Gender and Behaviour https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab Gender and Behaviour is an interdisciplinary journal dedicated to articles, that reflect psychological and behavioural aspects of gender in general. Gender and Behaviour welcomes scholarly manuscripts from authors all over the world on a wide array of subjects concerning psychological and behavioural aspects of gender in general. en-US Copyright for articles published in this journal is retained by the journal. ifepsy@yahoo.com (Akinsola OLOWU) wanawake2002@yahoo.com (Matt Olasupo) Wed, 18 Aug 2021 14:25:32 +0000 OJS 3.1.2.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Uptake and correlates of cervical and breast cancer screening among women in Jordan: National results of the 2017-2018 population and family health survey https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212821 <p>The study aimed to estimate the prevalence and associated factors of cervical and breast cancer screening among women in the general population in Jordan. Nationally representative population-based cross-sectional data were analysed from 14,689 women (34 years median age, range 15-49) that took part in the “2017-18 Jordan Population and Family Health Survey”. Information about cancer screening uptake included Pap smear, clinical breast examination, and mammography. Results indicate that the prevalence of ever Pap smear cancer screening was 15.3%, clinical breast examination in the past 12 months 13.9% and ever mammography 8.7%. In adjusted logistic regression analysis, older age, higher wealth, greater media exposure and tobacco use were positively and being Syrian, and living in the southern region were negatively associated with ever Pap smear, clinical breast examination in the past 12 months, and ever&nbsp; mammography. In addition, high decision-making power was associated with the uptake of Pap smear and higher education was&nbsp; associated with ever mammography uptake. The study showed a low cancer screening uptake, and several factors were identified that can assist in promoting cancer screening in Jordan.</p> Supa Pengpid, Karl Peltzer, Chao Zhang Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212821 Wed, 18 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 South African traditional healers perceptions of homosexuality https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212826 <p>This qualitative study on traditional healers’ perceptions of homosexuality has contributed to indigenous knowledge in the Northern Sotho ethnic group in South Africa. An exploratory research design using snowball sampling was employed. The study was underpinned by Afrocentric theory. The sample consisted of ten traditional healers, seven females and three males. Data was collected using individual, face-to-face semi-structured interviews. Thematic content analysis was used to analyse the data which yielded several major themes and sub-themes: Theme 1: Homosexuality threatens family structure and values, sub-theme 1.1 Homosexuality and the preservation of family bloodlines and/or surname, sub-theme 1.2 Homosexuality and procreation. Theme 2: Homosexuality is regarded as taboo and a disgrace, sub-theme 2.1: Homosexuality and Northern Sotho culture, sub-theme 2.2 Homosexuality is un-Godly. Theme 3: Homosexuality and western culture, sub-theme 3.1 Homosexuality and modernisation, sub-theme 3.2 Homosexuality and responsibility. The research discovered that the traditional healers had negative views towards homosexuality and offered traditional explanations for this.However, one of the healers said they would help homosexuals who approached them. A recommendation for future research is to find out perceptions of the homosexual community in terms of how they are treated by traditional healers.</p> D.L. Letsoalo, K.A. Nel, S. Govender Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212826 Wed, 18 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The shift of gender roles in the democratic Africa: A study of Nadine Gordimer’s <<i>none to accompany me</i> https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212828 <p>This paper sought to examine the shift of gender roles occasioned by the dispensation of democracy in African societies through&nbsp; Gordimer’s None to Accompany Me. The aforementioned novel attempts to redefine women’s identities and circumvent cultural underpinnings that often subject the women to oppressive, discriminatory and stereotypical structures such as patriarchy. The advent of democracy has automated political emancipation for everyone that was previously repressed by specifically, colonial perpetrators. Democratisation as portrayed in Gordimer’s None to Accompany Me has empowered women to elude the horrors of the past; gender stereotypes and activate their rights in the democratic space. In the novel, gender roles shifted as the women thrived in what was considered male-dominated worlds and held positions of power such as community leaders and managers whereas their husbands whose career successes were beneath the wives’ were coerced to perform domestic duties in the households. This qualitative paper predicated on liberal feminist assumptions to crystalise the exchange of gender roles inspired by democracy as reflected in Gordimer’s None to Accompany Me. The study has found that democracy has galvanised women to search, find and reassert a new identity that repudiates oppressive systems upon them. Hence, men in the sampled novel for this study subscribe to domestic duties whilst the women are providers and authoritative figures in their households and community. The paper concludes that democratisation has occasioned the shift of gender roles by empowering the previously marginalised women and advocating for equal rights between men and women.</p> Malesela Edward Montle Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212828 Wed, 18 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The myths and stereotypes against homosexuality in the African context: A literary analysis of Nadine Gordimer’s <i>the house gun</i> https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212830 <p>This paper has aimed to debunk the myths and stereotypes against homosexuality in African societies. It has probed into the conception about homosexuality being un-African through the aid of Nadine Gordimer’s The House Gun. The aforementioned narration was utilised as a corroborator of the malaise besieging Lesbians, Gays, Bisexuals, Transgender and Queer (LGBTQ) in the African society by virtue of the notion that&nbsp; homosexuality is un-African. Many LGBTQs, specifically in the African context are discriminated against, disowned by their families and sometimes killed for disclosing their sexual identities. This ill-treatment is perpetuated by the belief that the aboriginal African identity is only distinguished by heterosexuality, thus, declaring homosexuality alien in the continent (Montle, 2020). The assumption is adopted by many Africans as reflected in The House Gun, which employs the South African society as a case in point. The paper has relied on a qualitative methodology and textual analysis to unearth the misconceptions about homosexuality through the study of Gordimer’s The House Gun. It has found African cultural and religious belief systems as nemeses of homosexuality and they are often excused to perpetrate discriminatory attitudes towards LGBTQs.</p> Malesela Edward Montle Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212830 Wed, 18 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A gendered approach to Tshivenda proverbial expressions https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212832 <p>This article explores the subject of gender inequalities as reflected in some Tshivenda proverbs. It seeks to analyse the approach used in the crafting and interpretations of some of the Vhavenḓa proverbial expressions.Proverbs which seemed to be gender-biased in their coinage and figurative interpretations were collected from secondary sources. Textual analysis methodology was used to analyse the collected proverbs. The paper theoretically uses Afrocentric and postcolonial African feminism to discuss the gendered approach to Tshivenda proverbial expressions. The findings revealed that most Tshivenda proverbs are tilted in favour of men and to the disadvantage of women. They afford unequal treatment to men and women in various spheres of life. This suggests that, in the main, Tshivenda proverbs were crafted by men. This paper recommends that the gender-biased Tshivenda proverbs should be amended for the purposes of bringing them in line with the equality provisions of the Constitution (Act 108 of 1996).</p> Tshinetise David Raphalalani Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212832 Wed, 18 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Applying transformational leadership in nursing through the lens of Kouzes and Posner leadership practices https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212833 <p>Healthcare institutions function in a dynamic, complex, and uncertain environment. Current research across the globe reveals there is a need to develop an integrated leadership process in healthcare delivery systems. Nurses make up the largest component of the healthcare workforce and thus need strong and effective leadership. The nursing profession requires leaders not only at the top management level but also at the bedside to contribute to patient safety and high quality of care. Transformational leadership is viewed by scholars as an effective leadership style and provides a vehicle for rethinking the definitions of leadership. The Kouzes and Posner leadership practices which are grounded on moral foundations of transformational leadership consist of five components. They are model the way, inspire a shared vision, challenge the process, enable others to act, and encourage the heart. The practices suggest that even though these five components are dependent, they are intertwined to yield a performance that is beyond expectations. This paper presents transformational leadership in nursing through the lens of Kouzes and Posner five practices of leadership. The five practices of exemplary leadership empower nurse leaders to implement change effectively and develop an effective nursing workforce.</p> Olateju Jumoke Ajanaku, Welma Lubbe Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212833 Wed, 18 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Experiences of first-year students with using English Second Language for Teaching and Learning at a Rural Based University in a democratic South Africa https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212834 <p>For several decades, English had enjoyed high esteem as the language of education in various higher education institutions in South Africa. The dawn of democracy paved ways for previously marginalised indigenous African languages to be utilised in teaching and learning in South African education system. Underpinned by Krashen’s theory of second language acquisition, thisarticle sought to examine students’ experiences on using English second language for knowledge acquisition at a rural based university. The article employed qualitative research method to purposively select twelve first-year students to solicit their experiences, views, and opinions regarding the research problem and objective. Data collected through unstructured interviews were analysed through thematic content analysis. The findings revealed that first-year students had difficulties with grammar, words pronunciation, expression, comprehension of module contents, and interferences of first language when using English second language for teaching and learning purposes.This translated to poor academic performance, inactive participation, and high failure rate among first-yearstudentsat rural based universities. To deal with these inadequacies the article recommended for the rural based universities to strongly enforce various academic and student support programmes to assist First-year students to swiftly adjust to the university standards for teaching and learning.</p> Mpho Mutepe, Fulufhelo Oscar Makananise, Shumani Eric Madima Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212834 Wed, 18 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Exploration of youth behaviour: A response to learners violence in South Africa https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212836 <p>The prevalence of youth violence in South Africa schools is the true reflection of the broader society and family structure and call upon the positive youth development approach. The purpose of the study was to explore the prevalent nature of youth violent behaviour and suggest a collaborative model in response to learner violence in a selected high school.The qualitative research approach with case study design were used in this study. Purposive sampling was used to select 5 learners, 4 teachers and 1 school principal and 5 parents.Data were collected using semi-structured individual/focus groups interviews which enabled the researchers to get depth-information from the participants.Data were analysed using thematic analysis.The study findings revealed that learners in the selected high school became involved in group fighting, arrived late at school and smoke dagga within the school premises. This study concludes that learners come to school, carrying dangerous weapons and drugs. The study recommends the integration of youth workers in school as part of Youth Worker-Teacher Collaborative Model to curb school violence.</p> Thulani Andrew Chauke Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212836 Wed, 18 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Negotiating sexuality, gender and personhood: A case of Nkomazi District Women, South Africa https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212837 <p>Many women derive meaning from their lived experiences of gender and sexuality across different contexts. In this article, we explore the personal narratives of women based in the rural community of the Nkomazi district in South Africa. Furthermore, we provide insights from group discussions (FGDs) held with the same group of women. Drawing from African personhood theory, we question and deconstruct socio-culturally constructed notions of what it means to be a woman who constantly has to negotiate notions of gender, sexuality, and personhood. The findings reveal women’s interpretations of their sexualities and sexual expression as shaped by hetero-patriarchal sexual scripts. What emerges are women’s narratives revealing that, throughout history and contemporary times, colonial patriarchal&nbsp; constructions of gender and sexuality continue to shape and dictate women’s lived experiences. Overall, this study highlights&nbsp; intersectionalities of women’s experiences of gender, personhood, race, age, and sexuality in changing socio-political contexts. We conclude by calling for a rethinking in how women’s bodies are constantly policed and governed; we argue that women should be able to inhabit spaces and move freely without systematic surveillance on their personhood.</p> Tinyiko Chauke, Puleng Segalo Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212837 Wed, 18 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The role of leadership in higher education institutions talent management processes https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212838 <p>The main aim of this study was to investigate the role of talent leadership in developing high potential academics in a selected high institution in South Africa. While the literature extensively discusses talent management issues, less evident is a comprehensive discussion of the role leaders plays in talent management. So obvious is this issue in the HEIs where leaders lack the requisite guidance on how to avert the persistent talent shortages, inefficient talent recruitment, mediocre career management, absence of employee engagement, uncertain reward systems, dented employment relationships, and the failure to retain top talent once employed. To understand the role that leadership plays in talent management, we adopted a non-experimental research design to purposively select a total of 10 academic managers for face-to-face interviews. Apart from the interviews, we also carried out document analysis to understand the expectations upon leadership in talent management in HEIs. We then applied Atlas.TI software to extract codes and themes reflecting the role of leadership in talent management. The study indicates the role of leadership in higher education institutions to include the review of the talent pool, offering strategic leadership of talent, effectively deploy the available talent, reward the talent, motivate talent, retain the talent, coach the talent, manage performance, innovate and communicate talent management matters. This paper thus brings new theoretical and practical insights on the role of leadership in talent management. However, to allow the transference of these findings, it is necessary to undertake further studies using different contexts to develop the theory on the role that leadership plays in talent management.</p> Doreen Morukhu, Arthur Mapanga, Deborah Mokgojwa Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212838 Wed, 18 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Factors that influence the proliferation of illicit small arms and light weapons in the Mamelodi Policing Area, South Africa https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212840 <p>This study aimed to establish the factors that influence the proliferation of small arms and light weapons (SALW) in Mamelodi in the Gauteng province of South Africa. Exploratory qualitative research that utilised semi-structured in-depth interviews was adopted, with purposive sampling. Thirty-four participants comprised community police forum members and non-governmental organisations that deal with firearm-related matters, a company that deals in SALW, and local community members. Three themes emerged: (1) noticeable demand for firearms in the community; (2) the community’s role in reducing the influx of illegal SALW; and (3) the South African Police Service’s lack of response towards the influx of SALW. The study concluded that there was a serious problem of illicit small arms proliferation in Mamelodi, and recommends both the national and local governments to increase law enforcement in terms of illicit firearms and ensure that corrupt officers, who are abetting criminals, are prosecuted.</p> Kagiso Nicholas Tlou, Hendrick Puleng Motlalekgosi, Jacob Tseko Mofokeng Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212840 Wed, 18 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Teaching strategy using student teachers' indigenous languages as a tool for self-conceptualising a scientific concept https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212842 <p>This paper explores the teaching strategies that may be employed by science teachers in teaching science concepts. The paper argues that learning in Natural Sciences is not that easy. Generally, some students proceed with their studies to higher levels, while others fall along the way.A convenient sample of eight Bachelor of Education final year pre-service teachers was obtained from the population of such students. Data was collected through a researcher-designed instrument that consisted of one open-ended question only. That question focused on the concept of evolution. The results revealed that science teachers sometimes do not realise their agency (roles, responsibilities and identities) and sources in the communities they serve, which should be used in teaching and learning.</p> B.G. Ndawonde, K.A. Gazu Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212842 Wed, 18 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Social grants and poverty alleviation in South Africa: Addressing dependency attitude and behaviour https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212844 <p>One of the myriad of social problems confronting South Africa is pervasive poverty. The national and provincial governments, through the Department of Social Welfare and Development, have tried to address this social problem through social grants scheme aimed at poverty alleviation. The issue however is that the case of poverty with support dependency appears to be worsening even in the face of mounting government spending on poverty alleviation. This paper, relying on content analysis as a method of inquiry, historicizes the origin of social grants scheme and also endeavors to ascertain whether the quality of life of families receiving social grants has improved after receiving these grants. The argument advanced in this paper is that social grants do not provide a sustainable way by which poverty can be tackled headlong. This paper thus proposes strategies such as empowering people through education, capacity building and popular participation in social and economic activities, as possible ways towards achieving sustainable livelihoods and poverty reduction in South Africa.</p> Prudence Thobile Zikhali Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212844 Wed, 18 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Anthropological inquiry on gender inequality: The case of women soccer in Gelvandale, Port Elizabeth https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212846 <p>Women for many centuries and during the Apartheid era in South Africa were marginalized from sport. The ability to participate in sport in South Africa is inherently linked to the political history of the country. Sport has played a dynamic role in the struggle against the diabolical system of apartheid in South Africa and has a powerful role to play in the transformation and nation building of South Africa. Women have made great strides in sport in recent years in South Africa. However, at times we find that there is unfair media coverage. The unfair coverage of women’s sport displays gender-based attitudes which systematically disadvantage women’s position in society. Women’s participation in sport has grown dramatically but despite this growth coverage of women in sport remains inferior. The objective of this study is to investigate if women are being marginalised in Gelvandale where soccer is concern as well as determining the meaning of gender inequality from an&nbsp; anthropological perspective within the context of soccer in the Gelvandale area. This study also seeks to contribute within the anthropology of soccer in South Africa particularly in the Eastern Cape Province and to come up with recommendations that will contribute towards improvement of soccer in Gelvandale and beyond. Finally, the researchers suggest some recommendations with the view to contribute to the improvement and development of soccer in Gelvandale and to ensure a brighter future for girls and women participating in soccer and sport in general.</p> Shaabiera Sait, Shaabiera Sait, David Bogopa Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212846 Wed, 18 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Understanding the dynamics involved in sexual offences against children in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212847 <p>Cases of sexually abused children in South Africa are shocking. This qualitative research studied perceptions of a elected sample to comprehend the child sexual offences and interventions in place to curtail this phenomenon.This study aimed to understand the communal perspectives and experiences on this subject.Convenience Sampling, a non-probability sampling method, was used to was used to select 20 participants within a Township at Mthatha [Ngangelizwe]. All the selected participants were subjected to unstructured interviews. The collected data was analysed thematically to establish that sexual offences of children affect severely the child. Ignorant of some other forms of sexual violence, the commonly known form of sexual violence was rape. Thus, the community cannot reject any untowards sexual behaviour if they are ignorant of what constitutes sexual violence. This study recommends that communities should be educated about different sexual offences. Further, recommend that the community must be informed about the progress of an open case to the police.</p> Mandlenkosi Richard Mphatheni, Witness Maluleke, Zipho Nomsasa Snyman Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212847 Wed, 18 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Has the Children's Act 38 of 2005 changed the position of unmarried fathers? Legislative discourse in South Africa https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212850 <p>South Africa has a high number of unmarried and absentee fathers. Several factors have contributed to this phenomenon. For example, legislation which did not give any unmarried fathers automatic responsibilities and rights concerning their children may have contributed towards the rate of absentee fathers. The new Children's Act, which came into force in 2010, now provides for automatic responsibilities and rights for unmarried fathers who meet certain criteria. An unmarried father who has consented to be identified as the father and who have paid maintenance and cultural damages may now automatically acquire parental responsibilities and rights. This suggests a justified gender imbalance within the Act as still privileging unmarried mothers. There is thus a need for support structures that influence positive father-child relationships, particularly among unmarried fathers.</p> Thembelihle B. Makhanya Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212850 Wed, 18 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 An exploration of human trafficking and human rights in South Africa: A strategic perspective https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212852 <p>From its earliest days to the present, human rights law has unequivocally proclaimed the fundamental immorality and unlawfulness of one person appropriating the legal personality, labour or humanity of another. Both the Charter of the United Nations and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights confirm that rights are universal: they apply to everyone, irrespective of their race, sex, ethnic origin or other distinction. Trafficked persons are entitled to the full range of human rights. This article was exploring the human rights violations caused by the perpetrators of human trafficking. This research was carried out utilising a qualitative approach. Thirty-seven interviews were carried out among officials deployed in the Directorate for Priority Crime Investigation (DPCI), the South African Police Service (SAPS), the Department of Home Affairs (DHA), the Department of Social Development (DSD), the Gauteng Provincial Office, as well as with the victims regarding their views and experiences on the stakeholder’s involved in combating and investigating human trafficking. The interviews were analysed according to the phenomenographic approach to identify the participants' responses. The reason for this choice was to identify key or knowledgeable participants about human trafficking in three selected areas of Gauteng province.The key findings indicated that the human rights of the victims of human trafficking are violated by both the traffickers and to some extent by the criminal justice system (CJS). The findings indicated that CJS legal response consists of existing common laws and statutory crimes in investigating and prosecuting traffickers, these legal remedies have no direct bearing on human trafficking. The findings further indicate that there is gap in the legislation when it comes to investigations and prosecution of human trafficking in South Africa. Based on the findings, the author provided with the recommendations such as: harsher sentences and punishment when it comes to perpetrators human trafficking, multi-disciplinary unit dealing with human trafficking within the criminal justice system, and tougher laws and legislations on traffickers and prostitution, women’s sexual services and sex entertainment industry.</p> Motseki Morero Moses Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212852 Wed, 18 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Gender equality in Information Communication Technology (ICT) for attaining sustainable development goal number 5 in South Africa https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212853 <p>The article reports on the participation of women in Information Communication Technology (ICT) in South African municipalities towards attaining Sustainable Development Goal Number 5 (Achieving gender equality and empowering all women and girls”). Drawing from the critical theory on women empowerment in ICTs, the article examined how gender equality could benefit or deter women participation in ICT towards achieving SDG 5. Whereas public Information Communication Technology (ICT) hotspots and centres are being set in South African municipalities, women’s participation in ICT is marginally low. This is due to digital illiteracy and the digital divide which are deterrents for the achievement of Sustainable Development Goal 5 in South Africa. The article seeks to strike a balance between ICT and gender disparities to promote women equal participation in ICT which is crucial for women emancipation in the digital age. The article draws from an interpretive paradigm where qualitative research methods mainly documents and expansive literature sources were employed as data collection techniques. Findings for the article have shown that gender inequalities exist in the provision of ICTs among women in South Africa. Women are confronted with the digital divide, discrimination, lack of digital expertise, poverty and inequalities, negative perceptions and patriarchal slavery. The conclusions drawn for this article emphasis more on stakeholder inclusion to support women in ICT in South Africa. More training and funding for women to access ICT education remains a key imperative for the achievement of SDG 5. For women to thrive in the male-dominated ICT space, they need to shift the status quo by participating in ICT development. The government of South Africa should enact policies and laws that promote capacity building and women inclusion in ICT for the achievement of SDG 5.</p> Elvin Shava Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212853 Wed, 18 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Exponential increase in endemic gender-based violence during COVID-19 lockdown in South Africa https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212855 <p>The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic necessitated the full or partial lockdown of many countries worldwide. South Africa was not exempted as strict restriction regulations mandating everyone to stay at home except for essential services workers were put in place in the early onset of the pandemic. Prior COVID-19 pandemic, Gender Based Violence (GBV) has been an endemic in South Africa. However, the COVID-19 pandemic restrictions have exacerbated the problem of GBV in South Africa as there were many gender-related reported and unreported attacks, especially on women and girls during the strict lockdown. The current paper highlights the potentials of preventive interventions in curbing GBV in the midst of the pandemic. It looks at how victims/survivors can seek help and the assistance that are available to them. As a way forward, the paper accentuates that GBV response unit during COVID-19 pandemic should be declared as an essential service so that victims can have unhindered access to help while the perpetrators are swiftly apprehended and brought to justice. In conclusion, the paper notes that one of the reasons why victims remain in abusive relationship is the lack of financial capacity to meet different essential needs provided by the perpetrators. As such, providing necessary financial assistance in terms of funds and money and psychosocial support to victims/survivors, would enable them to be independent and liberate them from their abusers.</p> Kola O. Odeku Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212855 Wed, 18 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 “It is shameful”: Experiences of physically abused men by their female partners in a rural community of South Africa https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212856 <p>Physical abuse has far-reaching consequences that go beyond the physical pain. In the past men have been portrayed as the perpetrators of abuse on women and children. Recent research findings have however shown men as the “new” victims of physical abuse in the hands of their loved ones. Men who admit to suffering physical abuse from their female partners are considered weak and often disbelieved by society. This study was aimed at exploring men’s experiences of physical abuse inflicted by their wives. Participants were 10 married men of ages ranging from 32-56 years. This study revealed that feelings of shame, denial, and helplessness were experienced by men who are victimised by their wives. The study concluded that society and helping professionals’ perception and treatment of male victims of domestic violence perpetuate men’s negative feelings such as shame following the stigma attached to being a male victim of domestic violence.</p> Mankwana Othilia Kgatle, Mashianoke Abednego Sefoka, Prudence Mafa, Masenyani Reckson Manganyi Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212856 Wed, 18 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Role disparity: The effect of gender in science education https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212858 <p>This study sought to investigate factors affecting the academic performance of female students in science at a public secondary school in South Africa. This study provides empirical evidence for improvement of enrollment, participation and academic performance of female secondary school science students. The study adopted an ethnographic design in which data were collected through in-depth interviews. A total of eight twelfth-grade female science students were interviewed. Data were analyzed using qualitative data analysis, an approach grounded in Glᾰser and Laudel’s model and emerging themes are discussed in the article. The findings highlight the pivotal role played by cultural and social factors as well as the impact of the family’s socio economic status on the female students’ academic performance in science education. Furthermore, the study reveals the significant differences in treatment between male and female science students and the effect this has on female students’ performance in class.</p> Erasmos Charamba Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212858 Wed, 18 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Inquiry: ‘Please select your gender’. Genderqueer access to SUD treatment in South Africa https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212862 <p>Mental health practitioners do not pay much attention to the meaning impressed upon clients when an intake form states Please select your gender. Generally, there are only two options to choose from: male or female. However, increasingly, not everyone conforms to binary notions of sex and gender. This article is about how intake forms at substance use disorder (SUD) treatment centers are likely, inadvertently, creating structural barriers for the genderqueer population’s treatment seeking behavior. The main questions addressed were (1) how gender inclusive is your treatment centers’ intake form? (2) How knowledgeable are you about gender diversity? The purpose of the study was to find out to what extent intake forms affect genderqueer individuals to access treatment and, to create awareness about gender diversity. Qualitative research methodology, using focus group discussions was the approach to answering the research questions. Six focus groups (N=48) discussions were transcribed and thematically analyzed using the Braun and Clarke approach. The article’s main findings were theoretically framed using social constructionism. Findings presented these main themes: (1) Gender Inclusive Intake Forms (2) Gender Diversity in SUD treatment, (3) Need for Gender Literacy and Gender Responsive Training. Overall, the findings indicate that mental health practitioners need to adjust their intake forms to be more gender diverse. In conclusion, intake forms are used for various purposes by treatment centers, but mostly for funding and surveillance purposes. Recommendations are that policies are inclusive of gender affirming language and intake forms templates are gender inclusive.</p> Liezille Jacobs Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212862 Wed, 18 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The surge in intimate partner violence amid COVID-19pandemic in South Africa https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212864 <p>It is generally accepted that Gender-based Violence (GBV) is chronically endemic in SouthAfrica. GBV manifests in various forms but are mostly perpetrated by men against women.Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is one of the forms of GBV which has surged exponentially during the COVID-19 pandemic because victims are forced by the government lockdownsand restrictions to stay at home and live with their abusive partners. This paper looks at theIPV surge in South Africa in the era of COVID-19 and interventions and measures beingused to tackle, curb and combat the surge. Methodologically, this paper adopts literaturereview approach to address the problem of the surge of IPV and the consequences thereof.To this end, relevant literature was searched and generated from google search platformand the literature generated were retrieved and used to address the problem. The paperfound that there was exponential increase in IPV in South Africa amid COVID-19 pandemic which forced lockdowns and restrictions. The paper accentuates the need to combat IPV byimplementing and straitening ant-IPV strategies and interventions. The paper concludes thatIPV should be tackled head on and that assistance and support should be given to victims inorder to be released from the shackle of the abuser perpetrator.</p> Kola O. Odeku Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212864 Wed, 18 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Exploring knowledge and behavioural intentions for implant contraceptives uptake among rural South African young women https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212865 <p>Modern contraceptives such as implants have the potential to alleviate unintended pregnancies among adolescent girls and young women (AGYW). In South Africa, the use of free implant contraceptives in the public health sector decreased from 175 000 in 2014/2015 to only 50 000 in 2016/2017, with declines noted in all provinces. This study explores whether South African AGYW, if exposed to messages about benefits and risks prior to use, would be willing to use them to manage personal reproductive health. The study employed a quantitative, cross-sectional survey with a post-test only design among secondary schools in Limpopo Province, among 306 school going young women. Findings revealed that majority of participants were unwilling to use implant contraceptives whether exposed to a health campaign&nbsp; message about benefits and risks of using implant contraceptives. Insights into underlying sentiments could assist health promotion organisations to formulate effective campaigns towards the use of implant contraceptives.</p> Morongwa Martha Manthata, Elizabeth Lubinga Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212865 Wed, 18 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Exclusion of migrant youth from the South African welfare services: A case study https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212867 <p>This case study presents qualitative findings on migrant youth’s coping strategies on their exclusion from the welfare services of South Africa. South Africa like any other country experiences an increased number of young people who migrated from their countries of origin. Several studies show that immigrants including migrant youth upon their arrival in South Africa face challenges of exclusion from welfare services. It is from this background that this study sought to explore migrant youth’ coping strategies for their sustainable livelihoods. Ten migrant youth in Musina town who are accommodated in shelters managed by churches were used as a case study and were purposively and conveniently selected to participate in this study. Data was collected through face to face semi-structured interviews and analysed thematically through the assistance of the Nvivo software. Resilience theory was used to guide this study. Findings reveal various coping strategies that migrant youth employ to mitigate their exclusion from the South African welfare services. Recommendations, integrated intervention and future research are provided in this paper.</p> Dillo Justin Ramoshaba, Selelo Frank Rapholo, Khutso Mamadi Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212867 Wed, 18 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Economic prospects of migrant youth in Musina in the Vhembe District of the Limpopo Province, South Africa https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212868 <p>Studies reveal that the international migration predominantly occurs as a result of economic deficits from countries of origin. Upon their arrival in the host countries, immigrants are exposed to bad conditions for their sustainable livelihoods. This article argues that this gap has not been rigorously explored, particularly in Musina which is near a border post dividing South Africa and Zimbabwe. There are a lot of population movements comprising of migrant youth at Musina. Thus, this study through the new economics theory of migration and the narrative theory aimed to contextually explore economic prospects of migrant youth in Musina. A qualitative approach with a case study design was used. Migrant youth were purposively and conveniently selected to participate in this study and data got saturated at ten (10) participants. Individual face to face semi-structured interviews were followed through the interview guide and data was analysed thematically through Nvivo software. The study noted that due to the living conditions in South Africa, some migrant women do sex work for their sustainable livelihoods. It was found that such sex workers were not proud of their acts but are forced by their circumstances. Additionally, some migrant youth privately sell drugs to meet their economic needs. Some migrant youth innocently do street vending and entrepreneurial activities and piece jobs for their sustainable livelihoods, however, it was found that these are their least economic prospects. It can thus be concluded that migrant youth are exposed to bad conditions for their sustainable livelihoods in South Africa. It is imperative that the South African government and local citizens integrate immigrants into the South African economy through proper protocols.</p> Rapholo Selelo Frank Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212868 Wed, 18 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The efficacy of women participation in governance and development: The case of Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212869 <p>Good governance can be realized when the element of participation is effectively upheld. Over the years, the participation of women in social, economic and political scene in Africa and particularly in Nigeria has been of concern as a result of their eminent marginalization especially in politics of local, state and national development. The concept of women’s empowerment and women’s participation is clearly regarded from different perspectives and has impacted greatly on topical practices in governance. Although, it is acknowledged that women’s participation in governance is of great significance, the justification and efficacy of their participation is not effusively&nbsp; investigated and valued in the Nigerian context. More so, the review of literature and Nigerian policies revealed the gap between policy and practice. In view of the above, this paper engaged in a desktop research study by reviewing extant and relevant literature to examine pertinent context and trajectory of women’s empowerment and analyse the extent of women’s participation in governance in Nigeria. The authors conducted a thematic analysis of related literature using a computer-assisted approach. The findings revealed an insubstantial degree of women’s participation in the Nigerian political affairs and provided the utility of their participation towards an effective governance model. The researcher concluded that a holistic approach incorporating gender mainstreaming ensures efficiencyand effectiveness in institutional development and sustainability. Thus, the researcher recommends increased woman participation in politics, policy formulation, adoption and implementation.</p> Leonard Chitongo, Oluwaseun Temitope Ojogiwa Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212869 Wed, 18 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Positive acculturation for Africa’s social development: Evidences from Tsitsi Dangarembga’s <i>nervous condition</i> and Chimamanda Adichie’s <i>Purple hibiscus</i> https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212870 <p>Cultural contact arising from migration, colonisation, interracial and intercultural relationship, globalisation and economic integration is one of the realities of the modern society. This has subsequently led to acculturation and dynamic changes which several literatures have argued to have a positive and negative effect on individuals and respective societies most especially the less dominant. The aim of this study is to demonstrate positive cultural changes resulting from cultural contact and their implications for social development of societies of less dominant culture or group. A textual analysis of two literary texts Nervous Condition and Purple Hibiscus by <em>Tsitsi Dangarembga</em> and <em>Chimamanda Adichie</em> within the acculturation conceptual framework was used to achieve the objective of this study. Four&nbsp; acculturation representations of bilingualism, sexual awakening and gender liberation, tolerance and co-existence, family setting and parenting that are imperative for societal development were highlighted and discussed. Bilingualism which is an indication of language acculturation and cultural diversity promotes cultural empathy, tolerance ambiguity, social flexibility, interaction and open mindedness. The study further reveals that acculturation in parenting in the form of authoritativeness and tolerance in relation to religious&nbsp; acculturation that are obtainable in dominant culture would be of benefit to child development and community tolerance in Africa. The study submits that adopting the best of both contacting cultures is necessary to move African societies forward.</p> Funmilola Kemi Megbowon, Adedoyin Catherine Abiodun, Uwah Chijioke Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212870 Wed, 18 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Stakeholders’ involvement in decision making at secondary schools in patriarchal South Africa: Are they really on board? https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212872 <p>The aim of this paper is to explore the nature and extent of stakeholder involvement in decision-making at secondary schools in patriarchal South Africa. This investigation was conducted in the King Cetshwayo district of KwaZulu-Natal province in South Africa. Apart from literature review on the legal basis of school governance, and participatory decision making, the paper reports on the findings in which empirical investigation based on quantitative research approach was used to collect data from school principals. The findings of this investigation reveal that there is great need for school principals to involve stakeholders in decision making, and that participatory decision making in certain schools remains a far-fetched dream irrespective of democratic school governance policies existing in patriarchal South Africa.</p> A.B. Buthelezi Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212872 Wed, 18 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Assessing the perceptions of rural women on issues hindering gender justice progress in Collins Chabane Municipality of South Africa https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212873 <p>Gender justice amongst women is tempered by the patriarchal doctrine perpetuated by men for decades. The scourge of gender-based violence in South Africa is increasing at an alarming rate. The issues hindering gender justice amongst women in rural communities is perpetuated by superiority complex by men who continuously portray unbecoming and disrespectful behaviour towards women. The scattered view of men by looking at women as being inferior as compared to males is one of the issues hindering progress towards gender justice. The study sought to provide a descriptive assessment of the perceptions of rural women on issues hindering gender justice progress in Collins Chabane Municipality of South Africa. The study considered the use of qualitative approach, descriptive research design, convenient sampling, semi-structured interview schedule for data collection and thematic data analysis. The findings revealed that it is unjust for men impregnate women and deny taking responsibility of taking care of the child or denying fatherhood while he knows he is the father. Also, it is unfair for men to impregnate women and say “I only need a child not the mother” as this hurt women. It was found that it is not reasonable for a man to marry another woman without the consent of the first wife or have extra-marital affairs as it hurts by amounting to infidelity, yet when women have affairs it is viewed seriously to qualify to dissolve the marriage as it is not socially expected for married women. It was found that traditional leaders should establish portfolio committees on gender-based violence to enhance justice amongst women in rural areas. The study concluded that infidelity, untrustworthiness, and irresponsibility in intimate relationships by men influence gender-based violence and amounts to inequality, social ills and gender injustice perpetuated towards women. It was recommended that there is a need for educational awareness to engage men on issues hindering gender justice progress amongst women in rural communities.</p> Matimba Allan Mabasa , Nelisiwe Bridget Mondlane, Khathutshelo Muluvhu, Graduate Makonese , Zwivhuya Muditambi Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212873 Wed, 18 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Exploring intrapersonal emotional intelligence consciousness of school leadership in enhancing social justice in schools https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212877 <p>The aim of this study was to explore the intrapersonal emotional intelligence consciousness of school leadership in enhancing social justice such as equity, access and inclusive participation in selected schools in the Libode, South Africa. This District, like many other rural Districts in South Africa, faced critical leadership issues that have an influence on how school leaders could enact social justice practices in schools. This qualitative study employed twelve in-depth interview research participants that included six purposively selected Principals and six Deputy Principals. Data collection and content analysis also included six Focus Group interviews with Head of Departments and School Governing Bodies. The key findings that emerged through descriptive, exploratory, and social interpretive perspectives used in this study were supportive of the interconnectedness between intrapersonal emotional intelligence abilities of self-awareness and self-management in enhancing social justice practices with regard to equity, access, and inclusive participation.</p> Samuel Bese, Chistopher Dali Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212877 Wed, 18 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Problem-solving as teaching strategy: Promoting active learning in a South African University of Technology https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212879 <p>Education is expected to produce the workforce capable of problem solving and innovation. Application of problem-solving as a teaching strategy by lecturers in their teaching is another means of producing problem solvers and innovators at the workplace. The study investigated the application of problem-solving as a teaching strategy to promote active learning in South African university. In this study, the population consisted of lecturers in one South African universities. The research used purposive sampling to select two junior lecturers, two lecturers, two senior lecturers in the university. The study followed a qualitative approach with a case study as a research design. The research paradigm used was phenomenology because the study consisted of lecturers’ subjective experience of teaching at university. Kolb’s experiential learning theory underpinned the study. Semi structured Individual interviews were used to collect data. Data was analyzed through a thematic approach through identifying themes from the interviews. The results of this study have revealed that a problem-solving teaching is one of the good practices that promote active learning in universities. The study further revealed that the problem-solving encourages students to be self-reliant. The study recommends that lecturers should be trained on how to use problem-solving as a teaching strategy.</p> E.M. Kgwete, K.S. Malatji Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212879 Wed, 18 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Gender stereotypes, resilience and self-efficacy as determinants of female entrepreneurial intentions https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212907 <p>Female entrepreneurship intentions as an area of research is very limited especially as the contributions of women into the economy both locally and internationally seems imminent. This study therefore investigated how the dimensions of gender stereotypes, resilience and self-efficacy influenced female entrepreneurial intentions in Nigeria. A descriptive survey design was used with two hundred and seventy three (273) female students in a tertiary institution exposed to Entrepreneurship and Business Management in a distance learning centre in Ibadan, Nigeria aged between 20 and 50 years. Data was collected with standardized scales measuring all the variables in the study. Results indicated that all the dimensions of gender stereotypes, resilience and self-efficacy significantly jointly predicted female entrepreneurial intentions but female gender roles, male gender roles, resilience and self-efficacy did not independently predict female entrepreneurial intentions. Furthermore, results indicated that female entrepreneurs with high resilience reported significantly higher levels of entrepreneurial intentions than those with low resilience. Lastly, female entrepreneurs with high self-efficacy reported significantly lower levels of entrepreneurial intentions than those with low self-efficacy. Based on these findings, it was recommended that entrepreneurship education for women should focus on holistic training orientation and not on masculine or feminine specific related tasks alone.</p> Owoseni Omosolape Olakitan, Adetifa Emmanuel Kayode, Kehinde Adeola Olufunke, Akinlua Tolulope Moradeyo, Bekibele Ojiyovwi Victoria Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212907 Wed, 18 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Participative management as a component of staff delegation at male-dominated secondary schools In South Africa: experiences of Heads of Departments (HoDs) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212880 <p>The aim of this paper is to explore the experiences of heads of departments (HoDs) with regards to participative management as a component of staff delegation at male-dominated secondary schools in the King Cetshwayo District of KwaZulu-Natal province in South Africa. The objective of this investigation was to assess the context in which participative management is regarded as a component of staff delegation in male-dominated secondary schools. Interpretivism paradigm was used during investigation. This was followed by choosing qualitative research methodology to collect data from HoDs in the King Cetshwayo District. Phenomenological approach was adopted to understand personal feelings, values, and experiences of participants during investigation. The findings of this investigation reveal that there is a great need for principals to devolve powers to HoDs and other senior staff members in schools. Furthermore, the findings reveal that there are remaining bureaucratic practices at certain secondary schools in the democratic South Africa.</p> A.B. Buthelezi Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212880 Wed, 18 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Student teachers’ views on the importance of learning and teaching critical literacy in the foundation phase https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212882 <p>Teaching and learning is the core business in schools where teachers impart knowledge and learners learn in order to communicate effectively. This paper sought to gather the views of student teachers on the importance of learning and teaching critical literacy in the Foundation phase. The study adopted a qualitative design in which a purposeful sample of 60 B.Ed Foundation Phase student teachers participated. An open-ended questionnaire was used as a tool for data collection. The content was coded according to themes and then analysed. The study found out that critical literacy enabled learners to be critical of what they saw, what they heard, what they read and of what they wrote. Critical literacy made learners think deeply about the information they acquired through literacy skills. It was also found out that critical literacy enabled learners to make fair and careful judgement about the good and the bad qualities of things they were faced with. It was also found out that teachers were reluctant to teach critical literacy to the Foundation Phase learners because they thought the learners were too young to use their critical knowledge. The recommendations were made that teachers should teach critical literacy to the Foundation Phase learners.</p> R.M. Makhwathana Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212882 Wed, 18 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Management roles of Heads of Departments (HoDs) pertaining to professional development of teachers at female-dominated primary schools in South Africa https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212883 <p>This paper explores management role of Heads of Departments (HoDs) pertaining to professional development of teachers at female-dominated primary schools in South Africa. Investigation was conducted in the Umlalazi Circuit of KwaZulu-Natal province in South Africa. The objective of the investigation was to establish various management roles of HoDs pertaining to professional development of teachers at female-dominated primary schools. The investigation used positivism paradigm. In this regard, quantitative research methodology was followed. Survey approach was adopted to gather data from respondents. Questionnaires were administered to elicit information from HoDs pertaining to professional development of teachers in the Umlalazi Circuit. Data were cleaned, edited, organized and analysed in line with quantitative investigation measures. The findings of the investigation revealed that HoDs need to be well versed in terms of executing their management roles, and that collaborative learning approaches must be initiated and implemented in the Umlalazi Circuit.</p> A.B. Buthelezi, H.R. Mhlongo, L. Msweli Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212883 Wed, 18 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Challenges faced by female students in combined science education in Zimbabwe https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212885 <p>This conceptual paper hinges on the critical feminist lenses to interrogate the challenges faced by female students in combined science education. It also suggests strategies to mitigate these challenges. By analysing secondary data, this conceptual study found challenges related to access, identity, socialization, content, pedagogy, teacher attitude and expectation, and classroom interaction as negatively affecting the female students in the teaching and learning of combined science. The researcher attests that such factors contribute immensely to the underrepresentation of female students, reduced confidence, low participation, and underachievement in combined science. The study recommends the need for a gender-responsive formal and hidden combined science curriculum. There is a need to deconstruct the myth that combined science education is a male domain. The study also recommends strict adherence to and monitoring of gender policies to correct the gender disparities in science education to maximize the potential of female students as important human capital for scientific development for the benefit of Zimbabwe.</p> Simon Vurayai Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212885 Wed, 18 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Work-life balance in the face of COVID-19; The gendered impact https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212886 <p>This paper investigates the impact of gender roles on the experiences of work-life balance. Striking a balance between work and life is an everyday challenge for individuals in the world of work. The COVID-19 pandemic has familiarised the concept “work from home”. Working from home has become the new norm in a bid to conquer the pandemic and maintain economic stability. However, this new development presents its own challenges. The introduction of working from home has brought to light a challenge that still lives among us, though subtly, but believed to be overcome on the surface: the issue of gender inequality. This paper employed the Feminist Critical Discourse Analysis as a theoretical lens and used the Multimodal Critical Discourse Analysis for research methodology through analysis of selected images of men and women on the internet that depict work-life balance. The results showed that gender inequalities remain evident in our societies as most women still struggle more with work-life balance in comparison to men due to the gendered social orders that are sustained through ideologies in discourse.</p> Vongai Sarah Ruzungunde, Sindiso Zhou Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212886 Wed, 18 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The impact of service providers in the development of the employees’ skills in the government institution https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212887 <p>The impact of service providers in developing employees’ skills is very important in anorganisation as it is one of the fundamental returns on investments for the organisation. Theimpact of service providers in developing employees’ skills is very important as it is one of thefundamental returns on investments for the organisation. This study contributes to a body ofknowledge (human capital knowledge base) by assessing current skills transfer from serviceproviders to employees. This assessment outcome will help to determine skills policy that canbe replicated at other government departments. The aim was to assess the impact of serviceproviders in the development of the employees in the government institution lot of money and resourceare invested to ensure that employees obtain required competencies. Therefore it is imperative to assessthe impact of service providers. Quantitative method was adopted in its collection of data from employees who responded in a questionnaire. A sample of 75 employees was drawn from thepopulation and the results were analysed using SPPS version 25. The consultants hadknowledge of the project. Consultant/s industry experience or project experience had a positiveeffect on the skills transfer. The paper recommends that the public institutions to develop askills transfer policy. It further recommends clear communication strategies to employees priorto implementation.</p> Mcebisi Litile, Njabulo Khumalo Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212887 Wed, 18 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Masculinities and femininities through parents/caregivers` voices: Implications on gender equitable schooling for vulnerable children in Eswatini https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212888 <p>Informed by social constructionism, the paper foregrounds vulnerable children`s parents/caregivers` constructions of gender in three (3) rural primary schools in Eswatini. The aim is to understand the role that parents/caregivers play in the gender socialising of vulnerable children, and the implications of these on gender equality in the schools. It draws on a qualitative narrative study, and utilises semi-structured individual interviews with nine (9) purposively selected parents/caregivers aged between 39 and 76 years. The findings revealed that, parents/caregivers drew on dominant societal discourses which legitimised hegemonic masculine dominance over femininities and other forms of masculinities. However, the parents/caregivers’ social affirmation of the vulnerable boys as prospective dominant members of the Swati nation placed high responsibilities on the vulnerable boys, which was found to overwhelm them, given their lack of access to basic resources. The study recommends deconstruction of parents/caregiver’s stereotypical constructions of gender, as one way towards the creation and promotion of gender inclusive and equitable family and school environments.</p> Ncamsile Daphne Motsa, Pholoho Morojele Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212888 Wed, 18 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Effects of emotional neglect on the development of children in rural areas: A literature review https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212889 <p>Child emotional neglect is one of the most prevalent phenomena in rural areas that is overlooked, probably due to its invisible occurrence and its unseen scars. In most cases, parents are fascinated by physical care, working hard to buy food and other necessities, which is a good thing, but this is most likely to put a strain in child-parent interactions. The aim of the study was to accentuate the effects of emotional neglect on the development of children in rural areas. Researchers used literature review as a research methodology and purposively selected information from articles and journals. The study found that child emotional neglect is a common childhood maltreatment in rural areas, and is perhaps influenced by the dominant culture and stressors that accompany the low socio-economic status of people in rural areas. Thus, we conclude that good parenting does not come natural, but is affected by life circumstances, which in turn lead to devastating effects on child development. Moreover, child emotional neglect is a subtle child maltreatment which is not easy to detect or recognise, and is mostly not intentional. Hence, researchers recommend more awareness of child emotional neglect, especially in rural areas to encourage proper parenting that enhances sufficient child development.</p> A. Phiriepa , F.K. Matlakala Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212889 Wed, 18 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The reality of workplace culture in critical care units in South Africa https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212890 <p>Healthcare services are expected to shift towards person-centredness, which is underpinned by the values of respect for persons, individual right to self-determination, mutual respect and understanding. The workplace culture in the South African critical care context have been reported as encompassing poor adherence to routine and evidence-informed practices and decreased accountability and responsibility of nurses. A total of 230 hours of participants’ observation were undertaken in 11 critical care units, using the Workplace Culture Critical Analysis Tool was used. Data analysis were collaborative analyses and participants reached consensus on six themes, namely hierarchical care and caring, disconnected communication, impeded learning environment, professional transgression, team ineffectiveness and demanding environment. The poor quality of care reported in the South African critical care context is confirmed by the unfavourable ‘non-person-centred’ workplace culture observed in both private and public critical care units.</p> Tanya Heyns, Brendan Mccormack, lze van Eeden, Seugnette Rossouw, Celia Filmalter, Joanita de Kock, Isabel Coetzee Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212890 Wed, 18 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Elder abuse in southwest Nigeria: Do age group and religious affiliation play any impact? https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212891 <p>In the past few years, concerns about the elder abuse in Nigeria have continued to receive increased research attention among social scientists include: psychologists, counsellors and gerontologists. This increased research attention was due to the frequent reports of elder abuse in the society. The continuous occurrence of this social menace prompted this study that aimed to investigate the role of age and religion on elder abuse among elderly persons in Osun state, Nigeria. A descriptive survey was adopted to select three hundred and ninety two (392) respondents with mean age of 70.77 and S.D of 6.33. The study found that age group did not influence elder abuse F(2, 389) = 2.747; p&gt;.05). But, religious affiliation was found to influence elder abuse F(2, 386) = 14.141; p&lt; 0.05. The study concluded that only religious affiliation has significant influence on elder abuse in Osun state. The study therefore, recommended that religious leaders should adopt a psychological approach, possibly in form of counselling or religious teaching, as part of their religious doctrines, to educate members of their congregations on the need to respect and value every elderly persons in the society, as this could help to drastically reduce the persistence incidents of elder abuse in the society.</p> Mobolaji Grace Olasupo , Kamal A. Odunjo-Saka Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212891 Wed, 18 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of drug abuse among the female youths in northwest, Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212892 <p>The social problem of drug abuse among female youths is becoming rampant and recognized although it is not reflected in most official drug statistics. Its increasing rate has created concern for parents, policy makers, law enforcement agencies and researchers. Northwest of Nigeria is witnessing an upsurge in drug abuse among the female youths. The consequences of this menace have become alarming, hence, the study aims at examine the effect of drug abuse among female youths in Northern Nigeria. The study adopted exploratory and cross-sectional in research design. The questionnaire and in-depth interview methods were used to elicit data from respondents. The paper applied multistage sampling technique method in which two states will be randomly selected among geo-political zones of Northern Nigeria. Two towns were selected which are Kano and Kaduna, 600 respondents were surveyed .The theory of social learning was adopted as theoretical underpin. Findings revealed that the peer group influence, unemployment, frustration, etc are some of the reasons for engaging in drug abuse among female youths. Also it was revealed that codeine, tobacco, marijuana are among the drugs being abused. The study recommends, among others that the government, parents and religious organization should take responsibility to curtail female youths from menace of drug abuse.</p> Niyi Adegoke Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212892 Wed, 18 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Gender differences on the academic adjustment of students in the Faculty of Education, Kwara State University, Malete https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212893 <p>The study examined the gender difference on the academic adjustment among faculty of education male and female students. Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. Students in the faculty of Education of Kwara State University, Malete, Nigeria were the population for the study. One hundred and sixty (160) students were selected using random sampling technique as respondents; they were gotten from four departments in the faculty of Education in Kwara State University then, random sampling technique was used to select forty students from each department in the faculty. One research question was stated and one hypothesis was formulated. A questionnaire tagged “students’ gender differences in the academic adjustment Questionnaire” was used as the instrument, the instrument contains two Sections; section A and B. The instrument used was validated by lecturers of the faculty and reliability tested at 0.71. The result of the findings revealed that the weighted mean was 2.09 which mean that calculated mean was less than fixed mean (2.5); this implies that the level of academic adjustment of students studying education courses at Kwara State University is low. Secondly, the null hypothesis that states that there was no significant difference in the academic adjustment of male and female students studying Education courses at Kwara State University, Malete was rejected. It was recommended that, educational bodies should properly sensitize the general public and fresh students just admitted into the faculty of education on the importance of educational course at the tertiary institution, so as to change the negative notion they have about educational courses.</p> Omilola Amina Olawole, Adedayo Adesokan Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212893 Wed, 18 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 <i>Òrisa je n’pe meji</i>… Ribaldry, rhythms and rivalry in Kengbe bridal performance of the Ilorin people https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212894 <p>The patriarchal structure of most African societies demands that women should be only seen and not heard. However, from time immemorial, African women have devised creative means to express themselves via oral traditions. In Nigeria, bridal performances are theatrical in nature, incorporating performative arts such as singing, chanting, dancing, and mimesis. The Kengbe bridal performance is a crucial aspect of wedding ceremonies among the Ilorin people of Kwara State, Nigeria. Beyond the aim of spicing up the entire wedding ceremony, the artistic elements embedded in Kengbe performance serve as viable means of expressing the culture, traditions and social values of the Ilorin people, particularly from the perspective of the typical Ilorin woman. It is observed that the emotions which typify the life of an average Ilorin female, as she negotiates her diverse roles in her immediate society finds expression in the Kengbe performance. Using the “Orisa je n’pe meji…” Yoruba maxim and the African womanism theory as searchlight, therefore, this paper examines the dynamics in the relationships between co-wives, mothers-in-law and the husband as expressed in the Kengbe bridal performance. Questions which are raised around the layers of the Kengbe bridal performance are: what is the structure of the performance? What are the subtexts in the performance? What does the performance seek to achieve? This paper finds that the Kengbe bridal performance explores salient themes such as love, sisterhood, rivalry, sexuality, fertility, and religion within the Ilorin worldview. It concludes that the performance derives greatly from the socio-cultural realities of the Ilorin women, and gives them a voice hard to ignore.</p> Tosin Kooshima Tume Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212894 Wed, 18 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Perceived clinical negligence and consequences on patients: A case study of Kaneshie Polyclinic in Ghana https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212895 <p>This study investigates the perception of clinical negligence at a health facility (Kaneshie Polyclinic) in Ghana. We also ascertain the perceived consequences of clinical negligence on patients at the Kaneshie Polyclinic. A survey of seventy-eight (78) healthcare providers and hundred and thirty-two (132) patients were conducted using the Cochran’s sample size formula. The findings of the study revealed that both patients and healthcare providers perceived that clinical negligence occurred at the facility and it was caused by different factors, including bad handwriting, medication errors, fatigue on the part of healthcare providers, poor communications, diagnostic errors etc. Victims of the negligence also experienced various problems as a result of the clinical negligence, including the extra cost on drugs, transportation cost to the facility, loss of employment opportunities, depression, dislike for the health professionals, fear of going to the hospital, task re-allocation, loss of working days, prolonged hospitalization etc. A number of useful recommendations are proffered to address the problem of clinical negligence at the Kaneshie Polyclinic.</p> Gazari Muniru, Patience Aseweh Abor Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212895 Wed, 18 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Strengthening the teaching and learning of English First Additional Language in foundation phase in vhembe district, Limpopo Province, South Africa https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212897 <p>The introduction of English language from Grade1 is vital for South Africa to keep up with the need for English worldwide. However, teaching English in Foundation Phase has been a perpetual struggle. This paper sought to identify appropriate teaching strategies to strengthen the teaching of the English language in Foundation Phase. An exploratory qualitative approach was used. The population of this paper was all Foundation Phase teachers. A purposive sample of 15 grade 3 teachers from five primary schools was used. Data was collected through individual face to face interviews and observation. Data was analysed and interpreted. Findings revealed that most teachers tried to maintain the consistent use of English language during teaching, however, to some it was difficult. As a result, they switched and used the Home Language. It is recommended that teachers receive continuous professional development to strengthen their knowledge to teach and consistently use the English language.</p> R.M. Makhwathana, M.P. Mulaudzi, S.K. Muthambi Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212897 Wed, 18 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Public administration in the fourth industrial revolution: Implications for the practice https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212898 <p>The aim of this paper is to interrogate the state of the public administration practice within the praxis of the Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR). Central to the interrogation is the question; what implications does the 4IR have on the public administration practice, particularly the provision of basic services such as education, water and sanitation and healthcare amongst others? Simply put, the paper attempts to determine how the Internet of Things (IoT), Robotics, Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Virtual Reality (VR) can be utilised in government to improve service delivery and deal with inefficiencies as is currently the case in the South African context. This and other related questions become undeniably relevant given the scourge of the Corona virus confronting South Africa and the rest of the world. The paper relies on literature review and empirical evidence to argue and come to conclusion about the future of government operations and its employees during this period of mass disruptive technologies. Inasmuch as there exist mixed feelings and levels of (un)acceptance of the 4IR particularly due to massive potential job losses, the paper argues that there is a plethora of other benefits associated with this era. The paper therefore is of the view that governments particularly in developing countries gear up in preparation for this era if the 4IR is to confer maximum benefits in relation to the delivery of public goods and services.</p> Ntwanano Erasmus Mathebula Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212898 Wed, 18 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Gender differences in agricultural services and socio-cultural activities involving yam in Ekiti State https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212899 <p>This paper examines the gender differences in the roles men and women played in the provision of agricultural services; and in the social and cultural activities involving yam in Ekiti State on Nigeria. The objective of the study is to find out if there is gender equality in the roles played in the various aspects of agricultural services namely cultivation, land preparation, harvesting, preservation, marketing; and in the socio-cultural activities which involve the use of yams. Data for the study were obtained from literature, semi-structured interviews, local narratives and author’s experiential background. Findings show that yam is significantly important in social and cultural life of the Ekitis. It was found that men play crucial roles in the labour-intensive aspects of yam farming namely clearing of bushes, making of yam mounds, staking and harvesting while women traditionally provide services in the areas of carting of yam setts to planting sites, cooking for workers after work, planting of subordinate crops (pepper, okro, green vegetables etc) inside yam farm, carrying of harvested yams home, selling of yams etc. Men and women play critical roles in ceremonial and social events in which yam is the fulcrum of activities such as marriage, chieftaincy rites, age-grade rites, new yam festivals and the like but the women are more involved in cooking, serving of meals, singing and dancing. Yam businesses involved both genders but it is believed that yam farm owners being men, make more money from the sales of yam. It is observed that women could play greater and wider roles in yam farming if they could be assisted with technology, equipment and funds. What they cannot do by physical strength, they can get done using machine at little cost. The need to engage a modern method of boosting production and preservation of the crop through active involvement of women is recommended</p> Awosusi Omowumi Omojola Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212899 Wed, 18 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Students’ knowledge of teaching and learning centre and its services in a small rural-based comprehensive university https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212900 <p>The South African higher education system has been battling with issues of access, quality and equity to address the social injustices of the past. There are structures and policies within institutions designed to address massification, unpreparedness and under-preparedness of students. In South Africa, Teaching and Learning Centres (T&amp;L) centres or centres for Teaching and Learning (CTL centres) were established to essentially promote quality learning and teaching, and improve the graduate throughput rate by offering services geared to this mandate. It is not clear if this mandate has been duly executed, as the higher education system still finds itself in throughput rate crisis. Based on such challenges emanating from higher education systems, this study aims to investigate students’ knowledge and understanding of services offered by a teaching and learning centre in a rural based university. This quantitative survey paper draws from Drew’s (2010) recommendations which highlight the need for an investigation into the usage of academic development units within various teaching and learning centres in universities across the different schools or faculties. This paper provides the investigation solemnly focused on students, as they are key stakeholders meant to benefit from the services provided in a learning centre in the university. A convenience sampling procedure was adopted to sample respondents who completed questionnaire with both closed-ended and open-ended questions. Statistical Package Social Sciences (SPSS) was used for quantitative data analysis while qualitative data were thematically analysed. The paper identified several issues pertaining to students’ knowledge of teaching and learning centre and its services that mirror how T&amp;L Centres, due to their positionality and institutional culture, are involuntarily undermined and misunderstood.</p> Fhatuwani Ravhuhali, Hlayisani F. Mboweni, Lutendo Nendauni Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212900 Wed, 18 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Implementing functional university-based policies in Nigerian University System: Administrative challenges and strategies for effective implementation https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212902 <p>The study examined administrative challenges to and the strategies for implementing policies that are university-based in Nigerian university system. Descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. The population of the study was all the 255 management officials in 15 public and 36 Government approved private universities in southwest, Nigeria. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 3 states (Ondo, Osun and Ekiti states) from the 6 states in the zone. All the management officials (five each) in 20 public and government approved private universities in the selected states were sampled for the study. Three research questions and two null hypotheses were used to gather information. Mean scores and t-test were used as statistical tools for this study, and findings revealed inadequate physical facilities, funding, employment of unqualified teaching and non-teaching staff, lack of motivation etc to be major administrative challenges to policies implementation in Nigerian universities. The study recommended adequate funding, provision of adequate physical facilities, employment of qualified teaching and non-teaching staff among others, as strategies for implementing university-based policies in Nigerian universities.</p> Adeniyi F. Bolajoko, Akinsuroju O. Emmanuel, Adelakun I. Samuel Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212902 Wed, 18 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The role of belief system, peer pressure and self-monitoring skills on social adjustment among senior secondary school students https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212903 <p>Social adjustment is an important indicator of psychological health which is currently attracting the attention of many psychologists. Many school-going adolescents get integrated, build social networks, and negotiate their new freedom provided by college life. This study therefore examined the contributions of belief system, peer pressure, and self-monitoring skills to social adjustment of senior secondary school students in Ogun State, Nigeria. This study adopted a descriptive survey research design. A sample size of 1,789 students was selected through the stratified random sampling technique from an estimated population of 21,000 senior secondary II students. 4 research instruments were used. Data were analyzed using the Canonical Correlation Analysis and Multiple Regression Analysis with results tested for significance at .05 level. Findings revealed that peer pressure and self-monitoring skills significantly relate with academic achievement of adolescent students from senior secondary schools, that belief system, peer pressure, and self-monitoring skills significantly contributed to academic achievement of adolescent students in senior secondary schools and that self-monitoring skills and peer pressure were significant predictors of academic achievement of the adolescent students, but belief system was not a significant predictor of academic achievement. Based on the findings few recommendations were made.</p> 1Olugbemi Oluwatoyin Ayinde, 2Olawole Ayodeji Olorunfemi Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212903 Wed, 18 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Social enterprises in Nigeria: The prerequisite and motivating factors for gender balance and women empowerment https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212904 <p>The call for greater gender balance has been on the increase. This is predicated on the assumption that, where it exists, it has consistently produced more innovation, transparency, and attention to risk than is produced by the male dominated leadership of many established institutions. The study examined motivating factors for women social entrepreneurs in Nigeria. Specifically, the study investigated incentives attracting women folks into the fold of social enterprises and its contribution to women empowerment. Primary data, obtained through the instrumentality of structured questionnaire administered on executives, employees, and beneficiaries of social enterprises in Nigeria, and personal interview conducted on selected social entrepreneurs, were analysed with the aids of descriptive statistical tools and social entrepreneurship theories to determine factors motivating women into social enterprises and to determine contribution to women empowerment. Findings revealed that large proportion of women and girls in Nigeria ventured into social enterprises because it provides avenue for them to assert themselves andparticipate fully in economic life across sectors. It is also improving women’s sense of self-worth; right to determine choices; right to access opportunities and resources; power to control own lives; and ability to influence the direction of social change. The study concludes that there is need for stakeholders to ensure enabling environment through which social entrepreneurship could thrive.</p> Adele Hasimiyu Ademola, Agboola Jacob Olusola, Eniola Adekunle Sokefun, Dorcas Babatunde Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212904 Wed, 18 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 An evaluation of gender equality in family business succession in south-western Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212905 <p>The study evaluated gender equality factors influencing succession in family business. Specifically, the study examined gender factors influence on family business succession planning in Nigeria. Primary data, obtained through personal interview on sampled CEOs and questionnaire administered on CEOs, management and senior officers of identified family business firms in southwestern Nigeria, were analysed with the aids of descriptive statistical tools. Findings revealed that the traditional principles of primogeniture, gender stereotypes and women invincibility are speedily giving ways to women professionality, entrepreneurial sagacity and resourcefulness that are improving their capacity to excel in previously male-dominated business landscape. The study concludes that gender equality is capable of facilitating economic development, and that given equal chances women are confidently throwing up better performances in the field of business and hence should be encouraged through proper education, less discrimination and equal opportunities with their male counterpart.</p> Agboola Jacob Olusola, Adele Hasimiyu Ademola, Modupe Titilayo Grace Onibon, Eniola Adekunle Sokefun, Dorcas Babatunde Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gab/article/view/212905 Wed, 18 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000