Gender and Behaviour https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab Gender and Behaviour is an interdisciplinary journal dedicated to articles, that reflect psychological and behavioural aspects of gender in general. Gender and Behaviour welcomes scholarly manuscripts from authors all over the world on a wide array of subjects concerning psychological and behavioural aspects of gender in general. en-US Copyright for articles published in this journal is retained by the journal. ifepsy@yahoo.com (Akinsola OLOWU) wanawake2002@yahoo.com (Matt Olasupo) Mon, 12 Jul 2021 11:42:02 +0000 OJS 3.1.2.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Editorial https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/209974 <p>No Abstract</p> Professor Andrew Zamani, Prof. Victor Ojakorotu, Dr. Phemelo Olifile Marumo Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/209974 Mon, 05 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Covid-19 And The Theology Of Johane Masowe: A Transpersonal Social Work Perspective https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/209977 <p>The advent of the novel coronavirus, COVID-19 has left the world trembling due to fears, uncertainty, grief and loss. The virus has indiscriminately ravaged the entire world claiming many lives among people of almost all walks of life. During its onset, close to nothing was known about it which left health experts to rely on trial and era for its prevention and management. Nothing much is known about the virus from a religious fraternity hence this study sought to explore nexus between the beliefs and practices of Johane Masowe Church and COVID-19 prevention measures. The study was informed by transpersonal theory and it adopted a qualitative approach in which data was collected from 16 influential office bearers in the church. Data was collected through telephone interviews among church members in Mazowe district in Zimbabwe. Members of Johane Masowe church who participated in the study reported that the coming of the disease was foretold through prophesy. It was also established that COVID-19 prevention measures such as social distancing, use of alcohol based sanitisers and travel restriction were against church beliefs and practices. The participants also believed that contracting COVID-19 could be prevented through use of holy ashes and dedicated songs. Social workers working in the public health sector should therefore strike a balance between respecting the religious views of the church members and protecting the public from the scourge of COVID-19 given the high transmission competence of the disease.</p> <p><strong>Key words</strong>: Johane Masowe, apostolicism, COVID-19, prophesy, transpersonal theory, transpersonal social work</p> Vincent Mabvurira, Tuelo Masilo Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/209977 Mon, 05 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Exploring the Perceptions of Youth about Covid-19 and the Use of Vaccine in South Africa https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/209978 <p>This study explored the perception of the youth about the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) and the use of vaccines in South Africa. This study used a qualitative research methodology, a phenomenological research design, convenience and purposive sampling. The study population were 14 youths between ages 15 and 35 years who live in the rural area. Data were collected using structured interviews in a face-to-face and telephonic interview. Data were analysed using thematic content analysis. COVID-19 affected the world and humans severely; people especially the young adults were unable to socialise due to the fear of contracting the virus. This study revealed that because of the loss of many lives due to COVID-19, the youth hold different views regarding COVID-19. The study detailed mixed views from youth about COVID-19 indicating that it is a manmade virus; others do not have faith in the vaccine but majority agreed that COVID-19 is a deadly virus that could be curtained by vaccination. The study recommended that youth should form part of the team by the government to create public awareness on the importance of taking the vaccine to curb the spread of COVID-19.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> COVID-19, knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, youth, vaccines, rural area</p> T.A Chauke, O.S Obadire, K.S Malatji Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/209978 Mon, 05 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Framing Social Deviance: a Comparative Analysis of South African Newspapers’ Representation of Drug Use and Abuse Among The Youth. https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/209980 <p>This article examines framing of drug abuse in two South African newspapers in order to gain deeper insights on how the press influence public opinion and perceptions on social ills bedevilling society. In particular, the article compares and contrasts how South African newspapers, namely, the Daily Sun and the Sowetan framed the use of an illicit drug called nyaope among the youth in South Africa. The study determined the frequency and nature of news reports, assessed the quality of the news reports, and compared the news reporting styles adopted by both newspapers. The study espoused a descriptive mixed method design as the research approach. According to the report's results both tabloids' coverage of nyaope abuse was limited, as part of their required commitment to creating awareness of drug abuse by young people. The study also highlighted the absence of narrative reporting and in-depth coverage as critical styles of reporting on illicit drugs and related issues. This limits the scope of tabloid coverage of nyaope use in communities, as tabloids tend to concentrate on surface issues rather than delving deeper into the issues at play. Despite the fact that tabloid newspapers are prone to misreporting news about nyaope abuse, the drug remains a hot topic that affects the vast majority of South Africans. As a result, more thorough research on nyaope usage is urgently needed in order to improve the frequency and quality of drug abuse reporting.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Framing; Illicit drugs; Mixed Methods; Nyaope; Tabloid; South Africa</p> Khutso Mabokela, Thabiso Muswede Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/209980 Mon, 05 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The Impact of Covid-19 on Trade and Policy Response in Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/209982 <p>The COVID-19 pandemic despite its toll on human lives and its herculean demands on the global health system also came along with it, a global economic shock that has negatively affected the economies states in the world, thereby plunging them knee deep into recession. This paper analysed the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on trade in Nigeria. The paper used qualitative method of research inquiry to identify some of the impact of the pandemic on trade to include reduced revenue from export trade, low level of export trade, fall in global crude oil prices due to cut in global demand, erosion of stock values at the stock market, increased number of clearing delays at ports, delays in clearing of banking instruments, elongation of projects’ life span, suspension of planned investments, labour force constrains occasioned by imposed restrictions, suspension of outstanding tax obligations, suspension of trade and productive activities that are dependent on import inputs as well as low volume of domestic trade due to poor cash flows, among others. Finally, the study recommends increased and transparent liquidity provision for business enterprises that have been affected by COVID-19 pandemic in order to push them back into full productive activities as the lockdown is eased off. It equally recommends that the Central Bank of Nigeria should initiate policies that will assist corporate businesses in managing massive staff layoffs, through the infusion of intervention funds into such businesses as that will help to curb the rightsizing, downsizing and unemployment scenario in Nigeria that has become worrisome and aggravated by the pandemic.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Covid-19 pandemic, import and export trade, financial market, financial crisis, global recession &amp; Nigeria</p> Dominique Emmanuel Uwizeyimana, Vincent Okwudiba Anyika, Kelechi Johnmary Ani Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/209982 Mon, 05 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Social Media as a Communication Strategy at a University in Cape Town https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/209983 <p>This study investigated the role of social media as a communication strategy in a selected university in Cape Town, South Africa. It critically examined first year marketing students’ and staff’s practices and experiences towards the use of social media within the department of marketing and communication at Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Cape Town. The study was guided by students and staff use of these platforms to communicate with their peers, and staff. The study was underpinned by the adaptive structuration theory (AST) (DeSanctis &amp; Poole1994). A qualitative research method was used with a case study design positioned within the interpretive paradigm. The data collected was analysed using critical discourse analysis. The findings of the study revealed that social media is an effective tool that helps in delivering information. The findings from the study also showed that the department could improve communication through social media platforms. The study concluded that the use of social media could enhance and attract students to engage and participate in communication among themselves, the department, and the institution. Based on this, the study recommended that guidelines should be created to attract students’ view as well as update information more often on all social media.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Social media, communication, communication strategy, social media platforms, university</p> Aline Mwilambwe Kasongo, Afungmeyu Jane-Francis Abongdia Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/209983 Mon, 05 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Experiences and Challenges of the BA in Contemporary English and Multilingual Studies Students: New Bilingual Programme at a Higher Learning Institution https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/209984 <p>The purpose of this article is to explore the experiences and the challenges of the BA CEMS students, enrolled in the first bilingual degree that uses English and an African language as a medium of instruction. The aim of this paper is to investigate the challenges faced by the current students in the programme, in order to inform the current practices. The study employs a qualitative research method to better understand the challenges faced by students and how higher learning institutions can ensure the successful implementation of such programmes to foster the development and use of indigenous languages in higher education. Methodologically, group discussions were held with the third year and Honours students in the programme, to understand their experiences and challenges of being taught in an African language and the support they need for their throughput and also to prepare them for the workplace. The main findings indicate that there is lack of resources in African languages and students struggle when they do academic work in Sepedi. There is also a lack of institutional support and students are often discouraged from registering or completing their degree.</p> Mapelo Tlowane, John Wankah Foncha Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/209984 Mon, 05 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Feminist Reflections on the Impact of the South African National Covid-19 Lockdown on The Upsurge Of Gender Based Violence in Mahwelereng Township of Limpopo Province, South Africa. https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/210060 <p>The article investigates the relationship between the South African COVID-19 national lockdown and the upsurge of domestic violence in rural communities in South Africa. It draws from the experiences of female victims and narratives of the perpetrators of domestic violence in the Mahwelereng township, to systematically explain how the national lock-down provided enabling background for gender-based violence during the COVID-19 pandemic. Two overriding research questions guided the study: First, under what conditions did domestic violence occur during the COVID-19 lockdown in the township? Second, how were acts of violence justified by the perpetrators in the township? To answer these questions, the study has relied on feminist epistemologies, within which gender-based violence is interpreted as a result of threat to hegemony masculinity. Having been socialised in the culture of violence, the perpetrators of GBV (who were all men) within the township, were found to have resorted to the use of violence against their partners amidst changes in their family financial structure and the household confinements they experienced during this period. Within the context of these conditions, acts of violence against intimate partners were easily justified as an acceptable means to maintain control and remain the rightful head of the family.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> COVID-19, Gender-based violence, Patriarchal violence, Masculinities, Pandemic, Patriarchy, South African national lockdown</p> K.E Amaechi, T.D Thobejane, R Rasalokwane Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/210060 Tue, 06 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Examining The 4th Industrial Revolution And South Africa Youth Entrepreneurship Linkage To Covid 19: Opportunities And Challenges https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/210062 <p>This article was primarily motivated by the fact that the Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic affected businesses of all sizes, from small to large, and as a result the available literature focused on small and large businesses only, undermining the extent of COVID-19 consequences on youth entrepreneurs and their start-ups. Furthermore, the article’s main objective was to determine the extent of challenges and opportunities South African youth entrepreneurs faced and reaped. Moreover, the data for this article was collected from secondary data within the context of South Africa, and the data was primarily collected from literature around youth entrepreneurship, their challenges and opportunities during COVID-19 and the role of the 4th Industrial Revolution (4IR).<br>The core aim of this article was to highlight youth entrepreneurs’ initiatives that operated during the COVID-19 pandemic and those that were affected by COVID-19 regulations; hence, youth entrepreneurs’ challenges and opportunities were highlighted. The information and findings in this article thus seek to fill the gap in information that relates to how South African youth entrepreneurs overcome challenges of this magnitude (COVID-19). Moreover, future South African youth entrepreneurs can use this article as reference or rather take lessons on how youth entrepreneurs survived the COVID-19 pandemic.<br>In addition, the findings of the article reflected that, as much as COVID-19 regulations affected South African youth entrepreneurs’ businesses, there are those that managed to remain creative and weathered the storm of COVID-19 while there are those faced challenges that overcame their businesses. Moreover, the findings also show that the 4IR played a huge role towards the success of South African youth entrepreneurs’ initiatives. Hence, the use of 4IR technologies enabled youth entrepreneurs’ businesses to adhere to COVID-19 regulations.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Youth Entrepreneurs, Covid-19, Challenges, Opportunities, 4th Industrial Revolution</p> Mkhothi Tshabalala, Andrisha Beharry-Ramraj Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/210062 Tue, 06 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The Impact of Covid-19 on Employees, Leadership Competencies and Human Resource Development https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/210064 <p>The aim of this paper is to investigate the impact on of Coronavirus on employees and leadership competencies and the new role of human resource development. In crisis, employees are greatly affected and subsequently require a large amount of support from organizational leaders and human resource development (HRD) practitioners. Furthermore, in times of crisis leaders are asked to respond effectively and develop completely new competencies in order to deal with the crisis at hand. As such, HRD is seen as the success element, which aids the organization’s resilience during a crisis. The research objectives guiding this paper included determining the effects of crisis situations such as COVID-19 on employees and understanding how HRD can assist in minimizing the crisis effects such as COVID-19 for employees. Further research objectives are to ascertain the leadership competencies required during normal situations and crisis situations such as COVID-19 and lastly to understand how HRD can support leaders and the relevant leadership competencies during crisis situations such as COVID-19. The study was essential as there has been limited research done on the effects of COVID-19 on HRD. The research methodology used for this study was desktop research due to time constraints and COVID-19 restrictions. The researcher undertook a comprehensive literature review by utilizing recent data, findings and made useful recommendations and conclusions.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Coronavirus, Leadership, Competencies, Human Resources Development.</p> Kiosha Ramlachan, Andrisha Beharry-Ramraj Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/210064 Tue, 06 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A Response to Covid-19: Perspectives from African Indigenous Knowledge Systems https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/210065 <p>It has been little over a year since the global surge of the COVID-19 pandemic. Governments and private efforts to develop a vaccine that will curb the spread of the virus have been made across the globe particularly in developed countries. Withal, there has been worries about equitable access to the vaccines once they have been fully developed and approved for wider population distribution particularly in poorer countries throughout the African continent. This calls for these countries to look for alternative therapeutics through the collaboration of western-trained scientists and indigenous health care practitioners and knowledge holders. A lot has been published on the possible contribution of traditional medicine across the globe, however, little has been done to provide perspectives from African indigenous knowledge systems. The main aim of this paper, is to explore what the current situation in Africa is with regards to the contribution of African indigenous knowledge systems, to the development of a vaccine for COVID-19 and the existing therapeutics used by local communities in the management of the illness. This is done through a preliminary analysis of current literature published in scholarly journals. The article concludes that African traditional medicine has played a huge role in providing primary health care services even though it is under developed compared to Asian traditional medical systems. Therefore, harnessing and developing the ever-present potential of indigenous health care systems towards providing solutions to health challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic is vital. Perceptions of African people towards Western manufactured vaccines are equally important in order to provide an understanding on the level of acceptability within African communities.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> COVID-19, traditional medicine; illness; African Indigenous Knowledge Systems; government; Africa</p> Simangaliso Lesley Mashego, Mothusiotsile Edwin Maditsi, Monicca Thulisile Bhuda Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/210065 Tue, 06 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Student Experiences and Perceptions of Remote Teaching and Learning at A University of Technology https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/210066 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Over a year after the first case of COVID-19 in South Africa, efforts are being made to roll out a mass vaccination programme that should contribute to achieving herd immunity. While the vaccination drive is underway, the higher education sector has resorted to online remote teaching as a way of saving the academic year and saving lives.</p> <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> This study examined the experiences and perceptions of ten undergraduate students on remote teaching and learning at a university of technology. It considered their perspectives on aspects such as the affordances of various digital platforms used for teaching and learning, as well as academic and personal challenges encountered by students in the remote learning sphere.</p> <p><strong>Method:</strong> The study is grounded in Moore’s 1993 Transactional Distance Theory, which suggests that the quality and intensity of the interaction between the learner and the learning environment influences performance within distance learning environments. Data was collected using questionnaires, Semi-structured interviews, and an analysis of the various digital platforms (WhatsApp, Blackboard etc) used for remote teaching. The data was analysed using Tesch’s steps of qualitative data analysis.</p> <p><strong>Findings:</strong> Drawing on the data from these sources, the paper argues that the move from face-to-face to remote teaching and learning occurred in a challenging context which partly reflects broader societal challenges. Teaching and learning in this university like others, faced the ‘new normal’ way of teaching and learning. The study reveals that, in fragile times such as in the period of the pandemic, lecturers need to be more creative and innovative in their online teaching in order to promote effective and efficient teaching and learning.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The study recommends that both the lecturers and management must put some strategies in place to enhance remote teaching and learning during situations such as the Covid- 19 pandemic.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Remote teaching and learning, COVID-19, Teaching and learning, Experiences, Perceptions, Technology</p> Uloma Nkpurunma Obi, Ignatius Khan Ticha Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/210066 Tue, 06 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Aspects of Institutional Sexual Harassment Policies in Institutions of Higher Learning and the Private Sector and their Shortcomings in South Africa https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/210075 <p>This article probes aspects of sexual harassment policies at workplaces in South Africa. The article deals with policy orientation relating to actions and remedies that are promulgated in sexual harassment policies that have been adopted by various institutions including the private and public sectors of our economy. In broader terms, the article is concerned with policy instruments that these sectors have in place to address sexual harassment. The theory of Hegemonic masculinities is used as a lens to understand behavioural patterns exhibited by those who are alleged perpetrators of sexual harrassment. A content analysis approach was used in the process of understanding the short comings exhibited by many of these policies that are purported to stop the upsurge of sexual harassment. Researchers used Inductive reasoning as the process of developing conclusions from collected data by weaving together new information regarding sexual harassment. They also analyzed the text with an open mind to identify meaningful content that answered their research questions. The literature and the conclusive data reviewed suggest that for organizations to thrive, they should in their solutions to stop sexual harassment, have a clear and vocal support from senior institutional management personnel in both the private and public sectors of our institutions. Management should have clear procedures of handling and dealing with complaints arising from the victims of this scourge.</p> <p><strong>Key words</strong>: sexual harassment, workplace, policy, human rights, dignity, safety, wellness</p> L.D Mogorosi, T.D Thobejane, P.E Matshidze Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/210075 Tue, 06 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Practicing Rites of Passage by Southern Ndzundza Ndebele During Covid-19: is it safe for male initiation schools to operate during Covid-19? https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/210076 <p>Initiation schools, which are components of rites of passage, are registered cultural institutions for both men and women. They are long standing traditions of Africans and serve as rites of passage, where young people are indigenously educated and prepared for adulthood life. In South Africa, indigenous people such as the Ndebele, Xhosa, Sotho, and Pedi still honour initiation processes and they practice them on a year basis. However, since the outbreak of Covid-19, these practices have been affected and were suspended several times by the government. Rites of passage serve as culture identity and are critical stages of life in many African societies. Their suspensions disrupt cultural processes such as ceremonies and basic life skills education, which are the foundations of rites of passage. This study used qualitative research method an aimed to investigate the participants’ perceptions on the Covid-19 pandemic and how it may affect rites of passage, specifically male initiation schools. Using a convenience sampling procedure, in-depth interviews and focus group interviews as tools, thematic analysis to generate themes, the findings of this study reported that most people are curious about the proceeding of male initiation because they are critical aspect of Ndebele culture and serve as identity. They have further expressed that they will be compliant with every rule and law suggested by government and house of traditional leaders in order to save lives from the Covid-19 pandemic. However, they fear the opening of illegal initiation schools, which will be caused by the suspension of initiations. They argued that if the decision is taken to suspend initiation schools, government, communalities and traditional leaders need to work together in order to prevent illegal initiation schools.</p> <p><strong>Key words</strong>: rites of passage; initiation school; government; tradition leaders; traditional leadership; identity; Covid-19</p> Monicca Thulisile Bhuda, Motheo Koitsiwe Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/210076 Tue, 06 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 First Ladies in Africa, Covid-19 and Challenges of Sustainable Food Security: Nigeria as A Case Study https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/210121 <p>The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), fifth objective, calls for gender equality; achieving this will ensure other goals such as Goals 1 (poverty eradication/alleviation), 2 (zero hunger, 3 (healthy lives and promotion of wellbeing for all ages, and 4 (quality education for all) among others. Though not constitutionally established, the office of first ladies is here to stay in Africa, but with some challenges such as lack of direction on the office responsibilities. As a woman, the first lady's role should radiate around quality food affordability, availability and accessibility together with other challenges that impact directly on women. To achieve this, Goals 1, 3 and 4 need to be considered for meaningful sustainable development. Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic that is hunting the global system with a special focus on Africa needs urgent attention when considering women plights in a patriarchal environment. First Ladies have invaluable roles to play so that food security, an area that women are good at could be achieved. Through Goal 5 of the SDGs, and with the adoption of African feminism both food security and COVID-19 will be addressed holistically. Unfortunately, many first ladies are on the neck of their spouses to be a de facto head of government in the form of a cabinet appointment, contract execution, promotion of an unaccounted annual budget. Through the adoption of African feminism and secondary data perspective, this paper examines some likely roles of the first ladies in the age of COVID-19 and food insecurity.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> First ladies, Africa, Food security, African feminism, COVID-19, SDGs</p> Lere Amusan, Idowu Opeoluwa Aluko Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/210121 Wed, 07 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The Practices of Graduates from the BA CEMS Bilingual Programme that highlight the efficiency and effectiveness of the Curriculum https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/210122 <p>The purpose of this study is to investigate the efficacy and effectiveness of the BA in Contemporary English and Multilingual Studies (CEMS) at the workplace. Regarding efficacy, this investigation focuses on how the programme capacitated the graduates with language skills to ensure that the outcomes are achieved. The multilingual content in two languages (English and Sepedi) aims to develop bilingual experts. The study is qualitative in nature and used 30 employed graduates from this bilingual programme who filled in questionnaires, and 10 of them were selected for interviews to get more clarity on the issues raised. The article is premised within the social constructivist theory. The study found that graduates (employees) meet different languages at their workplaces. One of such challenges was that they encountered languages that are unknown to them and were unable to fulfil their responsibilities. Secondly, most of them are not competent in the English language and hence struggle to satisfy their cliental. The study concludes that the programme needs a lot to provide efficiency and efficacy to the graduates.</p> <p><strong>Key words:</strong> Bilingualism, multilingualism, translanguaging, intellectualization of African languages, medium of instruction</p> Mapelo Constancia Tlowane, John Wankah Foncha, Jane-Francis Afungmeyu Abongdia Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/210122 Wed, 07 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The Covid-19 and Travails of Survivors in Vhembe District https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/210123 <p>South Africa, like many other countries globally is affected by the novel coronavirus, “severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)”, which is a transmittable disease called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The virus emerged from China Wuhan in 2019. As a pandemic, this virus ripped the economic sector, the health sector, political sector and the social life in general. Its symptoms ranges from mild self-limited disease to severe pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, septic shock, and even systemic multiple organ failure syndrome. In the absence of medication for treatment, changes in social life has been very imperative in curbing the virus. For example, social distancing, avoiding groups, sanitising and wearing of masks which affects the social life of human beings.<br>This research use content analysis method to qualitatively analyse the travails of COVID-19 survivors in Vhembe who were infected by the pandemic and survived. By using snowball sampling method, the researcher selected 4 males and 6 females who are survivors of Covid-19 regardless of whether they were hospitalised or not. The inclusion criteria included (1) males and females who tested positive for COVID-19. (2) Vhembe people who are South Africans. The results found that patients experienced the disease differently. They have different views on the physical and social experience on both infection and interpretation of the pandemic. The study found that social life is compromised and as social beings people are affected both physically, mentally and socially. The study zoomed at the area less researched touching Covid-19 writings and social life implications for knowledge generation purposes.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: COVID-19, experiences, social implications and survivors</p> Rendani Tshifhumulo Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/210123 Wed, 07 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A Critical Review on Academic Performance Improvement Plans of Underperforming Rural Public High Schools in Mopani West District, Limpopo Province https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/210124 <p>The purpose of the study was to critically review academic performance improvement plans of underperforming rural public high schools in Mopani West District, Limpopo Province. The quality of learners’ performance in rural public schools has raised serious concerns. School principals are expected to develop clear goals towards improving the culture of teaching and learning for quality learners’ performances. However, rural public schools are still struggling to produce quality results. Effective school leadership is the critical element in the success of schools. The study was conceptualized within the interpretive paradigm, guided by Hersey Blanchard’s situational leadership theory complemented by Maslow’s Hierarchy of need theory, subsumed under a qualitative research approach. Documents review approach was employed as data collection method; to review existing documents. Purposeful sampling was employed to select schools and relevant documents to be reviewed for the study. Data collected were analysed thematically and descriptively by checking documents against other documents collected. Findings revealed that academic performance improvement plans (APIPs) of underperforming rural public high schools do not address subjects’ specific challenges. The study recommended that the developed (APIPs) must address subject specific challenges as outlined in the national senior certificate (NSC) diagnostic report. An Action-Based Academic Performance Improvement Model (ABAPIM) was proposed to assist school principals in developing the APIP to turn around learners’ performances.</p> <p><strong>Key words</strong>: Academic performance improvement plan, Underperforming, Public high schools</p> A.B Mohale, N.F Litshani, T.S Mashau, H Moyo Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/210124 Wed, 07 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Psychosocial Management of Depression in Adolescents Focusing on Resilience and Help-Seeking Behaviours: A Brief Exploratory Systematic Literature Review https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/210125 <p>This systematic review focused on the exploration, description and summary of existing evidence on the psychosocial management of depression in adolescents through resilience and help-seeking behaviours. The “advanced search” tool in “EBSCOHOST”, “Emerald insight”, “Science Direct”, “Sabinet Online” and “Scopus” databases was used to search for the following keywords: “psychosocial or social and psychological management”; “adolescent or teenage depression”; “resilience”; and “help-seeking behaviours”. It is one thousand five hundred and fifteen (1515) peer reviewed articles. Following a rigorous process, while adhering to the inclusion and exclusion criteria of the study, six (6) articles were accepted for review. In the course of the search, the following themes emerged: protective factors relevant for managing depression in adolescents; and support system for resilience and help-seeking behaviours. The findings suggest the importance of psychosocial management of depression in adolescents, focusing on resilience and help-seeking behaviours. Emerging forms of psychosocial management, focusing on resilience and help-seeking behaviours include the following: engagement of adolescents in yoga; building self-protective factors; self-determination to cope with adolescents suffering from depression; roles of relatives; and positive behaviours.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Adolescents, depression, help-seeking behaviours, psychosocial management, resilience</p> Precious Chibuike Chukwuere, Leepile Alfred Sehularo, Mofatiki Eva Manyedi Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/210125 Wed, 07 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Home Remedies as a Medical Development in the Context of the Covid-19 Pandemic in Zimbabwe: A Cultural Memory Paradigm https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/210126 <p>The increasing dependence on home remedies during the surge of the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), has drawn international attention and prompted academic conversations about the efficacy and effectiveness of home remedies in the treatment of the pandemic in Africa, in general, and Zimbabwe in particular. The purpose of this study was to investigate the medicinal contribution of home remedies in Zimbabwe during the Pandemic. This research was informed by insights from the dynamics of the memory perspective, developed by Jan Assmann and cultural memory used as the main thrust of the study. Data was collected through interviews and document analysis to interrogate the medicinal contribution and development of home remedies as a possible cure of Coronavirus in Zimbabwe. It is argued that home remedies, such as zumbani, moringa, concoction of ginger, garlic, tobacco snuff, lemon leaves, guava tree leaves and honey, among others, are a medicinal development in the treatment of COVID-19 in Zimbabwe, since scientists are still battling to develop a vaccine. The findings revealed that there is an increasing reliance on home remedies by Coronavirus patients to treat the disease compared to conventional medicine. In as much as home remedies are helpful in treating symptoms, there is a need to compliment these remedies with clinically proven conventional medicine. Home remedies currently used to treat Coronavirus should undergo scientific tests and clinical trials to determine its efficacy and effectiveness. It is concluded that home remedies have taken centre stage and are generally accepted as a significant alternative in the treatment and cure for COVID-19 in Zimbabwe. Thus, it is imperative for both traditional herbalists and conventional medical scientists to work together to develop the much-needed vaccine that will ultimately cure Coronavirus. There is also the need for governments to fund research that promotes development in both traditional and conventional medicine.</p> <p><strong>Key words:</strong>&nbsp;Home remedies, cultural memory, figures of memory, COVID-19 pandemic, symbols, Zimbabwe</p> Tobias Marevesa, Esther Mavengano, Paul Nepapleh Nkamta Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/210126 Wed, 07 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The Utilisation of Employee Assistance Programme: The Case of A Tertiary Hospital in Limpopo Province, South Afric https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/210206 <p>Public institutions (namely, state departments and state-owned enterprises) and private business organisations in South Africa have recognised the importance of employee assistance programme (EAPs) in humanising the workplace. The rationale for implementing EAPs is to assist increase employees’ work commitment and performance through life management knowledge, social skills, as well as improved mental and physical health. An evaluative quantitative cross-sectional survey was conducted at an EAP of a selected tertiary hospital, in the Limpopo Province in South Africa. This EAP was established in 2007, and coincidentally was never evaluated to assess whether it was meeting the needs of its clients (i.e. public servants in a health-care setting). Data was collected through self-administered questionnaires from 100 hospital employees (administrative, support and professional staff). Medical doctors were excluded from the study population, due to their busy work schedules. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyse data. Findings show that EAP services were underutilised, as targeted employees were largely unaware of availability of such services. For programme improvement reach and effectiveness, the study recommended that there was a need to improve on aspects such as work supervisor training on what EAP’s do, as well as marketing of programme services in the workplace.</p> <p><strong>Key words:</strong> Assessment, Employee Assistance Programmes, In-house model, EAP Practitioner, EAP utilisation</p> Patricia S. Manganyi, Lobelo D. Mogorosi Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/210206 Thu, 08 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Food Insecurity among African Women Residing in Rural and Informal Urban Areas During Lockdown in South Africa https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/210207 <p>Women play a critical role by providing food to ensure the survival of their families and the economic disadvantages women suffer can be linked to complexities arising from the intersection of gender with other identity categories such as race and class. The aim of this article is to examine how food insecurity among African women residing in rural and informal urban areas have been affected by COVID-19 and lockdown in South Africa. The paper uses a qualitative literature review and a feminist economic theoretical framework to bring attention to the impact of the coronavirus pandemic on food insecurity among African women residing in rural and informal urban areas. We argue that African women residing in rural and informal urban areas have been seriously disadvantaged in securing food during lockdown due to intra-household inequality.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: African women, children, coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, feminist economists, informal urban areas, lockdown, and rural areas</p> Ntsikelelo Benjamin Breakfast, Thandolwethu Nomarwayi Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/210207 Thu, 08 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Behavioural Factors Influencing Low-Income Farmers Purchase Decisions of Weather Index Insurance https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/210208 <p>Weather index insurance is an emerging insurance solution in developing countries aimed at assisting low-income farmers cope with weather-related shocks, especially drought. Despite its many benefits which include income stabilization effects, financial inclusion and increased agricultural intensification, the product suffers from low uptake in emerging markets where it is available. The objective of this paper is to identify behavioural factors, based on the Theory of Planned behaviour (TPB) as the guiding framework, that influence low-income farmers purchase decisions of weather index insurance in attempts to uncover patterns that drive demand. Deploying quantitative research involving structured questionnaires, the study sampled 326 low-income maize farmers in Free State, North West and Mpumalanga provinces of South Africa. The findings revealed that while attitude and subjective norms have a direct effect on purchase decisions, perceived behavioural control had a non-significant association. The study advances the understanding of the low-income agricultural insurance market and assists in framing future weather index insurance products by understanding drivers of demand from a behavioural perspective.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Weather index insurance, low-income farmers, theory of planned behaviour, South Africa</p> Chummun Bibi Z. , Mpho Mathithibane Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/210208 Thu, 08 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Maintaining Accurate Records in A School Environment: Less of Technical Concern and Much of a Management Imperative and Mandate https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/210209 <p>The study aimed to investigate the importance of maintaining accurate school records and is underpinned by the interpretivist paradigm and organizational effectiveness theories. The study is based on the Situational Leadership Theory and data gathering took the qualitative approach. Focused-group interviews were conducted on four (4) sampled school principals, two (2) Department of Basic Education (DBE) officials. School records were analyzed, and observations were conducted to support data gathered during interviews. Data from the interview were triangulated by observations, document analysis and a literature review. The reviewed literature indicated that the school principals, as heads of schools play a pivotal role and they are ably assisted by teachers, School Governing Bodies (SGBs), the community, DBE and the support staff to maintain accurate records. Record keeping in education, hence, is the responsibility of the collective. The findings of this research, however, established that, ninety (90.0%) per cent of school principals and teachers do not attach great value to keeping records in the school setting; therefore, the records were in shambles. It is recommended that it be stressed to the stakeholders that record keeping in education should not be one person’s responsibility but a system activity which needs positive and constructive contributions from all concerned. This will ensure a participatory approach to the activity. The researchers also recommend that the 10% enrolment increment factor be abolished as it creates a fertile ground for fake enrolments in schools. Principals need to work diligently on record-keeping and delegate responsibilities to various stakeholders to ensure that accurate records are maintained and are available on request.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Source documents, organizational effectiveness, planning, accurate information</p> Herbert Moyo, NF Litshani, TS Mashau, AB Mohale Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/210209 Thu, 08 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Strategies That Learners Employ In Acquiring Speaking Skills in English Second Language (ESL) in Township Schools https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/210243 <p>The problem of speaking in the field of English Second Language learning is not unique to the South African context. In the sub-Saharan context, ESL scholars have observed that there is a problem with the acquisition of speaking skills, yet there is still paucity of research on this issue. Black African ESL learners in the South African context use English as the main language of communication in business, academia, and technology and as a Language of Learning and Teaching (LoLT) within their schooling context. This poses a problem in the development of the learners’ speaking proficiency. This paper explores the strategies used by Grade eleven learners’ in acquiring strong speaking skills in selected township schools, in the Pinetown District, KwaZulu Natal. The term ‘township’ in the South African context points to undeveloped, racially segregated areas that were reserved for Black, Indian and Coloured peoples during the apartheid era. The study design is a qualitative case study, conceived within the interpretive paradigm. Data generation strategies used focus group discussions with 64 learners. Using Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory as an analytic framework, the generated data were analysed using qualitative methods of analysis. The key finding revealed that the ESL learners had individual and group strategies that they were deliberately using in order to become proficient ESL speakers.</p> <p><strong>Key Words</strong>: Township context, strategies, ESL learners</p> Mthembu Bheki , Pillay Pravina Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/210243 Fri, 09 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Political Economy of Covid-19 Amid Food Insecurity https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/210245 <p>Coronavirus is here to contend with as a new normal at the global level. The solution to the pandemic is what scientists, politicians, pundits and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) are battling with little outcome. Many kinds of literature abound since the outbreak of the epidemic that those who are the main target of this are the ones with comorbidity ailments. The impacts of this contagious disease call for academic interrogation since what brings about this, majorly, is the lack of organic food in the age of genetically modified (GM) food imposed on us. The dictum, healthy profit and unhealthy people are here to stay as long as biotechnologists are after the profit of multinational corporations (MNCs) and to some extent, farmers’. It has been proved that organic food is an agent of anti-hidden hunger and by implication, a source of medicine as against taken medicine as food. This paper intends to adopt an agroecological thesis in the promotion of food security through food sovereignty that is home-made without reliance on imported food that are sources of compromising immunity, which is a target of COVID-19 as documented by some students of development studies, and food and nutrition security (FNS). Relying on secondary data and content analysis approach, a conclusion will be drawn that the COVID-19 vaccine is not only a ruse, but another means to subject developing areas to abject poverty through the importation of one-size-fits-all drugs for the pandemic. A need to promote healthy people as against focussing on healthy profit that benefits only MNCs executives and their shareholders against stakeholders in the food and pharmaceutical industries.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: COVID-19, Food security, Food sovereignty, Agroecology</p> Lere Amusan, Samuel C. Agunyai Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/210245 Fri, 09 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Imperative Political Behaviour for Effective Incapacitation of Pandemics (Covid-19) in Africa: overview of Primary Healthcare in Nigerian context https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/210395 <p>The role that primary health care (PHC) and primary healthcare systems (PHC-S) ought to play to effectively mitigate pandemics such as the COVID-19 in the African continent is examined. Given the veracity of pandemics (i.e. coronavirus) on African communities located within local government domains which manifestly portray the nature of PHC-S, the examination of primary care of the continent becomes imperative. Available evidence suggests that PHC in Africa is under-funded, underdeveloped, dysfunctional as well as often disregarded in the overall scheme of public investment in the health sector policy matrix. These findings derive from qualitative meta-analysis of literatures on primary care in Nigerian context, of which the observations are the basis of generalization for the African continent. Hence, a key goal of the paper is to describe the character of PHC-S of Africa, outlining how it constitutes hindrance to PHC’s effective contribution to overcome pandemics like COVID-19, and thereby help to suggest reform measures necessary for African PHC-S to meaningfully support the overpowering of any healthiness epidemic such as coronavirus and every other reviving and future pandemic.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Primary health care; COVID-19/coronavirus; pandemic; primary healthcare system; qualitative meta-analysis; Africa (Nigeria context)</p> Ikemefuna Taire Paul Okudolo, Itumeleng Mekoa Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/210395 Mon, 12 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The Involvement/Non- Involvement of Traditional Leadership in Covid-19 South Africa https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/210397 <p>Traditional leadership is a central component of African thought. In the African context, leaders are born in the royal family or consanguinity and he/she is expected to take over when they come of age. During sickness or pandemics, the subjects look upon the king to solve the problem. Due to that, a king must have the wisdom to address all his subject's needs and wants. With 59 million people struck by the Covid-19 pandemic, the South Africa indigenous societies were also not left behind by the scourge, which led to their subject looking at them for solutions. Although the South African government created policies to combat the outbreak of the virus, there is little understanding in the involvement/ involvement of traditional leaders in how they handle the spread of the virus within their local communities. It is in that light that this paper seeks to gain an in-depth understanding of the involvement/ involvement of traditional leadership in Covid-19 South Africa. Utilizing the qualitative method of research accredited journals, books, governmental documents, and other material was adopted by the paper to gain this understanding of the involvement/ involvement of traditional leadership in Covid-19 South Africa.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Covid-19; traditional leadership; indigenous communities; government.</p> Monicca Thulisile Bhuda, Phemelo Marumo, Thabang Motswaledi Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/210397 Mon, 12 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Gender Perspectives of Measures to improve Water and Sanitation Delivery In South African Local Municipalities https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/210399 <p>This study investigated measures to improve water and sanitation delivery in South African local municipalities. The qualitative research approach and exploratory research design were selected for this study. Thirty (30) participants were selected to participate in this study through online and telephonic interviews due to COVID-19 pandemic. Atlas-ti software (version 8.2) was used to analyse data collected from the participants. Themes and categories emerged from the study and were discussed adequately by corroborating it with the literature review outcomes to find solutions to the study. Major findings disclosed that some local municipalities in the North West province do not provide adequate water and sanitation delivery to the residents due to issues related to budget implementation plans, limited supply of water resources, lack of personnel training, the poor state of infrastructure, poor implementation of legislative frameworks, financial management issues, inability to update service development plans, lack of skills, and strategic leadership issues. The study recommended that municipal employees should collaborate with residents, conduct awareness campaigns, promote emerging innovation options and communication dynamics, install leak monitoring and detection sensory machines, ensure effective infrastructural maintenance culture, apply service legislation and promote effective strategic/financial management in an endeavour to enhance water and sanitation delivery in the municipalities.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Municipalities; Water and sanitation delivery; Service delivery challenges; Communication dynamics; Innovation; Residents</p> PC Enwereji, DE Uwizeyimana Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/210399 Mon, 12 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Managing The Culture of Operating in Silos: An African Perspective to Production and Distribution of Vaccine for Covid-19 Pandemic https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/210402 <p>This paper examines how cooperation within the African states in the production and distribution of vaccine for the Covid-19 pandemic could be enhanced. The paper is both conceptual and empirical in nature. Document review and observation method were utilised to generate data pertaining to the scrambling for vaccine by African states. Research findings revealed that firstly, the existence of the conspiracy theories around the vaccine for Covid-19 pandemic was problematic. Secondly, mistaking collaboration of African states for ceding and compromising of individual sovereignty was a predicament. Thirdly, maintaining of strong ties with the erstwhile colonisers was a barrier. Fourthly, excessive reliance on the vaccine produced outside the borders of the African states, compromises sufficient cooperation and collaboration within the member countries. Lastly, the entrenched culture of operating in silos by African states was making resource mobilisation for the vaccine of Covid-19 difficult. The researcher recommends for the burden-sharing approach by the African states towards the acquisition and distribution of the Covid-19 vaccine. Finally, the researcher recommends for the disruption of the ways of thinking within the African states that uphold strong ties with erstwhile colonisers than with their neighbours and member states.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Conspiracy, Colonisers, Distribution, Pandemic, Production, Silos, Sovereignty, Vaccine</p> Ngwako Solomon Modiba Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/210402 Mon, 12 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Emerging South African Trends on Adolescent Depression and Management Literacy: A Narrative Literature Review https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/210403 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Depression remains a huge mental health challenge across all age groups with less than a quarter of sufferers getting adequate services which call for concern. The prevalence cuts across all age groups, but this study strictly focused on adolescents.<br><strong>Objective/purpose:</strong> This narrative literature review was to explore emerging South African trends on adolescent depression and management literacy to advance health science research.<br><strong>Method:</strong> The literature review is narrative and followed an integrative synthesis approach which focused on summarising the contents of multiple studies on emerging South African trends in adolescent depression and management literacy. Peer-reviewed articles published from 2013 to 2019 were searched in the following databases “Sabinet Online” “Google scholar” and “ScienceDirect” with some keywords.<br><strong>Results/conclusion:</strong> The study found that 30% of the reviewed literature focused on South Africa, 13% focused on other African countries, 47% focused on other countries outside Africa (the world), while 10% have no country of focus. Therefore, the study concluded that there is a dearth of literature on adolescent depression and management specifically within the South Africa context and Africa as a continent. This calls for more proactive measures and studies, owing to the ravaging nature of adolescent depression to the individual, family and the society.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Adolescent, Depression, Emerging trends, Management literacy</p> Precious Chibuike Chukwuere, Mary Manyo Ojong-Alasia, Leepile Alfred Sehularo, Mofatiki Eva Manyedi Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/210403 Mon, 12 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Understanding the Existential Challenges of Covid 19 Vaccine Development and Procurement in Africa: Emphasis on South Africa. https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/210405 <p>The recent outbreak of Covid-19 in Wuhan city, in central China and the “earlier threat of infectious pathogens” underscored the need for the development of vaccines against the present and emerging communicable diseases in Africa and the global community. The speed with which western multinational pharmaceutical giants embarked on covid-19 vaccine production with success has no doubt revolutionized the “norm and tradition” of vaccine research and development. The study examined the existential challenges confronting Africa in her attempt to compete with the rest of the world in the production, procurement, distribution and administration of covid-19 vaccines, using South Africa as a case study. The researcher utilized relevant literature sources to examine the nagging factors that constitute barrier in realizing the above challenges. The paper revealed that western neglect of African traditional medicines, inadequate storage facilities, corruption, lack of funding and research collaboration among African states are the key factors that derailed African attempts to finding remedies to covid-19 pandemic. The study posits the use of African indigenous medicine, moratorium on intellectual property rights, infrastructure development, sustainable research and development funding and collaboration as the ley-way for public health advancement in Africa. The paper concludes that so long as Africa continued to promote western medicine to the detriment of her indigenous herbs and healing practices, the problem of public health care in Africa will continue unabated.</p> <p><strong>Key words</strong>: Existential challenges, Covid-19 vaccine, Development, Procurement, South Africa, Africa</p> Hyginus Onyeaghala Uzomah Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/210405 Mon, 12 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The Cultural Forms of Expression in Northern Sotho https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/210406 <p>Various forms of expressions convey messages which are of value to the African people. The forms are the oldest cultural activities which help people to develop a sense of identity. They are native to a language and are strictly dealing with people. They promote the interests of a particular community unselfishly. These expressions have the stylistic effect that gives a language a typical ring and this makes people to explore knowledge in many various forms and contexts. These historical incidents explain different aspects of human action and behaviour by drawing freely from the culture of the community. The Northern Sotho language, like other African languages, is very rich in cultural forms of expression because they contain beliefs and accepted values of the community. They form the significant part of oral tradition in that they reveal the experiences of the entire community. These expressions contain the philosophy of the Northern Sotho people and shape them to behave in a particular manner. They describe and make a sense of social interaction because people attempt to effect a repair of a social failure. The failure includes a violation of social norms. Language forms an integral part of expression and is core to one’s culture. It is a fundamental part of cultural competency that needs to be given attention. Opportunity is also created for people, more especially the young ones, to develop their language skills. Many communication practices are imbedded in culture and as such, it would be relevant to indicate that each culture begins as oral culture. Many people of a literate community have a background of oral expression. The expressions do not only involve the language code, but also what to say and to whom. They should be used in various situations.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Beliefs. Communitarianism. Dramatization. History. Unification.</p> Lekau Eleazar Mphasha, Shumani Leonard Tshikota, Avhavhudzani Virginia Mantsha Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/210406 Mon, 12 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Psychological and Social Impacts of Covid-19 Pandemic and Vaccine Nationalism: Implications for Psychological Services in Sub-Saharan Africa https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/210408 <p>The study examined the literature on Psychological and Social Impacts of COVID-19 Pandemic and Vaccine Nationalism: Implications for Psychological Services in Sub-Saharan Africa. The researchers used secondary data and mixed method of data collection for the study. On line searching tools, including: African Journals Online, PsycINFO, African Index Medicus, Eastern Mediterranean Index Medicus, PubMed, and Web of Knowledge were used to search for the data used for the study. The results indicated that, the most exposed and vulnerable groups, including: children, college students, health workers, and other frontline professionals, are more likely to develop psychological symptoms, including: post-traumatic stress disorders, anxiety, depression, and other symptoms of distress. Furthermore, the results showed that, the pharmacological and non-pharmacological protocols, put in place to checkmate the Covid-19 pandemic, including: physical and social distancing, travel restrictions, hand washing and sanitizer, wearing of face mask, coughing under a curved elbow and other security measures have impacted people’s psychological well-being and interpersonal relationships, as well as their perception of empathy toward others. Also, covid-19 and vaccine nationalism have implications on how psychologists and other health care workers manage the pandemic. Psychologists and other frontline health workers have shifted from more traditional-conventional methods of interventions to unconventional methods, using technologies. In doing so, telepsychology and other technological devices assume very important roles in combatting psychological and social impacts of covid-19 pandemic and vaccine nationalism. Findings indicates that, the use of technologies have proved to be very effective, because both clients and health professionals can still participates in scheduled therapeutic sessions unhindered using online technological tools. In doing so, technologies have improve the professionals’ psychological interventions and social support skills during the pandemic. Also, technologies have made it possible for psychologists and other health professionals to meet clients’ needs working from home or from the workplace, thereby saving money and time and maintaining the interpersonal relationship between therapists and clients. Therefore, it was concluded that, the use of technologies by health professionals should continue even after the pandemic.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Psychological impacts; social impacts; COVID-19 Pandemic; Vaccine Nationalism; Psychological Services</p> Monday LV Shammah, Melissa Card Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/210408 Mon, 12 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Language Subject Advisors’ Support in Teaching and Learning of Languages in the Intermediate Phase, Vhembe District in Limpopo Province https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/210410 <p>The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of Language Subject Advisors’ support in Teaching and Learning of Languages in the Intermediate Phase. The research sought to locate the relevant support strategies which can be employed to improve the pass rate in the Languages in the Intermediate Phase. The study is an equal-status-concurrent mixed methods research. Questionnaires were used to collect quantitative data from 100 languages teachers in selected schools from Mvudi and Soutpansberg West Circuits in Vhembe District. Semi-structured interviews were used to solicit qualitative data from 5 purposively selected Language Heads of Department and 2 Language Subject Advisors. The quantitative data was analysed through the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 24, whereas qualitative data was analysed thematically. The main findings of this study revealed that the support is in the form of curriculum management, curriculum leadership and curriculum implementation. The study recommends, among others, that Language Subject Advisors should be exposed to academic scholarship to effectively facilitate support for curriculum delivery in schools.</p> <p><strong>Key words:</strong> Language Subject Advisr, Intermediate Phase, support, curriculum delivery</p> TR Munyai, NF Litshani, SA Mulovhedzi Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/210410 Mon, 12 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The Nigerian State, Corruption and the Political Economy of Covid-19 Governance https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/210411 <p>The outbreak of the Covid -19 pandemic across the globe and the consequent responses continues to generate heated concerns. Relying on both secondary and primary sources of data, and employing the political economy framework, this study interrogates the apparent commercialization of Nigeria’s response to the Covid – 19 pandemic and its implication for nation building. This study argues that in spite of the threat posed by the Covid – 19, the commercializiation in its response via the falsification of figures amidst low numbers of persons tested, duplication of health care projects, out sourcing of Covid test centers, over dependency on foreign vaccines, scarcity of test kits and drugs, Covid – test racketeering, conflicting government reports and positions, violations and inability to enforce basic rules on the part of government officials, and the apparent non activity of the Covid -19 taskforce in some northern part of the country brings to bare the myth and reality of Covid -19 pandemic in Nigeria. These contending issues have been made worse with the consequent economic and political burden the country confronts in its response to the pandemic. Therefore, while not dismissing threats of the second wave of Covid – 19 pandemics, this study argues that the Nigerian government and supporting agencies needs to ensure transparency, moderate proactive and a high sense of uprightness in their fight against the spread and its attendant consequences. This should be followed by government’s support for locally produced vaccines and citizens involvement via communal enlightenment and respect for basic Covid – 19 rules to reduce the its impact.</p> <p><strong>Key Words:</strong> Commercialization, Covid -19 Pandemic, Government, Citizens</p> Nicholas Idris Erameh, Victor Ojakorotu Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/210411 Mon, 12 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Succession Planning For Brand Sustainability Of Zimbabwean Small And Medium Tourism Enterprises (SMTES) In Covid-19 Pandemic https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/210412 <p>The study was based on exploring if succession planning was considered as a strategic for branding Zimbabwean Small and Medium Tourism Enterprises (SMTEs) beyond COVID-19 pandemic. It adopted a sequential mixed method starting with a qualitative research followed by a quantitative research. Qualitative research helped in establishing themes which constructed a survey questionnaire for a further quantitative research. Results informed that SMEs operating in Zimbabwe’s tourism industry have not been considering “succession planning” as a tool for brand survival and that it is difficult for these businesses to survive beyond the COVID-19 Pandemic. The study recommended that the SMTEs in Zimbabwe must consider succession planning for brand vibrancy through formalising structures and functions, delegation of branding related tasks and mostly branding should be treated as a business strategy. These will then develop some related activities within these organisations in order to improve on brand sustainability such as talent management, trainings, stakeholder involvement in brand formulation, career path development and applying brand awareness strategies.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Destination branding; brand sustainability; small to medium enterprises; succession planning; COVID-19</p> Farai Chigora, Joram Ndlovu, Emmanuel Mutambara, Pfano Mashau Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/210412 Mon, 12 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Societal Mitigation Strategies Against Sexual abuse of Female Learners by Male Teachers in Secondary Schools in South Africa https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/210414 <p>This article presents the findings of a qualitative study that examined sexual abuse of female learners by male teachers at secondary schools in Gauteng Province. South Africa has the highest rate of sexual abuse of learners by their male teachers (Ntobong, 2010:2). Literature revealed that allegations and claims about sexual abuse of female learners by their male teachers at schools are alarming in the country, as such, Department of Education (DoE) can no longer ignore it (Magwa, 2015:5). Four secondary schools were purposively sampled, three principals, three SGB members, eight LO teachers, 20 learners, a nurse, a social worker and a police officer were interviewed. Findings revealed that participants were concerned about the abuse of power by teachers, peer pressure, poverty and the state of sexual readiness by female learners were mentioned as main factors that encourage female learners to have sexual relationships with male teachers. This study employed Social Learning Theory Theoretical framework to explore how best the society could intervene to assist female learners when such claims are brought to the fore and/or raised, by encouraging learners to report the act as to protect them from being caught in an unending spiral of sexual abuse.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> female learners, loco-parent, male teachers, relationship, sex, sexual abuse, society</p> T Manyage, T.J Mudau, F.C Sithubi Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/210414 Mon, 12 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Factors Influencing Gender-Based Violence Against Young Women Migrants in Selected Provinces of South Africa https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/210415 <p>For time immemorial, migration has been a male dominated area due to the ideology that men are breadwinners and women are homestead caretakers. In recent times, African women have become part of different forms of migration, including cross-border trade, temporary and circular migration and longer-term settlement migration. The goal of this paper was to explore and describe factors promoting gender-based violence against young women migrants in selected provinces of South Africa. The researchers opted for the qualitative approach within explorative-descriptive research designs. Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with six female participants using the snowball sampling technique. Findings revealed that lack of social integration, insufficient protection from law enforcement agents and work environments in which migrant women find themselves are some of the factors that make them susceptible to gender-based violence. The violence experienced by these women is aggravated by their often illegal, migrant status. Thus, it is recommended that there should be effective strategies on how to implement policies and programmes geared towards the protection of women living in South Africa, including migrants. Such policies need to be gender-specific so that the health, safety and security of migrant women should be of primary importance than their status.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Migration, Gender-based violence, illegal, young women, South Africa</p> MM Kwakwa, J.C Makhubele, M.A Mabasa, T.V Baloyi, N.E Rabotata, F.K Matlakala, P Mafa, D.T Masilo Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/210415 Mon, 12 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A Rational Critique of the Fourth Industrial Revolution Academia: A Search For Deeper Explanations https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/210416 <p>The purpose of this paper is to explore the technological shift of academics towards the utilization of technological devices in the facilitation of teaching. Precisely, the paper is checking on how much is robotic teaching machines being embraced in academia. This is a conceptual and a positional paper. The question guiding this paper is: how successful could robotic-teaching machines replace lecturers in the halls of learning and competently and effectively lecture to the historically disadvantaged students? Findings include how much robotic-taught students are likely to lack the Ubuntu human sense of morality. The other finding relates to how much countries with low economic might could increase unemployment in the acquisition of robots. The other finding relates to the difficulty of retaining critical thinking within the robotic teaching, for the next generations. The other finding relates to the competent programming of robots to adequately replace lecturers. The last finding centres around the liberty of students to express their critical views being taught by formatted machines. Evidently much as the fourth industrial revolution (4IR) is beneficial to human development, it equally poses a relentless threat to lecturers as employees across the global economic spectrum. Myriad people are likely to be laid off from their jobs because of machinations when human capital will be replaced by robots. Acknowledging that some lecturers could be re-skilled, the number is but likely to be marginal. On the basis of above, the researchers recommend that the concept of decolonization of curriculum at higher education institutions be afforded a space to take root before being coupled with this one of the fourth industrial revolution (4IR) which is likely to require more preparations and resources than realized.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Academia, Critical thinking, Decolonization, Education, Robotic teachers</p> Ngwako Solomon Modiba, Mohammed X Ntshangase Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/210416 Mon, 12 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Practices caught between the African Cultures and the South African Constitution (1996): A Case Study of Northern Sotho and Tshivenḓa Proverbs https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/210421 <p>The issue of proverbs has been universally studied. It is not new even in African cultures. Christians in the Bible also talk about the Book of Proverbs to show that they have existed from time immemorial. They have the old wisdom of a group of traditional people. They derive from beliefs, attitudes, emotions, values and the whole system of thought and feeling. Although they contain truth about life in general and human nature in particular, some of them do not feature nowadays. In some cases, they discriminate against women whereas according to The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa (1996), no one must be discriminated against. The Constitution of the South Africa (1996) identifies injustices of the past and put them right to satisfy everybody. Their use in daily conversations is slowly declining. It is the aim of this paper to investigate the relevance of some Northern Sotho and Tshivenḓa proverbs in the new South Africa. It seeks to explore the challenges that proverbs phase in the transformation of African society, including the Northern Sotho and Vhavenḓa ones, within the technological world.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Antiquity. Complement. History. Interpretation. Tradition</p> Lekau Eleazar Mphasha, Tshinetise David Raphalalani Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/210421 Mon, 12 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Deficient Verb [KA] In Sesotho Negative Constructions https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/210424 <p>Sesotho is one of the African Languages that expresses sentence negation by means of bound pre-verbal negative morphemes. It has only three negative morphemes, viz. /ha/, /sa/ and /se/ spread across various Sesotho matrix and subordinate clauses. These morphemes negate different predicate forms such as non-copulative verbs, copulative verbs and deficient verbs. However, with regard to deficient verbs such as /ile/, they are replaced by the deficient verb /ka/ in Sesotho negative constructions. An attempt will be made to demonstrate that negation of deficient verbs in Sesotho is achieved through the employment of the deficient verb /ka/ in all the three negative constructions where negative morphemes /ha/, /se/ and /sa/ appear. This study is a descriptive research design within Generative Grammar, examining the syntactic distribution of the deficient verb /ka/ with its supplementary role in Sesotho negative sentence constructions over a range of inflectional categories such as aspect and mood. This article maintains that the deficient verb /ka/ plays a significant role in negating deficient verbs in Sesotho and as such, should be regarded as the negative deficient verb as it is the case with the negative copulative verb /se/ in copulative constructions, and as it is the case with the negative suffix /-e/ in none copulatives.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Negation, negative morphemes, deficient verbs, inflectional categories, Sesotho</p> Elias Nyefolo Malete Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/210424 Mon, 12 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Exploring the Role of Emotional Intelligence in the Customer Service Industry https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/210425 <p>The customer service industry is a dynamic environment and serves as the face of an organisation. The purpose of this study was to explore the role of emotional intelligence in a revenue services office within the Public Sector in Durban, South Africa. In noting the significance that emotional intelligence has on service delivery, continued research was important to ascertain the role that emotional intelligence had in the customer service environment. Generally, a satisfied customer maintains loyalty and reciprocates with positive and constructive feedback. The motivation for this study was a scarcity of contemporary literature specifically on emotional intelligence within the customer service industry in South Africa. The purpose of this study was to explore the role of emotional intelligence and determine its importance to the customer service industry and during a customer service engagement. A qualitative research method with purposive sampling was employed and included management and employees from the branch operations division of the company under study. Interviews were conducted with fifteen participants in order to gain insight and understanding of their perceptions of emotional intelligence and the significance it plays in the customer service environment. The collected data was analysed using thematic analysis. The key findings indicated that both employees and managers understood the concepts of emotional intelligence concepts and provided a favourable indication that emotional intelligence has a significant role within the customer service environment. Another key finding revealed that emotional intelligence plays a significant part within the leadership of the customer service environment. The findings of this study established that emotional intelligence is essential for the customer and service employees in the customer service environment and provides the service employees with the ability to understand and reason with the emotions that arise and exist in the service engagement. The recommendation is that the leadership in the service environment should provide regular training on emotional intelligence, enabling service employees to be better equipped to deal with various types of customers and for the leadership in the service environment to manage their subordinates in an effective manner. The implications of this study can improve the emotional intelligence of service employees within the customer service industry and promote further research on this topic in South Africa.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Emotional intelligence, customer service, management, public sector, South Africa</p> Zahir Sayed, Cecile N. Gerwel Proches Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/210425 Mon, 12 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Theoretical Exploration on Improving Women Inclusiveness and Participation: A Study of South African Foreign Policy Decision-Making https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/210427 <p>The objective of this study was to theoretically explore ways that could improve the inclusiveness and participation of women in South Africa foreign policy decision-making. This was based on the continuous under-representation of women in both the political sphere and the decision-making positions of South African foreign policy. To achieve this objective, this study adopted a literature review approach to research, wh'ich assisted in revealing the magnitude of gender disparity that has existed in the political and democratic scene in South Africa. Previous literature revealed a significant dominance of the male gender in the Department of International Relations and Cooperation, thereby revealing the negligible number of women participating in foreign policy decision-making. Although it was identified that the current minister of the Department of International Relations and Cooperation is a woman, questions have been raised from the opposition parties as to how much decision-making freedom she has without the interference of other political stakeholders in South Africa. In line with this scenario, this study identified and adopted the Intersectionality Theory and Kanter's theory, in the context of improving women’s inclusiveness and participation in South African foreign policy decision-making. The fundamental challenges of women’s inclusiveness and participation in decision-making positions were identified as custom and laws, religious practices, financial constraints, political impediments, women’s perceptions of politics, and family responsibilities. Hence, it was recommended that to improve the inclusion and participation of women in South African politics, which paves way for improving representation in foreign decision-making, policymakers should employ the theoretical findings and application of this study. The movements and activism, gender quotas, electoral and political leadership systems and women empowerment were also recommended as factors that could improve women’s inclusiveness and participation in both the political sphere and South African foreign policy decision-making.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Women and Politics; Inclusiveness and Participation; Foreign Policy; Decision-Making</p> I Mbukanma, K Strydom Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/210427 Mon, 12 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The impact of African indigenous knowledge system on healthcare system in South Africa: The Covid-19 perspective https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/210429 <p>The paper examines the contributions of African indigenous knowledge in the settling of disputes and advancing of justice, especially in the health sector during the Covid-19. It argues that for a long time, the western thought system has been placed over the African indigenous knowledge system in the administration of justice in many sectors in South Africa. The paper equally contends that the AIKs is still very relevant and useful in the delivering of justice in the 21st century. Debate and intellectual discussion on the issue of ‘innocent until proven guilty’ has favored the western thought system than the AIKs. The study sees this as a gap and attempts to bridge this gap by bringing to the fore the good qualities and potentials of the African indigenous knowledge system in the enforcement of justice in South Africa. It argues that if AIKs is given a free and fair hearing and trial, then it can adequately uphold the doctrine of the innocent until proven guilty. The paper utilizes the secondary method, sourced through document reviews and its results showed that the African indigenous knowledge system has been instrumental and effective in the fight against diseases such as the HIV/AIDs in South Africa. It concludes that the higher the utilization of the AIKs, the stronger, better, and sustainable the healthcare and socio-economic system of South Africa.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Subordination, African, Indigenous, Covid 19, pandemic</p> Rev. Jacob Mokhutso Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/210429 Mon, 12 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000