Gender and Behaviour Gender and Behaviour is an interdisciplinary journal dedicated to articles, that reflect psychological and behavioural aspects of gender in general. Gender and Behaviour welcomes scholarly manuscripts from authors all over the world on a wide array of subjects concerning psychological and behavioural aspects of gender in general. en-US Copyright for articles published in this journal is retained by the journal. (Akinsola OLOWU) (Matt Olasupo) Tue, 02 Feb 2021 10:16:45 +0000 OJS 60 Editorial Note <p>No Abstract.</p> Victor Ojakorotu Copyright (c) Sun, 31 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The effect of covid-19 on working women in South Africa <p>Women of all races and social standards are affected by the Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. This pandemic has demonstrated that certain&nbsp; positions don’t require the rigid structures that are barriers for women to progress. These barriers include lack of flexibility pertaining to working hours, the physical workplace, technology which can assist people to work remotely and reporting to the physical workplace at certain intervals and on demand. Adversely for working women financial, psychological and functional impact has also been<br>observed.</p> <p>The objective of this study is to explore what positive changes the COVID-19 pandemic has brought about for working women. With accelerated IT&nbsp; developments and the fourth industrial revolution (4IR), the study intends to uncover whether there are opportunities for women at work. The study also looks at opportunities for working women and if these benefit family life. The study aims to critically assess the negative impact and determine<br>what this means for the future of women in the workplace. COVID-19 is a new phenomenon, and all research was conducted using secondary data collected. This data was collected, organised and analysed for valid research conclusions.</p> <p>The findings reveal that technological advancements enable women to work remotely and be present at home consistently. There were&nbsp; opportunities to accept jobs in different geographical locations. The threats of permanent negative implication outweigh the positive effects. Job losses for women pose a threat to women empowerment and progress in industry, moving women equality backwards after immense progress has been made. In conclusion women employment and work-life balance require consistent attention from the public and private sector.</p> <p><strong>Key Words:</strong> COVID-19, Lockdown, Work-life balance, Women equality, Working from home </p> Nomfundo Khwela-Mdluli , Andrisha Beharry-Ramraj Copyright (c) Sun, 31 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Levels of adherence to covid-19 regulations and protocols by community members during lockdown alert 3 in the Limpopo Province, South Africa <p>Community members are responsible for their safety during the surge of COVOD-19. Government gives its support, regulations and protocols to all its citizens. This is an observational and experiential research paper based on the behaviour of community members during different South African COVOD-19 lockdown stages. The researchers observed the behaviour of community members regarding their adherence to government protocols of wearing face masks, social distancing and hand sanitising. The aim of the paper was to observe compliance of community members to&nbsp; government’s COVID-19 protocols or regulations in shopping complexes and malls around Limpopo Province. Research design of the paper was qualitative, where data was collected through observations and informal interviews. Observations and informal interviews were conducted in five shopping complexes around the province of Limpopo in the Capricorn and Vhembe Districts. Data was analysed through thematic coding. Evidence shows that the behaviour of community members is acceptable, as they observe protocols and regulations of COVID-19 for most of the time except on month ends. On month ends people’s behaviour changed as community members hardly observed COVID-19 protocols and regulations.&nbsp; Government should enforce shopping complex and mall managers to deploy security personnel not only on entrances, but also inside the premises so that all community members adhere to protocols.</p> <p><strong>Key Words:</strong> hand sanitisers, face masks, social distancing, lockdown, COVID-19, compliance </p> B.N. Rasila , T.S. Mashau, O.S. Obadire Copyright (c) Sun, 31 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Elections and the crises of empty stomach in the era of COVID19 in West Africa <p>The dominant view in the literature of food is that some of the causes of food scarcity and hunger in developing areas are the issues of climate&nbsp; change, intra and inter-state wars, poor agricultural policies limited hybrid seeds, improved livestock among others. The literature is, however, silent on the impact of pre and post-election crises on availability, accessibility and affordability of food in many parts of West Africa. Electioneering campaign in many states of Africa ends up with factionalism, ethnic cleanse and sometimes religious crisis that often prevent many farmers from having access to their farms. In Nigeria, The Gambia, Ivory Coast and Mali, to mention a few, people were subjected to forced migration because of the power of incumbency that government in power imposed on people when power was about to slip out of their hands. The intention of this paper is to construct causal links between election crises, Covid-19 and food insecurity. To unravel this problem, secondary data and critical theory will be the paper’s point of departure. In conclusion, the paper advocates for politics without bitterness and infusion of political education in the socialisation of African citizens.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Election, Food security, Covid-19, Conflict, Critical theory, Africa </p> Lere Amusan, Remi Ajibewa Copyright (c) Sun, 31 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of communication on employee performance in a Retail Chain’s Head Office in Cape Town <p>This study investigates the impact of communication on employee performance in a Retail chain’s head office in Cape Town. It examines the&nbsp; communication strategies used in the organisation and how it affects work performance. The investigation is guided by the fact that employees’ performance is influenced by the motivation they get from management and how the information within the organisation is communicated to them. This paper is underpinned by motivational and communication theories of Colquitt, LePone, and Wesson (2009) and Semren (2017). A qualitative research method is used with a case study design placed within the interpretive paradigm. The data collected is analysed by using&nbsp; qualitative content analysis. The findings from the study suggest that communication is a critical component within the organisation but is currently deteriorating. However, the participants showed interest in receiving information relating to their functions regularly. The findings also revealed that a combination of top-down and bottom-up communication is best suited as this allows both management and staff to collaborate efficiently. The study concludes that the employees are well informed and are communicated too, but there is room for improvement. Most of the staff have adopted the industry's best practices such as emails to communicate. However, this is not always the preferred method of communication nor the<br>best approach given its limitations. Based on this, it is recommended that the organization should try to know its audience to select the correct tools when trying to relay a message. Although it is not always possible in the fast-paced working world to have one-on-one conversations, a balance is needed to project that sense of belonging with the employees when having a real conversation.</p> <p><strong>Key words</strong>: Communication, communication strategies, motivation strategies, communication channels, organisational performance</p> Marthinus Jakobus Wagener, Afungmeyu Jane-Francis * Abongdia Copyright (c) Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Involvement of teachers and subject advisers in the curriculum development process in South Africa: Evidence from the Fort Beaufort Education District in Eastern Cape <p>This study examined the involvement of teachers and subject advisers in the curriculum development process in South Africa. The main focus was on the curriculum which has undergone a series of reviews since the new political dispensation. Curriculum entails all the teaching and learning that take place in a guided environment. Research and international experience suggest that stakeholders’ participation in curriculum development enhances the successful implementation of the curriculum. However how these stakeholders, are involved in the curriculum development process can make a lot of difference in the outcomes. Knowledge about this is limited at present. The study was located in the interpretive paradigm and used qualitative approach and case study design. Data was obtained through interviews, document analysis and focus group discussions.&nbsp; Participants were 12 teachers, 4 principals and 6 subject advisers from 4 out of the 6 clusters in the Fort Beaufort Education District. The study revealed that teachers and subject advisers participated in the process to different degrees, being mostly involved in the implementation stage and only marginally at the design and evaluation stages. This study recommends that teachers and subject advisers should be involved in all the stages of curriculum development, and on a level where their participation will make some impact in the whole process and decisions taken concerning curriculum development.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>:&nbsp; Stakeholders’ Participation. Curriculum. Curriculum Development. Involvement and Level </p> Uloma Nkpurunma Obi, Ignatius Khan Ticha Copyright (c) Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Covid-19 and the experiences of educators with English as the language of learning and teaching in the intermediate phase <p>This study aimed to explore the experiences of educators in using English as the language of learning and teaching for Grade 4 learners. It employed an interpretive qualitative approach. A sample of six teachers teaching Grade 4 were purposively selected from a district in the province of KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa. Data were collected through unstructured interviews. Findings revealed that teachers in rural monolingual community schools find it difficult to meet the policy prescriptions and curriculum demands in terms of the language of learning and teaching. Teachers end up translating into the mother tongue, which is isiZulu, and code-switching to enhance content understanding; this is a strategy that limits both teachers’ and learners’ exposure to English. In addition, learners transitioning from their Home language to English as the language of learning are not sufficiently supported. The findings also indicate that teachers in rural monolingual community schools in King Cetshwayo district find it difficult to meet the curriculum demands in terms of the language of learning and teaching. Teachers were also found to be not very proficient in English. The significance of the study relates to the educational issues of rural schools that are ignored by officialdom, including the fact that teachers are not adequately prepared to teach in English. In addition, learners transitioning to the very unfamiliar language of learning and teaching are not sufficiently supported with regard to improving their command of the language. Hence, policies need revision to address the<br>linguistic shortcomings of teachers and learners. New policies ought to be designed and implemented if English is to remain the language of learning and teaching in South African schools.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: code-switching, code-mixing, deep rural area, translanguaging, transition, monolingual, language of learning and teaching.</p> Goodman Vusumuzi Ntombela, Hlengiwe Romualda Mhlongo, Pravina Pillay Copyright (c) Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Gender rationalisation in the SADC standby force: Challenges and prospects <p>Rationalising gender in the context of evolving peace and security architecture in the Southern African Development Community (SADC), is both a contentious scholarly and policy issue. Following the operationalization of the SADC Standby Force (SADC SF), concerns have been raised on rationalisation of gender balance in this sub regional security institution. This paper makes a critical analysis on the challenges and prospects of<br>rationalising gender in line with the subregion’s quest for gender equity. Through the theoretical lenses of the feminist paradigm, issues to be debated include the relative strengths and loopholes of the SADC Protocol on Gender and Development; the significant political, strategic and operational challenges encountered by member states in the effective rationalisation of gender in the SADC SF; What the subregion can do in future to successfully rationalise gender in the SADC SF at strategic and operational levels. Data was gathered from secondary sources which include books, journals, unclassified policy documents and internet websites, newspaper articles and unpublished dissertations related to gender, governance and regional security institutions.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Gender rationalisation, SADC Standby Force </p> Sadiki Maeresera, Belinda Runganga Copyright (c) Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The aftermath of coronavirus Covid-19 on African philosophy: Demise or survival <p>Presently there is a virus which is ravaging the world, this virus is termed corona virus (COVID-19). Research has shown that the origin of this virus is unknown but what is known it is an unseen silent killer which can only be detected through coughing, shortness of breath, chills and other symptoms. The doctors cannot find the cure because they cannot trace its origin but they know the symptoms which are seen as remedial action not per se the real cure. What governments of the world are doing to curb the spread not the disease and that in itself is problematic in enforcing remedial protocols due to the nature of some of the precautions. Some measures which are in place has eradicated intimacy and closeness amongst people especially through touching. One of the aspect of African spirituality is intimacy and in underpinned on African philosophy wherein people live together in harmony and sees each other as brothers and sister. In African philosophy intimacy is not just based on sex but embraces relationship that is why when African meet they greet each other through touching and shaking hands, hugging and kissing. The inception of the<br>Coronavirus saw the dismantling the African concept of intimacy due to the protocols to be observed. From this premise, the paper will investigate the origin and impact of the coronavirus in African community ways of lives. From those findings, the paper will base the findings whether this calls for the demise or survival of African philosophy with the understanding that impacts of the aftermath. Then the paper will bring forth which measures can be used to promote African philosophy after the coronavirus departure. </p> Phemelo Olifile Marumo Copyright (c) Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The impact of COVID – 19 pandemic on the implementation of curriculum recovery plan in Mopani West District, Limpopo Province <p>The purpose of the study is to investigate the impact of Covid-19 pandemic on the implementation of curriculum recovery plan in Mopani West District, Limpopo Province. The closure of all educational institutions in South Africa on 18 March 2020 as a measure to curb the spread of corona virus and to prepare the Health delivery system to deal with the pandemic was the right decision. This was meant to save life as schools could be seen as high - risk centres for the spread of the virus. The Department of Basic Education developed a curriculum recovery plan to ensure that curriculums that have not been covered are covered when schools re-open. There has been mixed feelings amongst the public and community structures, teacher unions and organisations with a keen interest in education that it was premature to reopen schools. The study was guided by Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs theory. A qualitative multiple case study research approach was employed based on an interpretive paradigm. A total of six participants were purposefully selected. Research data were gathered through individual interviews, observations and documents analysis.<br>Findings revealed that schools were not covid-19 compliant, and placed learners, teachers and support staff at a high risk for covid-19 infection. Non- compliant to Covid-19 pandemic had a negative impact on the implementation of curriculum recovery plan.</p> <p><strong> Key word:</strong> Curriculum Recovery plan, Covid-19 Pandemic, Implementation, social distancing, Quarantine, Sanitizer </p> A.B. Mohale, N.F. Litshani, T.S. Mashau, T.J. Mudau, H. Moyo, N.S. Sebopetsa Copyright (c) Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Gender-based violence during the Covid-19 pandemic in South Africa: Guidelines for Social Work Practice <p>Since the declaration of the state of emergency and the subsequent national lockdown due to COVID-19 pandemic, South Africa has experienced a spike in gender-based violence (GBV). Although social work plays a significant role in addressing GBV and disasters, it remains under-utilised during the pandemic. Moreover, there is a dearth of research concerning social work and disasters in South Africa. Through a review of literature, this paper aims to explore the field of social work in addressing gender-based violence during COVID- 19. Given the paucity of literature concerning the role of social work during the pandemic, this paper concludes that social work must be used as a useful resource to address GBV during the COVID-19 pandemic. Social workers could use this time to gain new knowledge regarding its preparedness and response to the pandemic. Additionally, this period could be an opportunity to assess government responses and initiatives in addressing GBV, lessons learnt and develop strategies that respond to women’s needs. It is also important to build the capacity of social workers and the government in appreciating the specific needs of women, specifically offering appropriate protection and services in the context of the corona virus pandemic.</p> <p><strong>Key Terms</strong>: gender-based violence, COVID-19, social work</p> Goitseone Emelda Leburu-Masigo, Nathaniel Phuti Kgadima Copyright (c) Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Human resource transformation as a panacea for addressing talent management challenges at an electricity company <p>HR departments have a central and critical role in the success of talent management plans in organizations. Without a well-positioned and equipped HR department, Talent management efforts are bound to fail. This paper explores the transformation of the HR function and its impact in addressing talent management challenges. It argues that transforming the HR function to engage operationally and strategically with business not only enables HR to understand business requirements, but also to redefine and align their human capital management strategies and systems to optimally service and support business. The study adopted a positivist descriptive approach. Data was collected through questionnaires from 28 management staff. Correlation and regression analysis were performed for data analysis. The results indicated positive correlations between talent<br>management and the dimensions of HR Transformation. The results further indicated that the Dimensions of HR transformation account for the variations in talent Management, at varying degrees. The overall findings suggest that transforming the HR function has positive implications for talent management. It is was noted that for organizations to ensure that transformation efforts are directed at specific problems in order to&nbsp; effectively measure and evaluate progress. Moreover, implementation of the process should be based on sound understanding of the business context to ensure that transformation efforts are in a vacuum but rather support and enable business to counter the changes and challenges&nbsp; presented by the work environment.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Talent Management, HR Transformation, Reskilling HR, HR Technology </p> Trevor Ncamiso Mtetwa, Emmanuel Mutambara Copyright (c) Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Tourism prospects post Covid-19: A closer look in to African countries <p>COVID-19 has resulted to a total cancellation of international tourism, with the prediction of the industry’s international travel recovery to emerge in two years’ time. Prior to COVID-19 pandemic, most African countries’ main target market were international tourists. Travelling within African countries has been more expensive and challenging. African countries like the rest of the world, are currently working on their recovery strategies to sustain the tourism industry. The current study aimed at exploring tourism niche areas to advance tourism within the African continent post COVID-19. The evaluation research was used to review tourism travel patterns and buying behaviour prior to COVID19 and consequently during the&nbsp; pandemic. This research method also provided the researcher an ability to propose programme of actions post COVID-19. Additionally, phenomenography research analysis was found applicable for the study to analyse an understanding and perception of African countries on tourism post COVID-19. The study argues that due to strict governments restrictions, fear on long haul destination visits, high prices as a recovery strategy by tourism businesses, many Africans, especially those intend travelling for leisure purpose will opt for intra-continental travel. As a&nbsp; recovery strategy, African countries need to use social media and other online platforms to promote their countries within Africa. History and culture is rich and diverse in each of the African countries and should be promoted within. African countries may also consider the marketing of agritourism to strengthen the agriculture sector, and lastly business tourism is another niche that African countries needs to tap into as part of the recovery plan post COVID-19.</p> <p><strong>Key words:</strong> COVID-19, Africa, leisure tourism, intra-regional, inter-regional, business tourism. </p> L.A. Tseane-Gumbi Copyright (c) Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Managing self-morality of public secondary school pupils to mitigate learner bullying <p>This paper evaluates the persistence of the wide spread learner immorality and bullying against their teachers, as experienced in South African&nbsp; public schooling. The paper is both conceptual and empirical in nature within the qualitative research paradigm. The question guiding this paper is: to what extent can self-morality by pupils assist in mitigating their learner-bullying inclination? Interviewing technique and document analysis, were used to generate data. Out of the population of 9 secondary schools in one of the circuits in Sekhukhune district, in Limpopo Province, 3 were conveniently sampled. Those were the secondary schools that have very recently faced learner immorality and bullying. In each of the 3 sampled secondary school, the School Governing Body Chairperson, a School Principal and a Representative Council of Learners’ Secretary became research<br>participants. The total number of research participants amounted to 9. Findings revealed that firstly, schools need to quit glorifying immoral learner behaviour. Secondly, selfmorality could be an intervention to improve a learner’s grades. Thirdly, self-morality could enable learners to quit drifting along aimlessly to school. Fourthly, self-morality could curb deteriorating educational standards by learners. Fifthly, self-morality could turn a classroom from a war zone to a blessing field. Lastly, self-morality could curb classrooms that breed violent pupils due to inferiority complex. The researcher concludes that the society’s national morality bar ought not be lowered any further through condoning and approving of any form of learner immorality and bullying. Furthermore, current secondary school learners deserve to regain their moral compass, to guide their schooling future.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Deteriorating, Intervention, Mitigate, Morality, Unethical </p> Ngwako Solomon Modiba Copyright (c) Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The lived experience of orphaned learners with regard to psychological supports <p>Orphaned learners in South Africa are vulnerable and frequently absent from school. These learners are often physically abused and may be stigmatized due to their state of homelessness, as a result potentially turning to substance use or abuse. This article focuses on the lived experiences of orphaned learners and their perspectives relating to the support offered by the School-Based Support Team (SBST) within schools, in two education districts of the Free State province, South Africa. Twenty-five orphaned learners from five schools in two education district (n=25) between the ages of 11 and 15 years were purposively selected, and in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted. An interpretative and<br>phenomenological analysis of the transcribed data revealed that orphaned learners need emotional and psycho-social support. Furthermore, they need individual support with regard to their social, psychological, physical and emotional needs. Despite these challenges, orphaned learners typically develop survival strategies that can enable them to cope without additional support.</p> <p><strong>Key words</strong>: orphaned learners, School Based Support Team, Inclusive school </p> Rachel Mayimele, Thabo Makhalemele Copyright (c) Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The implications of polygamous marriages in young women: A narrative of Tsonga women in South Africa <p>Polygamy is a controversial phenomenon which is still being practiced in all parts of the world even in the modern day. Due to cultural beliefs and individual’s choices, this practice has acquired a sustainable existence in most societies. The history of polygamy has been reported to have both positive and negative impact on women. Even though this has been a widely researched phenomena a gap in echoing the voices of young women in polygamous marriages has been noted, hence this study saw it fit to document the experiences of young women in polygamous marriages among the Tsonga people. The study followed a qualitative research approach where data were collected using in-depth interviews and were analysed through thematic analysis. The study revealed that several challenges were encountered by young women in polygamy. Due to socio-economic and cultural issues, women end up getting into polygamy. The study concludes that due to lack of opportunity and exposure to better prospects young women find themselves comfortable in polygamy or having it as the only choice.</p> <p><strong>Key words</strong>: experiences, implications, marriage, polygamy, relationship, young women </p> Nyathi Leoba, Xongile.L. Bungeni , Tsoaledi.D. Thobejane Copyright (c) Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Closing the gender gap through ICT in small scale farming: Towards achieving sustainable development goals <p>This study focuses on the opportunities that the Fourth Indstrial Revolution, through Information and Communication Technologies have on female, small scale farmers. Regardless of the fact that there is substantial potential to harness the fourth industrial revolution towards gender equality in extension, there is negligible innovation in the extension services in developing countries. Female farmers find it difficult to access ICTs. Extension and research services are also heavily biased towards male, well-resourced farmers and the majority are able to make use information technologies and are three times more likely to get grants than women. These gender differentials buffer the possibility of achieving the sustainable&nbsp; development goals of gender equality. Although literature is replete with studies that interrogate gender inequality, little attention, if any has&nbsp; focused on how bridging gender gaps in extension can be instrumental in achieving the sustainable development goals as stressed by this study. Using the document analysis, this study managed to find a number of key elements that hinder gender equality among female small scale farmers in Masvingo. The study found that from the government level, no funds are disbursed towards facilitation of ICTs in rural areas. In rural Masvingo, internet connectivity is not available and there is little infrastructure for mobile phone network as well. While internet is available in urban areas, it is expensive and fewer women than men have access to internet. Rural women are faced with difficulties that include unaffordability to buy data as well as the physical distances that they may have to travel to get internet. Having empirical evidence of the characteristics of gender differentials in ICTs among rural farmers is critical in addressing these challenges in pursuit of the sustainable development goals. It can be noted that gender differentials are persistent in ICTs. There is a genuine cause for concern that women face the risk of being left behind by the Fourth&nbsp; Revolution if the pertinent issues affecting them are left unresolved. The implications therefore are continued gender related poverty </p> Mirriam Ofisi , M.T. Lukamba Copyright (c) Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Proverbs as a device to justify women abuse: A case of Sesotho sa leboa in South Africa <p>Proverbs in languages are used to develop good morals, values and to communicate accepted norms and beliefs especially in African societies. This paper explores some of the Sesotho sa Leboa proverbs used in cementing and fortifying male hegemony or toxic masculinities in the society. Sesotho sa Leboa like other languages have patriarchal characterisations. Male dominance and superiority are clearly visible when one bisects<br>proverbs that are used in the everyday lives of the speakers of this language. The purpose of this paper is to unearth the abusive nature of some proverbs used as a justification of power relations in Sesotho sa Leboa culture. The qualitative research approach was found to be relevant for this study as it enabled participant’s views in respect to identified proverbs that were analysed. Data were collected through semi structured interviews and document analysis, and subsequently analysed through Thematic Content Analysis. The results of this study show that male dominance in the Sesotho sa Leboa culture does not only trigger gender discrimination and false representation of female identities, but also manifest itself in various forms of abuse as articulated by participants through their responses. The kind of images constructed in the Sesotho sa Leboa proverbial language truly labels female gender with the negative connotations and thereby hinders women’s progress in life. The paper is significant in that it will hopefully with regard to gender equality enable the speakers of the language to critically re-visit some of the proverbs that seem to perpetuate gender stereotypes in our communities.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Proverb, Language, Women, Abuse, Culture </p> S.L. Baker , M.G. Maluleke Copyright (c) Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Managing gender-based abuses and harassment in African homes: A societal responsibility <p>This paper explores ways and means through which gender-based abuses and harassment in African homes could be mitigated within the Covid-19 pandemic. The paper is both conceptual and empirical in nature. Document study and interviewing techniques were used to collect data from three perpetrators of gender-based violence and harassment and the other three victims of such gendered violence. Research findings revealed that firstly, lack of adequate expansion of economic opportunities to females, contributes to the abuse and harassment by the male gender. Secondly, the absence of socialising the girl and the boy differently, has a share in the abuses and harassment. Thirdly, general lack of gender transformation and representation in a society, contributes to the abuses and harassment by the male folk. Fourthly, remaining hostages to the inherited past&nbsp; patriarchy, is having a share to the abuses and harassment. Fifthly, the breakdown of relationships and trust between men and women, is behind the experienced gender-based abuses and harassment in African homes. Lastly, lack of comprehensive coordinated efforts directed at breaking gender stereotypes to achieve gender equality, has a share in this challenge of abuses and harassment of women. As part of the conclusion, the&nbsp; researcher recommends for the intensification of the psycho-social support for both the female and the male genders in the households. In addition, the researcher recommends for dealing with the underlying reasons for the existing gender-based abuses and harassment, in African households within the Covid-19 pandemic. Finally, the researcher recommends for the disruption of the ways of thinking in African society that uphold masculine power in homes.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Abuses, Economic Opportunities, Gender transformation, Harassment, Socialisation </p> Ngwako Solomon Modiba Copyright (c) Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 African traditional medicine and healing in South Africa: Challenges and prospects before and during Covid 19 <p>The use of medicinal plants as a fundamental component of the traditional African healthcare system is perhaps the oldest and most varied of all&nbsp; therapeutic systems. Traditional healers who prescribe medicinal plants are the most accessible and affordable health resource available to local communities in many parts of rural Africa, and sometimes the only surviving treatment. Most people in South Africa prefer to use traditional&nbsp; medicine / medicinal plants rather than Western medicine because they believe that traditional medicine is more efficient, accessible and&nbsp; affordable. However, in spite of these developments, traditional medicine has been ignored and its importance underplayed by indigenous communities. It is in this context that this paper examines challenges of traditional medicines in South Africa and prospects for traditional medicine and healing. The paper will also state the significance of African traditional medicine, its uses amongst indigenous communities and argue that they have potential for present and future clinical examinations.</p> <p><strong>Key words</strong>: Traditional medicine, African traditional medicine, traditional health practitioners, traditional healing, health care </p> Monicca Thulisile Bhuda, Phemelo Marumo Copyright (c) Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The influence of credit rating agencies on state governance: The case of South Africa <p>In the past decade South Africa has been mired by downgrades from international Credit Rating Agencies (CRAs) which has been detrimental to its policies and economy. This study explored the role played by CRAs in influencing South Africa’s governance prior the current global Corona (Covid 19) pandemic. The study adopted an interpretivist paradigm making it a qualitative enquiry. Data was collected through interviews, purposefully<br>sampling key knowledge-holders while seeking a thematic analysis of the interview data. The study found that CRAs are key actors in the South African policy-making environment, they determine the creditworthiness of the country and are critical investment gatekeepers, while creating awareness as well as exerting pressure on policy makers in the policymaking process. Consequently, this has had a great impact on both monetary and fiscal policy of the country. Which underpins the overall domestic or local economic development path and eventually affects service delivery and the way of life of citizens. With the current adverse pandemic, and its impact on already fragile economies such as that of South Africa. The role of CRA will become ever more vital during and post the pandemic when countries scramble to borrow and pay debt accumulated before, during and post the pandemic. Making the behaviour of a country (policy-wise) greatly influenced by CRA. South Africa has not been exempted from this conundrum while it has already engaged in talks with the International Monetary Fund (IMF) for funds to help fight the pandemic.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Credit Rating Agencies; Sovereign Rating; Governance; Public Policy; Public Actors; Economic Development&nbsp;</p> Sihle Zikalala, Emmanuel Mutambara, Syanda A. Mthuli Copyright (c) Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The rise in online learning in South African schools due to the coronavirus pandemic <p>The primary purpose of this article is to review the impact of the Coronavirus pandemic on schools. Due to the outbreak of the Coronavirus, several schools in South Africa resorted to implementing online learning strategies to adhere to the health regulation issued by the Department of Health and the World Health Organisation. This study makes a scholarly contribution by reviewing the government lockdown regulations and responses by learning institutions in South Africa. An exploratory research design was used, using a variety of databases, journals, and governmental reports. The findings of the review assert that the outbreak of the Coronavirus presents an opportunity for the education sector to develop an integrated&nbsp; approach that supports blended learning. The current changes in the education sector are financially viable, yet socio-economic challenges slow the implementation of online learning strategies. The findings suggest that while the South African government is promoting online learning as the only alternative in the context of Covid-19, this mode excludes many rural learners from teaching and learning due to a lack of resources to<br>connect to the internet, the learning management system, and low-tech software. Therefore it is recommended for the institution to employ sustainable measures. The paper argues that the Coronavirus pandemic has given rise to online learning in South Africa.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Blended Learning, Coronavirus, Online Learning, Education, Lockdown</p> Jonathan Monareng, Andrisha Beharry Ramraj, Pfano Mashau Copyright (c) Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Respect in the upbringing of a Muvenda child: A continuous application of the fifth commandment <p>Respect reflects a community’s cultural identity. The word ‘respect’ is also used in the Tshivenḓa Bible. It is used in the translation of the fifth&nbsp; Commandment—Ṱhonifha khotsi au na mme au, uri u kone u lalama kha shango ḽe nda u nea ḽone — Respect your father and your mother, so that you may live a long time in the land that I am giving you. This injunction of the Old Testament in the Bible is not new to Vhavenḓa. Respect is essential in the conduct of every individual. A lack of respect towards one’s seniors implies a lack of respect towards the ancestors. This is one of the rules with which one has to comply. Failure to comply means one has to face consequences. This commandment is relevant because there are many people who deviate from the right course and make life unpleasant for others. It must not be regarded as limiting any individual’s freedom or as a punitive measure, but as a rule that keeps people on the right track and shows them how to behave themselves at all the times. A child, as part of the community, continuously comes into contact with people in public places. A well-nurtured Muvenḓa child always makes an effort at being polite and emerges from an unpleasant situation as the ‘victor’. To such a child, not only biological parents count as his/her parents, but all the adults are regarded as his/her parents. This is a communal practice in most African societies, including Vhavenḓa. When a child engages in unacceptable activities, people attribute the behaviour to parents’ failure to nurture that child appropriately. It is the responsibility of the parents to teach their children to subordinate their own interests to those of the community. The child’s unperturbed good manners indicate the manner in which every individual can raise the quality of his/her life without violating the rights of others.</p> <p><strong>Key words</strong>: Bond. Contempt. Control. Norms. Punishment. Reinforcement.</p> Lekau Eleazar Mphasha, Shumani Leonard Tshikota, Avhavhudzani Virginia Mantsha, Tshilidzi Petunia Netshidongololwe Copyright (c) Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Understanding internationalisation of Higher Education in the era of Covid-19 <p>It is no longer news the high level of devastation caused by the spread of Coronavirus (COVID-19) in the world. While COVID-19 is truly a global pandemic, its impact on the internationalisation of higher education (HE) has not been felt equally and evenly across the globe. It has increased inequality, exclusion, discrimination, and global unemployment considerably and this might be devastating in the long run. Apart from causing&nbsp; major disruptions to teaching, learning and experimental research, it has also adversely affected many internationalisation activities of universities, most notably regarding the mobility of students and staff. The aim of this study was to help shape our understanding of how the international education enterprise in South Africa is being affected by these developments, and it also focused on the impact of COVID-19 on internationalisation of HE and how the adverse effect could be circumvented. Using qualitative methods to analyse available secondary data, this study investigated the impact of the pandemic on different aspect of internationalisation of HE ranging from educating global citizens, building capacity for research, generating income from international student tuition fees, the quest to enhance institutional prestige, mobility, internationalisation at home,&nbsp; international research and others. The analysis of the data was done using critical discourse analysis model which allows the study of three levels of discourse namely text, process, and social context. In conclusion, the study reveals that there is need to set long term and sustainable strategies as<br>the means to prevent the negative effect of COVID-19 on HE, establish new ways of delivering internationalisation to preserve its benefits and closing the inequality gaps in HE. </p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> internationalisation, COVID-19, higher education, inequalities, blended learning</p> O.S. Obadire, T.S. Mashau, C. Misumi Copyright (c) Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Sports policy uncertainties in South Africa and its Universities <p>The argument of this paper is that sports policy in South Africa is ambiguous or contradictory, both in universities selected for this study and&nbsp; nationally. The data used for this paper emerges from qualitative interviews conducted at three universities in South Africa: North West University (NWU), University of Pretoria (UP) and the University of Johannesburg. The data is not representative of campus soccer. The conclusion is that the<br>organization of soccer as experienced by students, and by some sports personnel, in an ambiguous way. The recommendations suggest universities to act on such findings, and higher education authorities to find alternative forms of defining notional hours for students who partake in sport, if the problem of the weight of sports and studies is over-burdening on students workload is more prevalent than this study finds, and encourage new forms of recognition of sports learning, in order to redefine sports education. </p> Kiran Odhav Copyright (c) Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The position of womanism versus feminism in a contemporary world: The African philosophy perspective <p>Feminism has always altered predominant perspectives in a wide range of areas within Western society, ranging from culture to law. Feminist&nbsp; activists have campaigned for women's legal rights to be recognised in society, rights such as rights of contract, property rights, and voting rights. Inclusive were women's rights to bodily integrity and autonomy, objectives such as the right for abortion, and reproductive rights (including access to contraception and quality prenatal care) which were also key. Moreover, there has been a call for the protection of women and girls from domestic violence, sexual harassment, and rape; for workplace rights, including maternity leave and equal pay; against misogyny; and gender-based discrimination against women. Looking at all the rights it has advocated for, Feminism seems to have overlooked seeking rights for believing in and respecting the abilities and talents of women as well as acknowledging women's contributions to society. This oversight has led to women not trusting each other and seeing each other from a racial social lens as feminism on its own never seemed to affect all areas. From this point, the<br>study seeks to find the difference between feminism and womanism and what the position of a black female in the scenario is. From the findings,&nbsp; the study will conclude by coming up with an African philosophical model that can promote unison amongst women irrespective of their ideologies.</p> <p><strong>KeyWords</strong>: Feminism, African Womanism, liberalism, and gender-based roles, ubuntu </p> R.C. Molehe, P.O. Marumo, T.R. Motswaledi Copyright (c) Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Contestation of political power in Zimbabwe under the Covid19 lockdown <p>The post-2018 election period has brought back the political polarisation associated with the Mugabe-Tsvangirai rivalry, which had been reignited by the events of November 2017, which led to the fall of Mugabe. The political overtures that the newly elected president, Emmerson Mnangagwa, attempted to give to Chamisa were snubbed by the opposition. In the wake of these political contestations, Covid-19 became a global pandemic that also affected Zimbabwe. Like other countries globally, Zimbabwe instituted mitigation measures, central to which were lockdowns that restricted the movement and curtailed on certain freedoms. The government was accused of using these limitations on freedoms to dismantle the strong opposition from the Movement for Democratic Change - Alliance (MDC-A) and its allies in civil society while propping up pliant and insignificant opposition political parties. The government also sought to increase its visibility on the ground while overshadowing the opposition. While this was the popular narrative, the opposition also took active and reactive measures to the action government took to prop itself up and portray the government in bad light. All this action amounted to the use of Covid–19 politics as political capital from both sides of the political divide. This paper analyses the use of the pandemic for political gain and concludes that all sides had their share of blame for the government’s actions, which only become more visible because of its control of state coercive apparatus. This paper is purely a desk research paper, using credible internet sources. Other sources used include legal documents from Zimbabwe as well as televised and written news which were also used in the form of a virtual observation of the events by the author, even though the sources could not be used independently, given the disjointed nature of global news that follows multiple events without in-depth coverage of most of them, of which Zimbabwe was one of such cases.</p> <p><strong>Key words</strong>: Covid-19, Emmerson Mnangagwa, MDC–A, Nelson Chamisa, ZANU–PF, Zimbabwe.</p> Raquel Asuelime Copyright (c) Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 COVID-19 and #ZimbabweLivesMatter: Rethinking the need for Social Justice and respect for Human Rights in Zimbabwe <p>COVID-19, as a worldwide pandemic, has resulted in various trajectories that have necessitated preventive measures, such as lockdown, social&nbsp; distancing and the wearing of masks. In addition, COVID-19 is being used as an excuse to trample on democracy and disregard human rights in Zimbabwe. This paper, which is couched in decoloniality, seeks to expose how COVID-19 restrictions have contributed to the death of democracy, instead of merely serving as a means to control the spread of the virus. The paper taps into political, social and religious spaces to argue for a rethinking of COVID-19 policies that de-emancipate citizens, especially women and children, in constructing sustainable futures. The paper ends by arguing that, while COVID-19 has enacted ambivalence in the economic and health landscapes of Zimbabwe, human rights should remain key for igniting sustainable development, regardless of conditions and the state of the world. </p> Bekithemba Dube Copyright (c) Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Psychological Perspective of Experienced Happiness during COVID-19 Pandemic in South Africa <p>The global spread of coronavirus has produced an unprecedented impact on people’s lives, psychological health, and happiness. In response to the pandemic, the South African government introduced one of the most stringent lockdown regulations in Africa in order to halt the transmission of the disease in the country. And many scholars are of the view that the COVID-19 regulations may have had unintended consequences on people’s physical and psychological health. This review examined the psychological perspective of experienced-happiness during COVID-19 pandemic in South Africa and the implications it might have on policies and interventions aimed at protecting people's psychological wellbeing in times of disasters and emergencies in Africa. Therefore, the strain of the regulations on relatedness or relationships, social interactions, a sense of healthy emotional and physical interactions with other people during the pandemic and how it impacts on the happiness level of South Africans will be, using the Hedonia and Eudaimonia theorization, a point of departure of this paper. The paper suggests a need to develop an applicable policy that strikes a balance between physical and psychological health.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Happiness; Hedonic; Eudaimonic; Lockdown regulations; COVID-19; South Africa</p> U.P. Ejoke, I.P. Khumalo Copyright (c) Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Students’ perspective on aspects of their lecturers’ teaching in a South African rural university: Unpacking students’ mute voices <p>Lecturing has always been perceived as a traditional top-down communication from lecturers to students without providing students with an opportunity to provide constructive feedback to their lecturers concerning their teaching practices. This has prompted the need to develop evaluation tools with which students can express their viewpoints on their lecturers’ teaching approaches. Hence, the appropriateness of this study which sought to unpack students’ mute voices in relation to various aspects of their lecturers’ teaching. With a distinct focus on a rural South African University, the purpose of this study was to explore students’ perspectives on aspects of their lecturers teaching. Flanagan (1954) Critical<br>Incident Technique (CIT) is utilised as a theoretical framework to reflect students’ views about their lecturers teaching. Exploratory qualitative research design was used as an approach for this study. A simple random sampling was used to select forty (40) lecturers’ evaluation questionnaires completed by students across eight (8) Schools of the rural university. From each evaluated lecturer, five questionnaires were randomly selected. Thematic and content analysis was used for data analysis purposes which specifically looked at the section in which students were requested to comment on any aspects of their lecturer teaching that they would like to see improvements. The findings of this paper have<br>implications for both higher education, lecturers and academic development (AD) practitioners as they highlights aspects such as lack of time management, provision of learning material, and relation between lectures and students as latent constraints to teaching and learning.</p> <p><strong>Key words:</strong> students’ perspectives; lecturers’ teaching; rural university student evaluation </p> Fhatuwani Ravhuhali, Hlayisani F. Mboweni, Lutendo Nendauni Copyright (c) Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Enhancing democracy through public participation process during COVID-19 pandemic: A review <p>The public participation process is deemed essential as it enhances partnerships between the government and citizens during the decision-making&nbsp; process. This study perused the meaning and merits of public participation, and how democracy could be enhanced through the public participation process during COVID-19 pandemic. The Democratic DecisionMaking Theory and the Technological Acceptance Model underpinned the study. These theories highlighted the need to include the citizens in the decision-making process and the relevance of the South African government to support and educate the public on the usefulness of adopting information science to achieve effective governance, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. A qualitative study was applied in this study and data were collected from secondary sources such as articles, government legislation, textbooks, and the Internet. Major findings depict that public participation involves a process by which the parliament and provincial legislatures refer to the citizens, individuals, government entities, and concerned organisations in the decision-making process to achieve good governance.<br>The public participation process establishes partnerships and relationships, promotes addressing the needs of the citizens, and enhances the collective decision-making process. It was discovered that numerous communication dynamics could be used to enhance public participation&nbsp; process during the COVID-19 pandemic. Studies from several scholars further revealed that electronic media is the most effective communication dynamics to be applied in the public participation process during the COVID-19 pandemic and these include Short Message Service (SMS), WhatsApp group messages, Facebook messages, Electronic mail (e-mail), and Zoom virtual presentations. The study recommends that the South African government should apply a mix of these electronic media options in the public participation process to enhance democracy during the COVID-19 pandemic.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Public participation; Democracy; Communication dynamics; COVID-19; South Africa. </p> P.C. Enwereji, D.E. Uwizeyimana Copyright (c) Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The magic power of self-image: Bases of personalprofessional therapeutic competencies among educational psychologists <p>The tendency of Psychologists in our contemporary world characterized by multicultural pluralistic diversionary value change and continue to go about trying to resolve Clients’ presenting symptoms, in gross neglect or outright disregard of owns personal challenges, problems and well-being remain profoundly questionable. Many people initially get involved in the helping professions for reasons other than first, seek personal therapy&nbsp; before becoming an effective and proficient therapist or helper or caregiver (Mathew 7:3-5). As such, this study investigated the magic power of Self-Image among Educational Psychologists: Bases for Personal-Professional Therapeutic Competencies. The participants were thirty-four (34) Educational Psychologists whose age ranges are: 20-64 years (M=28.1, SD=4.03); 35-49 (M =41.8, SD=3.92) and 50-64 (M=55.8, SD=4.28). The participants responded to the Self-Image Psychology Inventory (SIPI) and PersonalProfessional Competences Inventory (PPTCI). The results showed that a proportion of participants are less competent as the percentage increases from 20.0% to 58.3% in accordance with their gender diversities between males and females. Conversely, the proportion of participants who are competent reduces from 80.0% to 41.7% in accordance with their gender diversities from females to males. In accordance with the results of the Chi-square test of independence, there is any evidence to support that, a significant relationship exists between levels of education and personal-professional therapeutic competences among participants, χ^2 (2, n = 80) = 6.470, p&lt;0.039. It was concluded that, in order to remain personal-professional competent, Educational Psychologists most desired, sought after and practice personal-professional therapy in the course of their professional practice and personal well-being.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> self-image; magic power of self-image; personal therapy; professional therapy; therapeutic competences; personal therapeutic&nbsp; competences; professional therapeutic competences</p> Monday L.V. Shammah, Boitumelo M. Diale Copyright (c) Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Reflections on Mafata’s evaluative language with reference to african culture and western education in his literary works <p>Sarangi (2003), quoted by Fernandes (2011), states that language is primarily used for description and evaluation to recount stories and experiences as well as punctuating our narratives with our opinions and feelings. These evaluations are our everyday discourse that indicate our perspectives on the subject matter, which in turn engage our audience and make our narrative meaningful at personal level, and they are conveyed through&nbsp; linguistic devices such as repetition and metaphor informative narratives. This article examines, through Appraisal theory, the writer’s cultural stances, in this case African culture and Western views, in this case western education, that impact the behaviour of his characters as reflected in one of Mafata’s novels, namely ‘Mosikong wa Lerato’. Focus is on one of the elements of Appraisal theory namely attitudinal positioning. The main objectives here is to evaluate how the author, in this case Mafata, (i) manages to raise emotions in the reader’s mind (affect), (ii) how he inscribes or evoke appraisal in his text (judgement) and (iii) finally if there is any form of positive evaluation in his writings (appreciation). The study observes that in this novel, culture and western education play pivotal roles in shaping the persona of the characters.</p> <p><strong>Keynote words</strong>: Basotho culture, Western culture, evaluative language, appraisal theory </p> Elizabeth Mmasabata Skosana, Elias Nyefolo Malete Copyright (c) Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Dealing with conflict: A case of Kwazulu-Natal Christian Council (KZNCC)’s engagement with the land-owners and landdwellers in Dannhauser <p>The phenomenon of land is fundamentally rooted into the identity of a people. A people without strong connection to land can easily become enslaved to political and economic exploitation. In many parts of the world, there are examples of deadly conflicts linked to issues of unjust seizure of land. This study critically investigated land conflict and the KwaZulu-Natal Council of Churches (KZNCC)’s engagement with the land-owners and<br>land-dwellers in Dannhauser. The study sought to explore the role played by the KZNCC in engaging with the land-owners and land-dwellers to resolve conflict, towards determining the factors that promote land conflict and best conflict management strategies. The study employed&nbsp; exploratory research design in which the qualitative research method was used with the interviews used as the data collection instrument. Data was gathered from a sample of 11 respondents purposively selected to participate in the study. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the qualitative data. The study revealed that the land conflict in Dannhauser was due to evictions, invasion of white farmers’ property and farmer’s insecurities. The study also revealed that conflict in Dannhauser was fueled by nonavailability of land for black people and land restitution. Further, the study revealed that the KZNCC’s role was not recognized and that it was not effective enough in dealing with conflict. In light of these findings, the study recommended that illegal evictions must be stopped, and that the government must make alternative housing to the evicted victims. Furthermore, the government must speed up the process of land-restitution so that land can be returned to the marginalized black people.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Conflict, engagement, land-owners, land-dwellers, KZNCC </p> S. Dube, E. Mutambara Copyright (c) Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Developing investor aftercare model for promotion of Agroprocessing sector: The case of Limpopo Province <p>A noteworthy effect of prolonged global economic crisis has been that investors have become more risk averse in their investment decisions. As companies get to grips with a difficult economic climate brought by Covid-19,global investment patterns reveal that more companies go for less costly substitutes to greenfield investments when seeking to grow their businesses. As a result, investor aftercare is perceived to be a less costly and risky strategy even though is more often ignored part of investment promotion. Locations that ignore aftercare miss out on the positive externalities investors bring to their locations. This study aimed to understand Limpopo's current investor aftercare practices to develop a model that would encourage much needed investment into the province’s agro-processing sector. Investor aftercare and agro-processing were reviewed in detail in order to give context to the study, while a convergent-parallel approach of the mixed method was used in data collection to understand Limpopo' s current strategy in relations to promotion of agroprocessing in the province, where primary data was collected using a questionnaire and interviews, supplemented by usage of student papers and credible internet sources. The population in this study included the officials from Limpopo Economic Development Agency, Limpopo Department of Agriculture, Limpopo five district municipalities, and Subtrop as an industry association. A total sample of 133 participated in the study. The study concludes that investor aftercare is not being adequately institutionalized as several stakeholders in Limpopo seem to discharge this function in a silo approach. This leads to a lack of clarity and worrying overlaps of institutional mandates which renders investor aftercare less effective. The study recommends the review of the institutional arrangement of investor aftercare in Limpopo province, accompanied by the researcher’s newly developed model called experiential investor aftercare, which is likely to realise the potential investor aftercare has in promoting Limpopo's agro-processing sector.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Agro-processing; investor aftercare; promotion</p> S.J. Matlala, Pfano Mashau Copyright (c) Tue, 02 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Destabilising masculinities: perceptions on the gendered division of labour in the mining sector in Phalaborwa, Limpopo Province <p>This study has drawn from thirty two interviews of men and women employed in the mining sector for a minimum of three years. The theory of masculinities underpins making sense of the persisting, highly skewed, gendered division of labour and inequality in the mining sector. The snow-ball sampling method was employed to select participants. Content analysis was used to analyse data. The study shows that the mining sector remains highly masculine oriented. Women are still underrepresented in various sections of the mining sector. The study shows changing perceptions with the majority of participants believing that women are equally if not more capable than men, even in areas that have traditionally been considered a male preserve. However, some men, who work in seemingly dangerous areas of the mine, expressed that working in the mining<br>sector is dangerous and unhealthy for women. Furthermore, most female participants decry that the protective clothing in the mines is still designed to suit the male body and that there are no sanitary facilities to accommodate women’s needs especially in the mineshafts. Lastly, some participants highlighted the prevalence of sexual harassment in the mines which victims are afraid to expose. The study recommends the need for the development of a gender policy that should guide mainstreaming of gender in every component of the mining sector system. This should include the development of a recruitment policy that should take into consideration affirmative action measures to increase women representation in mining; a sexual harassment policy that has proper implementation strategies; and sanitary facilities and uniform that will suit gender needs</p> L.N. Maqubela, D.H. Ndanduleni, R. Nishimwe-Niyimbanira Copyright (c) Tue, 02 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Post-Covid-19 pandemic in Africa: Prioritising ecological justice and ethical education for community disability services <p>This paper highlights the importance of utilising ecological justice and ethical education to improve community disability services for community health and social work practice in the post-COVID-19 aftermath in Africa. The article goes through the implementation of ecological ethical education as a precursor to practice mechanisms for community disability service pedagogy in Africa. Totally, 124 papers from the pool of 265 articles were examined, evaluated, and found to be suitable, and thus incorporated in the literature review assembled through the searches of PubMed, Elsevier, Cochrane, Wiley-online, ProQuest, Sabinet, Ebsco-Host, Science-Direct, Sage-Pub, SAGE-Journals, JAMA, The Lancet, Scopus, and the library. The intention being to evaluate and abridge the present status of COVID-19 literature, as it applies to ecological justice and ethical pedagogy for the postCOVID-19 pandemic in Africa. The fusion and conceptual review of literature could not expose the implementation linkages on post-COVID-19 outcomes for community disability services pertaining to ecological justice, community health and social work, with no&nbsp; ethicalpedagogy merging in curriculum for practice. As such, this paper offers a theoretical outline to emphasise the utilisation of ecological justice and ethical education by integrating the African eco-philosophy of ‘Ala’ concepts, and links it with the two out of the four guidelines stated in the International Federation of Social Work (IFSW) global environmental education and interrelated with the harsh realities and expectations of clarity<br>for community health and social work to improve community disability services presently and in the post-COVID-19 aftermath.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Community Disability Services, Community Health, COVID-19, post-COVID-19, Ecological Justice, Ethical-Pedagogy, Social Work</p> Toby Precious T. Nwachukwu Copyright (c) Tue, 02 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The Covid-19 pandemic and retrenchments in South Africa: Implications for inter-gender relations <p>Due to the disruption of activities across the globe by the COVID-19 pandemic, so many consequences were predicted. Prominent amongst these were unprecedented job losses and an increase in gender-based violence. These were based on the assumptions that due to the lockdown (i) many people will lose jobs, and (ii) people will be constrained to stay together and as a result, gender-based violence will escalate. On the one hand, South Africa was one of the countries that experienced a high incidence of the pandemic and implemented very strict lockdown measures to contain it with relative success. On the other, the country is also ranked high amongst those with records of gender-based violence in normal times. This paper investigated whether retrenchments led to an increase in gender-based violence during the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown in South&nbsp; Africa. It focused between March and June 2020 described as a period of the "hard-lockdown" in the country. Based on our analysis of available&nbsp; data, we found out that many intervening variables interacted with the impacts of the pandemic. We also observed that these may have moderated behaviours that influenced inter-gender relations; as a result, gender-based violence appeared not to have increased as speculated in the country during the period under review.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: South Africa, COVID-19 pandemic, Retrenchments, Inter-gender relations, Gender-based violence, protection relief, lockdown </p> Vincent Chukwukadibia Onwughalu, Victor Ojakorotu Copyright (c) Tue, 02 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Government responses and socio-economic implications of Covid-19 in Africa: Gender responsive and food security <p>This study is founded on the context of government’s role in dealing with pandemic outbreaks with reference to Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) on&nbsp; genderbased livelihoods.. It forms part of gender-sensitive needs assessment. The author review government responses and approaches applied towards pandemic preparedness. The aim was to analyse whether government responses really contribute to effective food aid targeting in complex emergencies. Pandemics and outbreaks have differential impacts on women and men. In the aftermath of disasters, affected communities will need help to restart agricultural activities as soon as possible, in order to meet household food security needs adequately and restore resilience. In some societies, women and/or children are the victims of food discrimination. It is essential to ensure that women and men who live in low-income households are fully integrated in food security interventions for achieving critical development goals. Strides have been made to ensure meaningful participation of affected groups, including women and girls, in decision-making and implementation. Empowering women is vital to&nbsp; lifting rural communities out of poverty, especially as many developing nations face economic crisis, food insecurity, HIV/AIDS, environmental degradation and increasing urbanization. Using literature and desktop reviews the researcher explores the social factors and how have they changed since the crisis. A review of women participation is also undertaken to assess inclusive development for food security. Some programmes have been implemented and the study look into the recognition of the roles of women and men in government programmes for enhancing food security. Recommendations are also make to facilitate women’s access to economic network to enhance food security and livelihood development.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: COVID-19, gender responsive programmes, socio-economic implications, food security and emergencies</p> Loraine Boitumelo (LB) Mzini Copyright (c) Tue, 02 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Factors that contribute to cigarette smoking and its health effects amongst students at a selected University in South Africa <p><strong>Background</strong>: Globally, cigarette smoking is causing preventable deaths in developing countries especially among the youth.<br><strong>Purpose</strong>: The purpose of the study was to assess factors that contribute to cigarette smoking and its health effects amongst students at a selected university in South Africa.<br><strong>Methodology</strong>: A cross-sectional descriptive quantitative survey design was conducted at a rural-based university in South Africa. Convenience sampling was used to select 407 students. A self-administered questionnaire was utilised to gather data and was analyzed using SPSS version 25. Chi-square tests (χ2) were employed to determine the association between smoking and demographic variables.<br><strong>Results</strong>: The prevalence of smoking among students was (175/43.3%). Most participants were females and the mean age of the sample population was 24. The study found perceived personal, social-cultural, and environmental factors that contributed to cigarette smoking among students. The majority of the students perceived factors that drive students to smoke cigarettes as being stress (322/80,2%), having friends that smoke&nbsp; (278/78.4%), having family members (223/74.8%), having a roommate (297/72.7%), lack of rules/signage that prohibits smoking in campus&nbsp; (281/69%), easy availability of cigarettes in campus (252/62%), absence of parental influence (224/55%), and regular adverts of cigarette (267/65%). Students were aware that smoking causes lung diseases 332 (81.5%), lung cancer 354 (87.8%), heart diseases 308 (75.6%), hypertension (260/64.6%), effects on unborn babies (327/80.4%), delays in wound healing, (299 /74%) and chances that it triggers asthma (317 /78.1%).<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The study concludes that students smoke cigarettes due to a variety of factors, therefore, there is a need to target these factors when developing on-campus anti-smoking strategies.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Smoking behaviours, Cigarette smoking, Students’ smoking </p> M. Thendele , N.S. Mashau , T.G. Tshitangano , T.S. Murwira Copyright (c) Tue, 02 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Negotiating successful academic careers in South African Higher Education Institutions <p>The study examines the ways in which individuals in the pursuit of an academic career produce subjectivities which allow for a greater sense of academic identity. It highlights the complex process of becoming an academic by examining the conditions of possibility and the dynamics of such a process. The study is based on case studies of selected South African universities with a focus on academic staff members, including junior and senior lecturers, professors, head of departments and deans of faculties which were interviewed. The study adopted a constructionist perspective to grasp experiences in becoming an academic as a process of self-making and being within a context through particular discourses and discursive practices on academic careers. Thus, the central argument of the study is that despite some progress in changing the demographics of academic staff employment, limited change has taken place in the domain of institutional culture and the academic environment, which remain highly constraining to the pursuit of academic careers by black academics. The study argues that, under such circumstances, central to the successful pursuit of academic careers by black academics have been their initiative, efforts and imagination, or put differently, the role of their individual and collective agency in navigating through complex and alienating environments. This has been possible insofar as they have been able to generate conducive subjectivities for a greater sense of academic identity. Based on the emerging theoretical insights, the domain of the construction of academic identity with reference to subjectivity and agency is an area that still requires considerable research. The study is exploratory in the sense that it leaves many insights unanswered. This implies that these insights warrant deeper research in order to provide further clarity. Thus, the issue of subjectivity requires further research since academic staff rely significantly on agency in order for them to survive. Further studies about the<br>reframing of structural factors are required to reduce the burden on these individuals. Since most studies focus on structural elements, in this case, we realized that these structural elements are so overwhelming that the academic staff survive through conducive subjectivity and agency.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Subjectivity, agency, identity, discourses, discursive practices</p> David Matsepe, Michael Cross, Mugwena Maluleke Copyright (c) Tue, 02 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Determinants of HIV testing among young people in South Africa <p>South Africa has one of the largest concentrations of people living with HIV and AIDS in the world. HIV testing is one of the strategies in the&nbsp; HIV/AIDS prevention and control programs in South Africa. However, utilization of this service is low especially among young people. The objective of the study is to establish the factors influencing HIV testing among young people in South Africa. The study used data from the 2016 South African Demographic and Health Survey. Chi-square test was used to test the association of HIV testing and each independent variable whereas multivariable logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with HIV testing. The study indicate that 56.9% of males and 67.8% of females had undertaken HIV test in 2016. Chi-square test showed that all background characteristics have significant relationships with HIV testing. The multivariate logistics regression revealed that age, ethnicity and region were major factors affecting HIV testing among both young males and female in the country. In addition, marital status and number of sexual factors were important contributors to HIV testing among young females only. The findings of the study reveal that HIV testing among young male and female in South Africa is moderate. To achieve the 95-95-95 goal by 2030 there is need to strengthen the HIV testing programmes for young people. Given the observed gender disparities on factors influencing HIV testing, there is a need to introduce gender specific strategies.</p> <p><strong>Key words</strong>: HIV Testing, Young People, Males, Females, South Africa </p> Germinah Ditshego Motshegwa, Martin E. Palamuleni Copyright (c) Tue, 02 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Suicidal ideation among police officers: A qualitative study of risk factors <p>Suicide ideation and attempts are associated with an increased risk for completed suicide. This study explores the factors contributing to suicidal ideation among police officers. A phenomenological design was used, and data collected through individual unstructured interviews. Purposive sampling was used to select six police stations and police officers. After receiving permission for the study, police officers were given reasons for the study, and verbal informed consent was obtained. Twelve police officers proved to be sufficient to reach data saturation. Data was analysed using Tesch’s method. The findings revealed domestic violence related to financial problems, lack of partner support, contravening the law, not sharing problems and staff shortage. Strategies to enhance openness among police officers should be developed to relieve the stress that could lead to depression. Police officers should be counselled to appreciate and manage their salaries. Furthermore, more staff should be hired to avoid overtime work.</p> <p><strong> Keywords</strong>: Police officers, risk factors, suicide ideation, suicide </p> Constance Singo, Hilda N. Shilubane Copyright (c) Tue, 02 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000