of which is the high rate of violence towards sex workers, who are mostly females. This paper looks at why the South African government, despite having a huge number of active sex workers in the country, blatantly refuses to decriminalize sex work. It is therefore apt to point out that by decriminalizing sex work, it would be easier to regulate sex work and afford sex workers their human rights when compared to the trade being illegal.</p> Pontsho P. Matlala Kola O. Odeku Copyright (c) 2022-03-01 2022-03-01 19 3 18400 18404 Dissemination and implementation of school health policy in rural Nigeria: Perceived strengths of stakeholders <p>Strengths enhance the dissemination and implementation of school health policy in order to promote the health, wellbeing and academic performance of school children. These have not been achieved for several reasons largely due to the ineffective dissemination and implementation of school health policy, health and educational inequalities. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore and describe the perceived strengths of stakeholders with regard to the dissemination and implementation of a school health policy in rural Nigeria. Exploratory, descriptive and contextual research design was used to obtain data from participants purposively selected for the study. Semistructured interviews were conducted with key role-players and data saturation was achieved after interviewing twenty-four participants. The targeted population consisted of directors involved in the promotion of school health (trained teachers and healthcare professionals) and representatives of developmental partners (UNICEF) working in the aforementioned ministries in rural Nigeria. Ethical clearance was requested and obtained from the North-West University before data collection and analysis (Reference: NWU-00633-18-A9). Principles of credibility, dependability, confirmability and transferability were observed to ensure trustworthiness of this study. Thematic analysis as well as Atlas ti, Version 8.0 were used to analyse data. Two themes emerged from the study as follows: perceived existing structures; and strategies recommended by stakeholders. Participants believed there are existing strengths that could be used to achieve the objectives of school health. Thus, it is important for stakeholders to explore avenues on how to utilise available strengths.</p> Helen Idubamo Wankasi Leepile Alfred Sehularo Mahlasela Annah Rakhudu Copyright (c) 2022-03-01 2022-03-01 19 3 18405 18412 A comparative analysis of sustainability reporting and assurance of Johannesburg Security Exchange (JSE, 2010 – 2015) listed mining and retail companies <p>The world is faced with challenges in all three areas of sustainable development—economic, social and environmental. More than 2 billion people are living in extreme poverty; income inequality within and among many countries has also been on the rise. Such countries include South Africa, which is battling with triple social challenges, namely, inequality, poverty and unemployment. Some of these social problems are caused by unsustainable consumption and use of natural resources. Thus, achieving sustainable development requires global actions that will deliver on the legitimate aspiration of the people. Such interventions should advance economic and social lives of the individuals whilst strengthening and protecting the environment. Therefore, a study was con ducted on selected Johannesburg Security Exchange (JSE) listed companies. The aim of the study was to conduct a comparative analysis of sustainability reporting and assurance of JSE listed mining and retail companies. The study used literature review as well as integrated annual reports of selected mining and retail companies, to evaluate if those companies have complied with the recommendations/standards of King III, AA 1000AS, ISAE 3000 and those of Companies Act. One of the major findings in the study was that mining and retail companies adopted assurance sustainability standards from different practitioners. Most of the standards used were from the big five (5) audit firms in South Africa, namely, KPMG, PWC, SNG, ERNST &amp; YOUNG AND DELIOTTE and TOUCHE. The sectors also adhered to King III Reporting guidelines and AA1000AS. The study recommended improvements on sustainability and assurance reporting.</p> Kgorompe Michael Moswatsi Maria Matshidiso Kanjere Copyright (c) 2022-03-01 2022-03-01 19 3 18413 18422 Sexual violence and victims’ reporting practices in Ibadan, Oyo State <p>The reporting of sexual violence precedes interventions for justice. The study examines the factors influencing the victims’ reporting of sexual violence in Ibadan, Nigeria. It used mixed methods. It analysed the data collected from the randomly selected 326 respondents from 8 local government areas at two levels. Thematically, it analysed collected qualitative data from 15 purposively selected key informant interviewees in Ibadan. The quantitative results indicate that 87.1% of the respondents acknowledged awareness of the legal implications of sexual violence. However, more victims who reported cases of sexual violence suggested castration for perpetrators. The qualitative data confirm that some victims’ parents are complicit. It concludes that parents who aid and abet sexual violence by withdrawing reported cases should be prosecuted.</p> Jane Roli Adebusuyi Johnson Oluwole Ayodele Oladayo Omofolarin Ayoola Ajibola Olutayo Olaniyi Copyright (c) 2022-03-01 2022-03-01 19 3 18423 18438 Uptake of cancer screening among women and men in Ecuador: Prevalence and associated factors in 2018 <p>The aim of the study was to assess the uptake of cancer screening among men and women in Ecuador. In a national cross-sectional survey in 2018, 1944 (41.9%) men, and 2694 (58.1%) women responded to questions on cervical cancer screening, mammography, breast examination (BE), faecal occult blood test (FOBT), colonoscopy, and prostate examination. The results indicate that the prevalence of ever pap smear cervical cancer screening among women aged 21-65 years was 62.6%, past year BE among women aged 50-69 years was 21.6%, and past 2 years mammography screening among women aged 50-69 years was 23.8%. Among women aged 50-69 years, 25.3% ever had an FOBT and 13.9% ever had colonoscopy. Among men aged 50-69 years, 22.6% ever had an FOBT, 10.9% ever had colonoscopy, and 41.7% ever had a prostate examination. In the adjusted logistic regression, older age, blood pressure, and cholesterol screening, visit to a health worker in the past 12 months, and overweight were positively and having often or always salt, being Amerindian or Indigenous by ethnicity, and having underweight were negatively associated with ever cervical cancer screening. Older age, secondary or higher education, glucose screening, health care worker visits in the past 12 months, and past smoking were positively and being Montubio by ethnicity and binge drinking were negatively associated with ever prostate examination. We found a low uptake cancer screening, and identified several associated factors which may help in designing cancer screening programmes in Ecuador.</p> Supa Pengpid Karl Peltzer Chao Zhang Copyright (c) 2022-03-01 2022-03-01 19 3 18439 18449 Intercultural beliefs and the practice of female genital mutilation in Kaduna and Ekiti States <p>Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is deeply rooted in a socio-cultural belief that forces women to undergo the live threatening practice of mutilating/cutting a females genital. Till today, virginity is perceived as an indicator of veneration for girls and parents, also culturally there is an erroneous dogma that female genital cutting can lessen promiscuity among females. This study examined intercultural beliefs and practices of FGM in Kaduna State and Ekiti State which is a representation of the Northern and South-western, Nigeria respectively. The study was carried out on 400 selected respondents in totality, 200 respondents in each of the study state. Data were collected through structured questionnaires More so, multistage sampling technique was used in selecting participants. The findings revealed that majority(87%) in Kaduna and 97% in Ekiti have heard of FGM. 75% believed that FGM practice is not against the law while in Kaduna the result shows a high level of confusion as to whether it was a gainst the law. Majority(91%) in Ekiti endorsed the practice of FGM while in Kaduna majority(74%) object to the practice. The main reason for supporting or not in both states were principally sexual and cultural. The practice of FGM in Ekiti is astronomical as 90.5% agreed to the circumcision of their girl child while majority(88%) in Kaduna disagreed. All socio-demographic variables shows a positive significant relationship to the practice of FGM in a chi-square test. In summary the finding shows a substantial level of subscription to the practice of FGM in southwest, Nigeria however the practice is infinitesimal in Northern, Nigeria. The study recommends a spontaneous advocacy programs coupled with pragmatic jingles in local dialects that would centre on educating the populace on the inherent dangers of FGM practice especially in the southwest and furthermore, to totally dissaude the trifling percentage that agree to FGM practice in North by demystifying all FGM cultural beliefs which would culminate to the extinction of the heinous practice.</p> Beatrice D. Adeoye Oriola Bolanle Odedokun E. Akinyemi Olutayo A. Adebayo Copyright (c) 2022-03-01 2022-03-01 19 3 18450 18458 Gender discrimination in Nigerian Educational System and Women Productivity: A holistic approach <p>Evidence has shown that education is an enabling and transformative right as pointed out by the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Right (CESCR). Education is essential to advancing human capital by enabling individuals develop their knowledge and skills throughout their lives. More so, relatively high levels of education are often related to higher earnings and productivity, better career progression, health, life satisfaction as well as better investments in education. The Global Campaign for Education (2010) states that two third of the world's non -literate adults are women which they believed emanated from gender discrimination. This situation was seen as a very serious challenge that led to various efforts by many International organisations. Nigeria is not an exception to this gender discrimination, as she has not been able to fully utilize her human resources due to this menace caused largely by cultural beliefs. This is more predominant in the Northern part where women are mostly seen as subordinate to men. Consequently, this paper discusses ways to overcoming gender discrimination, to reorienting education towards the promotion of greater gender equality in the society as poor quality of education can neither equip the woman to secure reasonable employment nor enable her to be a productive citizen.</p> C.B. Obasoro M.L. Lamidi I.O. Ayodele Copyright (c) 2022-03-01 2022-03-01 19 3 18459 18463 Influence of police, the welfare office and the court in the management of victims of sexual violence in Lagos State <p>The management of victims of sexual violence has been underreported due to the stigma associated with the report of sexual violence, therefore this study examined the influence of the police, welfare system and the court in the management of victims of sexual violence in Ikeja local government area of Lagos State. The study used a mixed method of both quantitative and qualitative method. Descriptive statistics and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to analyze the data. A total number of one hundred and fifty (150) respondents were used. Fifty (50) respondents each from the three agencies. Also, ten (10) respondents were used for the in -depth interview. A standard questionnaire titled ‘Sexual Violence Wellbeing Questionnaire’ (SVWQ) was used. Three null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance and all were rejected. The study concluded that provision of rehabilitation services by the state government has greatly helped the victims of sexual violence that reported their case at the police force. Therefore, the study recommends there should be 24/7 helplines for people experiencing sexual violence and each state in Nigeria should create a safe-house for victims of sexual violence as Lagos State did.</p> Oluwafikayomi Opeyemi Banjo Ayodeji Olonimoyo Tominiyi Omotosho Olugbenga S. Ajayi Adesoye B. Binuyo Copyright (c) 2022-03-01 2022-03-01 19 3 18464 18470 Gap analysis and demographic differentiation of awareness of technology based instructional resources among business educators <p>The study determined the gap analysis and demographic differentiation of awareness of Technology -Based Instructional Resources (TBIR) among business educators in colleges of education in Edo and Delta States of Nigeria. To guide the study, two research questions were raised and answered while two hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. The study employed a descriptive survey research design. The population of the study was 116 business educators, in the colleges of education in Edo and Delta States and this constitute the sample size for the study. A questionnaire title: Gap Analysis and Demographic Differentiation of Awareness of Technology - Based Instructional Resources (GDATBIR), validated by experts was used for data collectio n. The reliability coefficient of the questionnaire was 0.84. The analysis revealed that there exist awareness gap among business educators on various TBIR for teaching. Also, the analysis revealed that there exist demographic differentiations of awareness between male and female business educators regarding TBIR for teaching business subject. The study, therefore, recommended among others, that authorities of colleges of education should endeavorto create awareness for their business educators to adopt TBIR for instructional delivery through seminars, workshops and conferences. Also, male and female business educators should be sensitized equally on the awareness of utilizing TBIR for effective instructional delivery.</p> Liadi Hakeem Olaniyi Bolupe A. Awe Copyright (c) 2022-03-01 2022-03-01 19 3 18471 18479 Migrant youths’ survival strategies for their sustainable livelihoods: The case of Musina in the Limpopo Province of South Africa <p>This paper presents qualitative findings on the survival strategies employed by migrant youth in Musina which is in the Limpopo province of South Africa. Southern Africa encounters an exceptional international human mobility. Several studies reveal South Africa as a host country for a large number of immigrants, particularly migrant youth who come from other African countries. Upon their arrival in South Africa, studies reveal that immigrants encounter a vast number of challenges for their sustainable livelihoods. It is from this background that this study sought to e xplore migrant youth’ survival strategies for their sustainable livelihoods. The study employed a qualitative approach and a case study design wherein Musina was used as a case study. Ten migrant youth were purposively and conveniently selected to participate in this study. Data which is analysed thematically through the assistance of the Nvivo software was collected through face to face semi-structured interviews. Resilience theory was used to guide this study. Findings reveal that bad economic conditionsfrom countries of origin pushed young people to South Africa for better livelihoods, however, due to lack of funds, some crossed borders fraudulently for their survival. Upon their arrival in South Africa, findings further revealed that some migrant youth engage in criminal acts to make a living. It was also found that some migrant youth are involved in sex work to make a living. Social networking with their counterparts, street vending, cheap and exploitative labour were also found to be strategies employed by migrant youth for their sustainable livelihoods. It is thus concluded that migrant youth in South Africa are exposed to bad conditions upon their arrival in the country for their sustainable livelihoods. Proper programmes specifically tailored for immigrants should be developed so as to mitigate this phenomenon.</p> Dillo Justin Ramoshaba Selelo Frank Rapholo Khutso Mamadi Copyright (c) 2022-03-01 2022-03-01 19 3 18480 18486 Martyrs of socialisation: Understanding the causes of domestic violence through women’s narratives in Ghana and Nigeria <p>Domestic violence (DV) is a pervasive social problem found across all strata of society worldwide. Although literature on DV abounds, some causes of DV in the African context remain unconventional. This study explores some of the factors that give rise to DV in Africa through the narratives of victims and police officers in selected regions in Ghana and Nigeria. Specifically, in-depth interviews were conducted with 100 female, 30 police officers while ethnographic observation was also undertaken in the Police Stations. Findings reveal a cultural situation where people hold the perception that DV results from disobedience to religious doctrines on marriage as well as spiritual and supernatural manipulations, with women’s economic (in)dependence being the external expression of these causes. Using such prisms, women victims themselves were sometimes identified as being the causes of their own woes.</p> Abena Asefuaba Yalley Molatokunbo Seunfunmi Olutayo Adedeji Victor Adebayo Copyright (c) 2022-03-01 2022-03-01 19 3 18487 18494 An investigation on perception of Ekiti State Senior Secondary School Students’ and Teachers’ needs and competence in Information and Communication Technology <p>This study investigated the perception of Ekiti State Senior Secondary School Students’ and Teachers’ Needs and Competency on the use of information and communication technology (ICT). This was to ascertain the necessity of changing pedagogical implication and trends in the twenty first century classroom. The study adopted descriptive design of the survey type. The sample size comprised 180 students and 45 teachers of English language randomly selected from grade A and grade B from public secondary schools and private secondary schools. The instrument used for the collection of data was a structured questionnaire titled “Questionnaire on Perception of Ekiti State Senior Secondary School Students’ and Teachers’ Needs and Competency in Information and Communication Technology” (QPESSSSTNCICT). The instrument was validated by experts. A reliability coefficient of 0.68 was obtained and the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics. The result revealed that there is significant difference in the students’ and teachers’ competency in ICT with (F1,221=17.327, p&lt;0.05). It was also discovered that ICT facilities are useful for teaching and learning skills in schools. The result showed that motivation to teach effectively and high learning speed, timing efficiency are the roles of gender of students and teachers’ competency in ICT. It was recommended that government should provide adequate ICT facilities to schools in a bid to improve teachers’ job performance. It was also recommended that ICT experts should be deployed to secondary schools and proper monitoring unit to ensure judicious use of the facilities to enhance technological advancement in Nigerian Secondary Schools</p> Olayinka Michael Irewole Modupe Grace Aroge Copyright (c) 2022-03-01 2022-03-01 19 3 18495 18502 Gender as determinant of teacher trainees’ perception towards the teaching profession at the Federal University Oye Ekiti, Nigeria <p>Evidence suggests that teacher trainees' gender influences their perception, interest, and attitude towards the teaching profession. Regrettably, there is limited and contrasting empirical literature in this regard. Hence , this study examined the influence of gender on teacher trainees' perception, interest and attitude towards the teaching profession in Southwest, Nigeria. The study adopted the quantitative research design of the survey research type. A multi-stage sampling procedure was used in selecting the required number of respondents for the study, which comprised of both 300L and 400L teacher trainees' of the faculty of education, Federal University of Oye -Ekiti. The Teachers' Questionnaire (TQ) which had four sections was the research instrument used for data collection for the study, whose validity was ascertained by showing to experts in the field of instrument design and reliability with the Cronbach alpha: Teacher Trainees' Perception of the Teaching Profession (r = 0.52); Teacher Trainees’ Interest in the Teaching Profession (r = 0.86) and Teacher Trainee’ Attitude to the Profession (0.82). The data collected were analysed using descriptive (mean and standard deviation) and inferential statistics. The results showed that teacher trainees possess a high interest, positive perception, and positive attitude towards the teaching profession. It was noted that teacher trainees' gender negatively correlates and does not influence teacher trainees' perception, interest, and attitude towards the teaching profession. It was therefore recommended that education stakeholders prioritise programmes that will foster positive perception, interest, and attitude of teacher trainees’ towards the teaching profession amongst others.</p> Bolupe Abayomi Awe Mensah Prince Osiesi Roseline Nkem Tilije Copyright (c) 2022-03-02 2022-03-02 19 3 18503 18510 Influence of gender and life orientation on depression and psychological functioning among persons living with diabetes <p>Depression and psychological functioning in persons living with diabetes is of great concern more especially because of the increased report on diabetes health complications which has rippling effect on survival among this population. Indeed, literature attest to socio-demographic factors as been relevant to report of psychological functioning and depression. However, little is known about the vital role of personal factors such as gender and life orientation dimensions impact on depression and psychological functioning among persons living with diabetes. Consequently, the current study explored the influence of gender and life orientation on depression and psychological functioning in persons living with diabetes. Participants were 125 [34.4% males and 65.6% females] persons living with diabetes who were purposively sampled from a teaching hospital, in Ibadan. The age of respondents ranged between 30 and 90 years, with a mean age of 62.71 and standard deviation of 9.64. The study utilized the cross-sectional survey design and gathered data through psychometrically sound scales. Results revealed that life orientation dimensions (optimism and pessimism) were significant joint predictors of psychological functioning (F (1, 124) = 6.882; p &lt; .001; R<sup>2</sup>= .224) and depression (F (1, 124) = 3.374; p &lt; .01; R<sup>2</sup>= .124) among persons living with diabetes. Also, it was observed that gender differences exist for depression (t (123) = 2.117; P&lt;.05) but not for psychological functioning (t (123) = -0.819; P&gt;.05). The practical implications of findings for psychological intervention and management of persons living with diabetes mellitus were discussed.</p> S. Ajayi Mojisola A.O. Adejumo B.O. Olley Copyright (c) 2022-03-02 2022-03-02 19 3 18511 18519 Music advocacy and Gender-Based Violence (GBV) during COVID-19 pandemic <p>Songs are a powerful instrument for social mobilization. Different studies have acknowledged their influence at different times in societies worldwide. Based on muted group theory and social responsibility theory’ assumptions, this paper therefore explored the use of local songs/jingles in creating public Gender-Based Violence (GBV) awareness during COVID-19 pandemic in Nigeria. It sampled and analysed three songs/jingles used to create GBV sensitization during this period, looking at the dominant messages and gender-based violence types mentioned in the songs/jingles. Also, it purposively sampled male and female university students’ gender experiences on campus, and gender campaign experts’ opinions on the use of local songs for gender-based violence awareness. GBV issues of rape, battery, femicide, and women empowerment dominated the songs/jingles which also preach importance of mutual respect and consent in any relationship involving men and women. Moreover, most students and gender advocates espoused songs/jingles use for GBV message dissemination. Notwithstanding, they did not believe using songs could bring the desired attitudinal change during COVID-19 pandemic. Also, most students objected to the kind of songs and music artists used in the songs/jingles. In conclusion, GBV’s prevalence in Nigeria aligns with the assumption that women are still a muted group without much communication power in a male -dominated media landscape. As a media and cultural material, music has a social responsibility to serve as the voice to promote women empowerment, especially if it is deliberately employed to serve the purpose.</p> Fadipe Israel Ayinla Francis Amenaghawon Copyright (c) 2022-03-02 2022-03-02 19 3 18520 18529 Gender as moderating factor shaping the influence of dispositional characteristics, socio-cultural context and personal belief on multitasking behaviour <p>Factors associated with multi-tasking behaviour include dispositional characteristics, socio-cultural context and personal belief but are unconfirmed among adolescents. Confirming that polychronicity preferences and multitasking vary across gender. We seek to shed more light on how socio-demographic (age and socio-economic status) and dispositional (self-esteem and Locus of control) factors predicting multitasking behaviour will vary across the gender among Adolescents in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria. The study was a cross-sectional design using 470 adolescents from 7 public secondary schools selected from the population of adolescents from the 5 Local Government Areas within the Abeokuta metropolis. Standardised questionnaire instruments were used to elicit data from the students. Data were analysed using multiple regression and path analysis at a 0.05 level of significance. Results revealed that age (β=.13; t = 3.99, p&lt;.01), socio-economic status; (Middle – High (β=.40; t = 4.08, p&lt;.01), Low – High (β=.48; t = 3.10, p&lt;.01) and internal locus of control (β=.19, t= 4.24; p&lt;.01) [F (5,469) = 8.86, R2 = .10; p &lt; .01] predicted multitasking behaviour. Self-esteem full mediated the regression paths of age (initial β = -.10, p&lt;.05, after β = -.08, p&gt;.05), internal LOC (initial β = .19, p&lt;.01, after β = .07, p&gt;.05) to multitasking and partially the paths of socio - economic status (Middle – High (initial = β = .48, p&lt;.01, after = β.14, p&lt;.01), Low – High (initial β=.40 after β = .14, p&lt;.01) associations with multi-tasking behaviour with a good fit (χ<sup>2</sup> (6) = 9.93; p = .13; GFI = .99; CFI = 1.00; SRMR = .04; RMSEA = .00[HI=.018-LO=.00]). Gender moderated the relationship between socio-demographic, psychological variables and multi-tasking behaviour (ΔX<sup>²</sup> (11) = 36.1, p&lt;.001) as the association among Age, selfesteem and locus of control with multitasking behaviour were shown to be significant for females while they were not for males. In addition, lower socioeconomic status and external LOC significantly predicted self-esteem for males but did not for females.It was concluded that adolescents’ socio-economic status, self-worth and internal locus were predictive of their multi-tasking ability for girls than the boys. Thus, confidence building training should be offered to adolescents in preparing them for future roles as productive workers and parents. Empowering female adole scents with multi-tasking skills will go a long way in enhancing their future role as a wife, mothers and in their professional endeavours.</p> Jackson I. Osuh Ajibola Abdulrahamon Ishola Copyright (c) 2022-03-02 2022-03-02 19 3 18530 18539 A retrospect on prevalences of suicidality and its gender significance <p>Suicide report is becoming a recurring occurrence and reported cases are on the increase in Nigeria, and a higher number involved in the process of suicidality, which is a red flag for eventual suicide. Hence these study “A retrospect on prevalences of suicidality and its gender significance”. The descriptive survey design was used and the instrument was a questionnaire adapted from a validated questionnaire, which measured the stages of suicidal behaviour. This was administered on a sample size of 1,000 respondents. The population was undergr aduates of universities in Nigeria. Research questions were generated on suicidal ideation, suicidal planning and suicidal attempt. Mean and standard deviation was used in analyzing the data. The results of research question on prevalence of suicidal ideation between genders revealed that frequency of ideation is more with the female. The prevalence of suicidal planning between gender also showed a differing probability between the male and female. It is recommended that Gender specific suicide prevention and intervention programmes should be provided by institutions of higher learning.</p> Bose Makinde Ayodele Adeoye Copyright (c) 2022-03-02 2022-03-02 19 3 18540 18543 Gender, compensation and morale as determinants of professional counselors' job performance in Ekiti State Secondary Schools, Nigeria <p>The study examined the impact of gender, compensation and morale as determinants of professional counselors' job performance in Ekiti state secondary schools. The study adopted a descriptive survey research type of the nonexperimental design. The population consisted of all professional counselors in secondary schools in Ekiti State. The sample for the study consisted of 100 professional counselors in secondary schools in Ekiti State. The sample was selected using multistage sampling procedure. Data on counselors’ gender, compensation, morale and job performance were obtained using a self-designed research instrument tagged “Predictors of Job Performance of Professional Counselors Questionnaire". The face and content validity of the instrument was determined by experts in Counseling, Tests and Measurement. The reliability of the instrument was determined through Cronbach’s alpha statistic. A reliability co-efficient of 0.79, showing that the instrument is reliable. The data collected were analyzed using frequency count and percentages. Three hypotheses formulated were tested with the use of t-test and Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient. The major findings of the study were that compensation and job performance were significantly positively correlated, while morale and job performance were not significantly correlated among the sample of the study. Moreover, there was a significant gender difference in the moral of professional counselors. It was recommended that government should promulgate law that will enable counselors in secondary schools fully practice their profession without the addition of other teaching subjects. This will enhance their focus on assisting students in adjusting positively to their academic pursuits.</p> Adams Adijat Bolanle Arogundade Abidemi Olufemi Sanni Kamorudeen Taiwo Osiesi Mensah Prince Copyright (c) 2022-03-02 2022-03-02 19 3 18544 18550 Domestic violence and its impact on the educated women in Nigeria: Experience from Federal University Oye-Ekiti female staff <p>Domestic Violence is a prevailing public health problem in the world today which has serious consequences especially among women. It has been of great international and national concern among World organization and government of many countries. It has taken alarming trend and different dimensions. Hence, the study is concerned with the examination impact of Domestic violence on the educated women in Nigeria. The study was anchored on the Culture of violence theory for its theoretical frame work. A cross- sectional survey method was adopted for data collection. A total of one hundred and twenty (120) women respondents were selected from staff of Federal University.Oye-Ekiti (FUOYE). The study employed a uniform set of questionnaire schedule and in-depth interviews in data collection. The findings revealed that the impact of domestic violence on women are great, which include depression, injury, death, low productivity, children development, financial problem, lack of happiness a nd love, insecurity, divorce or separation and health issues. It also revealed that majority of the educated women agreed that financial problems and infidelity the major causes of domestic violence. The study, therefore, recommends among many, that there is need for concerted efforts among the religious group , mass media and health sectors to react quickly to the problems of domestic violence in term of enlightenment, mediation and information.</p> Niyi Adegoke Oyedolapo Babatunde Durojaye Copyright (c) 2022-03-02 2022-03-02 19 3 18551 18560 People’s perceptions towards homosexuality in a South African rural communities <p>The aim of the study was to explore and describe the perceptions posed by society towards homosexual individuals in selected South African rural communities. The research methodology employed was a qualitative approach via the used of a purposive sampling method for the selection of 12 voluntary participants who were willing to participate in the study. In-depth interviews were conducted and data analysed according to thematic content method. The perceptions of community members were shared through participants' responses to a central research question. Participants expressed different responses which were both positive and negative towards homosexuality. The findings of the study showed that society is still conservative when it comes to homosexuality. However, it discourages harsh negative attitudes towards homosexual people. The study recommends that Society needs to develop more accepting and tolerant behaviors towards homosexuality.</p> Vhahangwele Mushome Mercy D. Mushwana Copyright (c) 2022-03-02 2022-03-02 19 3 18561 18568 Pathways and lived experiences of incarcerated female fraud offenders at the Kgoši Mampuru II Female Correctional Centre (South Africa) <p>An in-depth qualitative case study analysis was pursued to provide a detailed depiction of the life histories/pathways and lived experiences of a small sample of incarcerated female fraud offenders at the Kgoši Mampuru II Female Correctional Centre (Gauteng, South Africa). Narrative accounts allowed for the identification of specific causes, contributory factors and motives that underwrote each female participant’s decision to commit fraud. The findings showcase how a spectrum of comparable live events (i.e. emotional abuse) and experiences (i.e. need for financial independence) amongst the females contributed to an enhanced reasoning to engage in criminal behaviour. Apart from greediness as a main motive, an array of overlapping causes and contributory factors were identified amongst all the participants that included inter alia lack /limited self-control, low self-esteem, opportunity, poor decisionmaking skills, stress, pro-criminal thinking patterns/ideas and limited insight and understanding of own criminal behaviour. This paper, therefore, aims to improve current knowledge on the life pathways and lived experiences of these female fraudsters and to guide rehabilitation efforts for this unique offender population.</p> Werda Mostert A.E. Hesselink N.P. Dastile Copyright (c) 2022-03-02 2022-03-02 19 3 18569 18584 Learners’ perceptions regarding linguistic potential in a multilingual setting in the FET Phase <p>Multilingualism has become the focus of policy debates that revolve around how it could or should be managed in different countries and regions. This has been a particular preoccupation in South Africa, where the government takes language to be a key component of nation building. This article aims to explore foreign national learners’ perceptions regarding linguistic potential in a multilingual setting in the Further Education and Training phase. To address this issue, data were collected through a strategic conversation analysis approach as applied to codeswitching. The conversation was audio-recorded involving a foreign national Grade 11 learner from Zimbabwe who had arrived in South Africa where multiple languages are observed. The results revealed that as individuals are multilingual, the society itself is multilingual because people come from different parts of the world and come to join in societies that are already multilingual, adding to the languages spoken in those societies. Multilingual educational institutional should take specific measures to pave the way for the social and cultural integration of foreign national learners who are unfamiliar with the host institution’s linguistic settings. Such a move will go a long way in establishing a welcoming culture for foreign learners. These measures can even be done formally like offering language tutoring lessons.</p> Kufakunesu Zano Copyright (c) 2022-03-02 2022-03-02 19 3 18585 18591 Role of social workers in protecting the rights of rape victims and their emotional state <p>This paper investigated the role of social workers in protecting the rights of rape victims and their emotional state in Nigeria using Lagos State as the focus. The study particularly examined the extent to which rape victim rights have been neglected, strategies employed in criminal laws to protect victim rights in rape cases, the impact of societal beliefs in influencing attainment of victim rights and evaluated the challenges inherent in achieving victim rights in rape cases as well as the efforts of social workers in protecting the rights of rape victims and their emotional state. The paper adopted phenomenological and ethnographic aspects of research. The phenomenological approach utilized in this paper explains what the experience of rape victims are in Lagos while the ethnographic approach details the influence of social workers in helping the victims of rape in terms of emotion and psychology. The findings revealed that a major challenge to the attainment of rape victims’ rights is the inability of the laws to adequately protect the victims and the societal beliefs and culture that hinders victims from speaking up. The paper affirmed that rape victims oftentimes prefer to keep their experience rather than speak up for fear of victimization. The findings observed that Nigerian Laws and Criminal Law of Lagos are not sufficiently applied to the cases of rape in the country especially when the perpetrator knows how to go about defending themselves even against the methods of the law. The paper, therefore recommended that all social institutions, parents, churches, civil societies, NGOs and governmental agencies should as a matter of necessity and urgency provide qualitative sex education and guidance to the Nigerian youths. Also, there should be more severe punishment for rape and public exposure and humiliation should be one of the methods of punishing the perpetrators of rape. The paper also recommended that there is a need for rapid response to documented cases of rape and for post-rape care services to be set up in all Local Government Areas in Nigeria to cater for both adult and child survivors.</p> Abigail Agbon Azorondu Bose Onome Makinde Olanrewaju Seun Adegbite David Olanrewaju Akande Copyright (c) 2022-03-02 2022-03-02 19 3 18592 18599 A pragmalinguistic analysis of selected suicide notes in Nigeria <p>There are a plethora of research works on suicide, following Durkheim’s (1897) book, Suicide: A Study in Sociology. It was the wish of Durkheim to use the study to show that there was a sociological level of analysis which was distinct from other disciplines and which made an important contribution to explanation of social phenomena. Whatever terminological profusion and attendant criticisms ascribed to the study of suicide, a clinical and linguistic analysis of suicide notes is germane to a deeper and fuller understanding of the phenomenon. This paper is a pragmalinguistic analysis of selected suicide notes in Nigeria. The preeminence of pragmatics to the study is hinged on Bubhtz and Norick’s (1994) proposition that to be pragmatically competent requires one to (i) associate specific linguistic resources with particular meaning and functions, and (ii) be able to appropriately select from these resources according to an assessment of the socio-contextual factors involved. Apart from the theoretical insights gleaned from scholars of suicidology, the study presents an analysis of selected five suicide notes in Nigeria and these (notes) were carried out using these linguistic tools: (i) affective words, (ii) emotive words, and, (iii) references.</p> Oyedokun-Alli Wasiu Ademola Obateru Oluwatoyin Tolu Copyright (c) 2022-03-02 2022-03-02 19 3 18600 18607 An investigation of trauma symptoms among the University of Zululand students <p>Few epidemiological studies on exposure to traumatic events and traumatic symptoms amongst tertiary students have been conducted in South Africa. The research topic investigates the traumatic symptoms among students at the University of Zululand. The aim and objectives of the study are as follows: To identify the exposure to traumatic events, To identify the self-reported symptoms of trauma by students, To evaluate the level of awareness on exposure to traumatic event and symptoms of PTSD, To evaluate the knowledge that students have on traumatic ev ents and symptoms of PTSD, To evaluate whether students consider using psychological services when exposed to traumatic events. The study tested the hypotheses that exposure to traumatic events can lead to development of trauma symptoms, lack of knowledge on traumatic incidents and lack of awareness about the trauma symptoms can disallow the student from seeking psychological intervention. A quantitative study was conducted using a non -probability sampling technique and a convenient sample was applied based on students’ availability and willingness to participate. A sample of two-hundred (n=200) students was selected and consisted of females (n=73) and males (n=128). The research measurement was a self-developed instrument based on the traumatic symptoms. The questionnaire consisted of 54 closed-end questions and its aim was to measure and assess trauma symptoms, various interventions accessible, awareness of trauma symptoms, exposure to traumatic events and knowledge of trauma among students. Demographic information was included in the questionnaire to gather biographical information such as gender, age, level of education, population group and marital status. The data were entered into the Statistical Program for the Social Sciences (SPSS v21). Descriptive data analysis and frequency distributions were used to analyse and interpret data statistically in a graphical representation.</p> Vusi Clearance Mathe Charmain Mmampoi Dineo Mogashoa Copyright (c) 2022-03-02 2022-03-02 19 3 18608 18618 Employees` occupational health safety and financial performance in selected Johannesburg stock exchange listed organisations <p>Employees’ occupational health safety and financial performance. This study examines how the employees’ occupational health safety expenditures (EHS) influences organisations’ financial performance which is return on assets (ROA) in selected Johannesburg stock exchange listed organisations. The study used quantitative research method, using the panel data that utilises multiple linear regression analysis to analyse the integrated annual reports of 175 Johannesburg stock exchange (JSE) listed organisations for a period from 2009 to 2019. The findings show a positive and significant relationship which implies that EHS influences the financial performance (ROA) of selected JSE organisations. The results of this study provide managers with a platform to review the existing EHS policies and the organisation’s strategies that are meant to achieve sustainability. This study considered secondary sources, thus limiting independent views by employees. The researcher recommends that primary qualitative data be used in the future studies to measure the influence of EHS on organisations’ financial performance (ROA).</p> Kgorompe Michael Moswatsi Copyright (c) 2022-03-02 2022-03-02 19 3 18619 18628 Challenges encountered by professional nurses during supervision of care: An explorative study in Vhembe District Hospitals in Limpopo Province, South Africa <p>This study explored the challenges of professional nurses during supervision of care in the district hospitals of Vhembe. Supervision is a yardstick for quality assurance and patient safety. Professional nurses supervise the care that is rendered to ensure quality patient care and patient safety. Nevertheless, complaints from patients about the poor quality of care suggests that supervision is not being effectively done. A qualitative, explorative, descriptive, and contextual research design was used to describe the challenges encountered by professional nurses during supervision of care in the Vhembe District Hospitals. An individual semi-structured interview using an interview guide was conducted with one second in charge and one specialty professional nurse working in casualty, medical and paediatric wards. In total, thirty-six professional nurses were interviewed. Data was analysed through Tesch’s eight steps. Trustworthiness was ensured by adhering to the principles of credibility, dependability, confirmability, transferability, and authenticity. Ethical measures were observed throughout the study to maintain participants’ dignity and to ensure the quality of research. The findings revealed multiple challenges that professional nurses encounter during the supervision of care. The main themes found were lack of resources, challenges related to the supervisees, cultural changes in nursing affecting supervision, and challenges related to education and training. The researchers recommend that the nursing practice through the Department of Health should address the lack of resources and poor infrastructure. The nursing education directorate should address the challenge of student accompaniment and clinical exposure.</p> Munyadziwa Regina Raliphaswa Takalani Rhoda Luhalima Vhonani Olive Netshandama Copyright (c) 2022-03-02 2022-03-02 19 3 18629 18635 Gender differences in spatial learning, aggressive and sexual behaviour of prenatally exposed rat weanlings to <i>Moringa oleifera</i> <p><em>Moringa oleifer</em> (<em>M.oleifera</em>) has been used widely as a herbal remedy in most parts of the world and has been variously referred to as the “miracle tree” due to its therapeutic ability for various diseases. However, studies on the behavioural effects of <em>M. oleifera</em> have been scanty. This study, therefore, investigated the gender differences in spatial learning, aggressive and sexual behaviour of prenatally exposed rat weanlings to <em>M. oleifera</em>. An Independent group randomised design was adopted for this study. A total of 30 Wister Albino rat weanlings randomly selected from 80 offspring prenatally exposed to <em>M. oleifera</em> were used. They were littered by 30 female Wister Albino rats randomly assigned into 3 treatment groups of 10 rats each. Dependent variables observed were spatial cognitive learning behaviours using the radial maze, sexual and aggressive behaviours of the rat weanlings adopting observational methods. The treatment groups comprised 20mg/kg <em>M. oleifera</em>, 60mg/kg <em>M. oleifera</em> and the Control group (Saline treatment). Data were analysed using a One-Way Analysis of Variance at a 0.05 level of significance. There was no significant interaction effect of gender and exposure to different doses of <em>Moringa oleifera</em>, Wilks’ Lambda = .18, F (2, 64) = .72, p &gt;. 05, however there were main effects for Moringa oleifera treatment, Wilks’ Lambda = .12, F (2, 69) = 56.58, p &lt; .04, and gender, Wilks’ Lambda = 32, F (2, 64) = 5.47, p &lt; .01. There was a significant effect of <em>Moringa oleifera</em> on sexual behaviour (F (2, 64) = 10.09, p &lt;.01). Rat weanling exposed to 60mg doses of Moringa oleifera exhibited more sexual activities than those exposed to 20mg/kg dose. There was a significant difference in response to aggressive behaviour (F (2, 64) = 4.20, p &lt;.05). Rat weanling exposed to 60mg/kg dose of<em> Moringa oleifera</em> displayed less aggressive behaviour than those exposed to 20mg/kg dose. However, the main effect of <em>Moringa oleifera</em> on the learning task (F (2, 64) = 1.88, p&gt;.05) was not significant. A significant main effect of gender was found only in the sexual behaviour (F (2, 64) = 4.199, p = .045). Male rat weanlings exposed to different doses of <em>Moringa oleifera</em> exhibited more sexual activities than female rat weanlings. <em>M. oleifera</em> enhanced more sexual functions in males, reduced aggressive behaviour in both males and females while spatial learning behaviour was normal for both male and female rats.</p> Jackson. I. Osuh Adegbenga. M. Sunmola Copyright (c) 2022-03-02 2022-03-02 19 3 18636 18641 Gendered lived experiences’ of victims of mob justice rleated incidents <p>Increasing incidents of victims being attacked in mob justice incidents have been documented in th e townships and rural areas of South Africa. Victims of these incidents are often accused of theft, rape, murder, gang or cartel involvement and mostly ‘nyaope’ addicts. The mob attacks often arise spontaneously after the victim is hunted down based on a suspicion or were caught in the act by community members. The victims are often attacked and killed through numerous methods of killings such as necklacing, stoning, beatings and assaults. Such attacks can be directed towards the victim, family members or through damage of property. However, there seems to be limited literature on the experiences of victims of mob justice incidents in South Africa. This is due to the fact that some victims of mob justice do not survive mob justice incidents. Moreover, victims of such incidents and their experiences have been largely ignored or overshadowed by the public’s perception that they are criminals and there fore deserve punishment. The purpose of this paper is to examine the narratives of victims that survived mob justice related incidents in order to understand their experiences. The study employed a qualitative approach using narrative analysis so that victims can narrate on their experiences in mob justice incidents. Furthermore, data was collected using semi structured interviews to gather in-depth information on their experiences as direct victims of mob justice. Data was further interpreted using thematic analysis to organise and analyse themes that emerged from the interviews.</p> Nontyatyambo Pearl Dastile Mpuru Lebogang Copyright (c) 2022-03-02 2022-03-02 19 3 18642 18651 Job satisfaction of professional nurses in public hospitals in Limpopo Province, South Africa: experiences of professional nurses in selected hospitals <p>Job satisfaction is essential in hospitals for professional nurses to provide quality patient care. Job satisfaction of professional nurses contributes to their staying longer in public hospitals. The study explored job satisfaction of professional nurses in public hospitals in the Limpopo Province, South Africa. The Appreciative Inquiry technique was used to collect qualitative data for an exploratory, descriptive study design. To obtain a variety of viewpoints, six focus groups were held, each with six professional nurses from various interviewed from two public hospitals. Interviews from focus groups were audio-recorded and transcribed. The data was analysed thematically. Ethical clearance to conduct the research was obtained from the University of Pretoria. Credibility, transferability, reliability, comfortability, and authenticity of the findings were all accomplished and this ensured trustworthiness. The following three themes emerged: passion for the job, professional development, and sense of satisfaction as factors that influenced professional nurses to continue working in public hospitals. The study revealed that professional nurses are dissatisfied because of inadequate resources which prevents them from rendering high quality and comprehensive patient care. Therefore, the study recommends that professional nurses should recognize their abilities, possibilities, and goals, and that authorities should listen to them if there are to be improvements in public hospitals.</p> Takalani Rhoda Luhalima Azwidihwi Rose Tshililo Langanani Julia Mafumo Copyright (c) 2022-03-02 2022-03-02 19 3 18652 18658 Gender analysis of socioeconomic characteristics of beef markers in Ekiti State, Nigeria <p>The study dealt with gender analysis of the socioeconomic characteristics of respondents. Primary and secondary data were used to accomplish the objective of the study. Multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select respondents for the study. Data collected were subjected to descriptive and inferential statistics. The result of the gender analysis of socioeconomic characteristics of beef marketers indicated that male dominated the beef marketing accounting for more than 60% of the beef sellers operating in the market It is established in this study that beef marketing is gender specific given that in all the local government areas of Ekiti State beef marketing is dominated by male with females accounting for negligible percentage of the respondents. Bas ed on the outcome of this study government at various level should encourage the participation of female fold to reduce the wide gap creating imbalance between males and female beef marketers in the study areas.</p> J.G. Adebayo M.O. Abiola Copyright (c) 2022-03-02 2022-03-02 19 3 18659 18672