Ghana Journal of Agricultural Science <p>The <em>Ghana Journal of Agricultural Science</em> is a national scientific journal which is published by the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research of Ghana to serve as an outlet for papers concerning West African agriculture and related disciplines.</p> en-US <p>Copyright for articles published in this journal is retained by the journal.</p><p>This journal content is licensed under a <a class="subfoot" href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license</a>.</p> (Mr. Akilakpa Sawyerr) (Mr. Buertey Essegbey) Sat, 30 Dec 2023 22:29:54 +0000 OJS 60 Consumer awareness of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHS) contaminants in smoked fish and factors influencing smoked fish consumption in Ado-Odo/Ota Local Government area of Ogun State <p>Fish has long been recognized as a healthy food which provides the body with excellent nutritional value. Due to its perishable nature, fish are commonly processed to increase its shelf life. In Nigeria, fish smoking is the commonest method of fish preservation which involves the use of traditional smoking kilns which are poorly constructed and lack mechanisms for heat control often resulting in the production of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in smoked fish. The study assessed consumers’ awareness of PAHs and other contaminants in smoked fish and determined the factors influencing smoked fish consumption among the respondents in the study area. A two-stage sampling technique was employed to select 105 respondents from the study area. Data was obtained with the aid of a well-structured questionnaire. The analytic techniques used for data analysis were descriptive statistics and binary logit regression model. Findings revealed that most of the respondents were females, married, having a mean age of 39 years with formal level education. Findings also revealed that most of the consumers had knowledge of the presence of PAHs in smoked fish which are injurious to health. Furthermore, age, gender, income, marital status, taste, household size, education and aroma were found to significantly influence smoked fish consumption at 1%, 5% and 10%, respectively. The study therefore concludes that awareness of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other micro-organisms in smoked fish was low among the respondents in the study area.</p> O.O. Ayodeji, T.S. Oni, V.A. Sanyaolu Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 28 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Maize-groundnut intercropping to manage fall armyworm and improved crop productivity in smallholder farming systems <p>Fall armyworm (<em>Spodoptera frugiperda</em>) could cause significant losses in maize production in sub-Saharan Africa, thereby threatening the livelihoods of smallholder farmers. Farming systems such as maize-legume intercropping could reduce fall armyworm (FAW) infestations. However, the impact of maize-groundnut intercropping on fall armyworm infestation and its severity is unknown. We, therefore, assessed the impact of intercropping maize with groundnut planted at different times on fall armyworm infestation while exploring the benefits of groundnut to soil fertility improvement. The study was conducted during the minor 2018 and major cropping season in 2018 and 2019, respectively. Maize-groundnut intercropped treated soils increased the concentrations of Nitrate-N, ammonium, and microbial biomass carbon by 31%, 42%, and 45% respectively, compared with non-groundnut treated soils (control). The treatments had no significant effect on FAW infestation and severity. The number of infected maize plants in Ejura was 68% more than in Fumesua and 88% higher in the minor season than in the major season, irrespective of location. The results also indicated that the severity of FAW infestation determined 30% of the maize grain yield. Major seasons and locations interactively influenced maize grain yield, with the major rainy seasons recording 43% more grain yield than the minor seasons. The study provides further understanding of the mechanisms involved in controlling FAW infestation under maize-groundnut intercropping.</p> S. Yeboah, P. Amankwaa-Yeboah, M.B. Brempong, J. Adomako, C. Darko, E.N. Tetteh, A. Ibrahim, S.A. Ennin Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 28 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Safety and sensory quality of <i>wagashie</i>, a West African cottage cheese <p><em>Wagashie</em>, a West African traditional cottage cheese is a dairy product commonly consumed in Ghana due to its nutritional quality. Nonetheless, it can serve as a medium for the growth of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms as producers and retailers do not employ adequate food hygiene measures in its handling. Additionally, despite its widespread consumption, there is little or no information about the sensory properties of traditional <em>wagashie</em>. This study was carried out to ascertain the safety of market wagashie and to evaluate the sensory quality using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). The safety of market fresh and fried <em>wagashie</em> was determined by testing for various indicator and pathogenic microorganisms and the sensory profile was described by a trained 13-member panel who evaluated traditional <em>wagashie</em> for desirable and undesirable attributes. The results of the microbiological safety assessment indicated the absence of Salmonella and <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> in all samples whiles Bacillus cereus was detected in low counts in half of the samples assessed. The enteric microorganisms E. coli, Coliforms and Enterobacteriaceae had fairly high counts. QDA analysis was used to develop a lexicon for fresh and fried <em>wagashie</em> which included whitish colour, yoghurt aroma, cheesy taste, brown colour and fried egg taste etc. respectively.</p> A.B. Arthur, M. Owusu, P.T. Akonor, E.J.S. Blessie, A. Atter, V. Appiah, W.K. Amoa-Awua Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 28 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Assessing the usefulness of the e-Agriculture programme in Ghana using the Technology Acceptance Model <p>Access to relevant agricultural information holds the potential to significantly contribute to achieving food security. Recognizing this imperative, the Government of Ghana has established an e-Agricultural portal aimed at meeting the extension and informational needs of farmers. However, the effectiveness of this e-resource in enhancing productivity remains uncertain. This study therefore set out to examine the perceived utility, user-friendliness, motivations, and obstacles associated with e-Agriculture resources. Utilizing the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), our investigation sought to elucidate the factors influencing the adoption of e-Agriculture resources for livelihood development and their impact on stakeholders, namely, farmers and system managers. Our findings indicate that the utilization of e-resources has introduced farmers to novel trends, including knowledge of improved technologies and good agronomic practices. These advancements have translated into increased income and greater financial autonomy. Nonetheless, the study found that the sustainability of the e-Agriculture programme presents considerable challenges, posing a potential threat to Ghana's agricultural sector and food security. Conspicuously, our research revealed that substantial benefits have been derived from the utilization of e-Agriculture resource centres. A significant majority of patrons reported minimal difficulties in accessing and using these resources within their respective centres. Furthermore, e-Agriculture has enhanced their financial inclusion within the agricultural value chain, ultimately improving farmers' access to agricultural credit. As a result, we recommend that the Ministry of Food and Agriculture (MoFA) consider designating e-Agriculture centres as standard cost centres, similar to other departments and state agencies within the ministries.</p> S. Bekoe, D.A. Ayoung, P. Danquah Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 28 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Productivity of onion (<i>Allium cepa</i> L.) as influenced by composted poultry manure and fishpond waste in an aquaponics-based food system <p>Sustainable intensification of food production with aquaponics-based food systems requires conscious efforts of soil amelioration with the rich organic outflows to realize the closed nature of such integrated systems. This study assessed the effects of composted poultry manure and fishpond waste on the growth and yield of onion (<em>Allium cepa</em> L.) for sustainable production by smallholder farmers. A randomized complete block design on-station study was conducted in an aquaponics-based system at the CSIR-Crops Research Institute, Kumasi, in the 2016 minor season. The onion cultivar “Boko red” was grown under three treatments; 0 application (absolute control), 12 t/ha composted poultry manure, and 6 t/ha composted poultry manure plus 25 l/hill of pond water derived based on the crop nutrient requirements. Growth parameters (plant height and the number of leaves) were taken weekly from four weeks after transplanting, as well as yield parameters (total dry matter and total bulb weight). Among the treatments, the highest mean yield (25381 kg/ha) was attained with composted poultry manure and pond water combined. This shows the potential usage of organic waste as alternate sources of fertilizers for vegetable production, in integrated aquaculture systems. Organic waste such as poultry manure, droppings of small ruminants, fishpond waste, crop residues etc., are freely and abundantly available in integrated aquaculture systems, and can substitute inorganic fertilizers with considerably benefit to farmers by increasing yield.</p> H.A. Dwamena, K. Tawiah, E.O. Danquah, S.K. Darkey, M.D. Asante, C.O. Peprah, T. Frimpong, P. Marfo, A.K.A. Serwaa, P. Marno, S.K. Amponsah, K. Agyeman, M.O.O. Asante, A. Karim, F. Frimpong Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 28 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Adaptation to climate change among artisanal fishers around Lekki Lagoon, Nigeria: A gender analysis <p>This study assessed fishers' adaptation to climate change in fishing communities around Lekki Lagoon from a gender perspective. A multistage sampling procedure was used to select 112 (77 males and 35 females) fishers from nine fishing communities. Primary data were collected with the interview guide and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results revealed that 67.5% of males and 60.0% of females were into fishing for business and consumption. The mean adaptation scores indicated that more male fishers changed from fishing to crop farming and non-agricultural activities than their female counterparts. The mean score of severity of constraints indicated that low fish catch, lack of information from weather stations, and the influence of middlemen were more severe constraints for male fishers than female fishers. A significant association was established between fishers' use of insurance schemes as an adaptation strategy and their gender. The study concluded that female fishers demonstrated a lower extent of adaptation and were more constrained in their use of adaptation strategies than their male counterparts. Fisheries extension services should be strengthened to build the capacity of female fishers to access different adaptation strategies.</p> W.G. Ojebiyi, O.R. Ashimolowo, O.J. Olaoye, P.D. Abdulsalam-Saghir, O.J. Soetan Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 28 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Pre-harvest and post-harvest practices along the plantain (<i>Musa</i> spp. AAB) fruit value chain in Ghana that predispose them to ripening <p>The present research sought to find out the practices of farmers and aggregators (wholesalers and retailers) in Ghana that might reduce the shelf-life of plantains (<em>Musa</em> spp. AAB). Primary data was obtained from a survey conducted on hundred (100) plantain farms and responses from 754 plantain aggregators from 95 major markets in communities spread across Ghana. There were variations in the planting style of farmers encountered in the study. Practices such as the haphazard planting (not planting in rows) by the farmers in the present study encouraged the growth of weeds, resulting in little aeration around the plants. Most of the farmers (65 to 80%) had good knowledge of plantains diseases. The bulk of the farmers interviewed used visual observation to assess the maturity of the plantain fruits and harvesting was mainly based on market demand. The Ashanti Region served as the main hub for the trading of plantains in Ghana with plantains from this region found in seven (7) out of the ten (10) regions surveyed. Traders preferred not to buy produce from far regions for sale in their region because of increased cost of transportation and hastened ripening of the plantain fruits prior to sale. All (100%) the plantain traders transported the plantains in vehicles meant for cargo or general goods, thus not providing the right conditions for transport of the plantain fruits. It is apparent from this present study that the practices of the various actors along the plantain value chain (farmers and traders) accelerate the ripening and subsequent softening of plantain fruits.</p> D.O. Ofosu, I. Before, F. Martinson, G.K. Frimpong, I.K. Asare, B. Darfour Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 28 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Agronomic attributes of cucumber (<i>Cucumis sativus</i> L.) as influenced by time of poultry manure application in Abia State, South East, Nigeria <p>An experiment on agronomic attributes of cucumber (<em>Cucumis sativus</em> L.) as influenced by time of poultry manure application in Abia State, South East Nigeria, occurred at the research farm of Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, during 2019 and 2020 cropping seasons. It was a 2 x 5 factorial laid in a randomized complete block design, replicated thrice. The treatments comprised two cucumber varieties of POINSETT and THAI 999 as well as time of poultry manure application levels of: 0 application (control); one week after planting (1WAP), one week before planting (1WBP); two weeks after planting (2WAP) and two weeks before planting (2WBP). Results showed that leaf area index, number of vines per plant and total dry weight per plant (leaves, stems and roots) increased at 4 and 8 weeks after planting (WAP) and decreased at 12WAP. Vine length per plant increased at 4, 8 and 12WAP, while crop growth rate was active at 4WAP to 8WAP and negative at 8 to 12WAP. THAI 999 variety yielded longer fruits per plant of 68.1 cm (2019) and 125.43 cm (2020); harvest index of 56.5% (2019) and 68.49% (2020); fruit number per hectare of 7,396 kgha<sup>-1</sup> (2019) and 8,167 kgha<sup>-1</sup> (2020) over POINSETT variety. Poultry manure at two weeks before planting (2WBP) yielded longer fruits per plant of 82.0 cm (2019) and 139.12 cm (2020); harvest index of 67.0% (2019) and 80.95% (2020); fruit number per hectare of 10,674 kgha<sup>-1</sup> (2019) and 13,958 kgha<sup>-1</sup> (2020) over control. Time of poultry manure application at 2WBP and THAI 999 variety responded better and are recommended for cultivation in southeastern Nigeria.</p> A.U. Akpan, J.N. Okamigbo Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 28 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Demographic characteristics of farmers and the effectiveness of disseminating information on agriculture in Ghana <p>The study investigates how improved knowledge and understanding of agricultural information could enhance the livelihoods of farmers’ and their level of access to agricultural information. The purpose of the research is to explore demographic characteristics of farmers and the effectiveness of disseminating information on agriculture in Ghana. A hypothesis involving three null and alternative issues was discussed to enhance the effective dissemination of agricultural information, where Farmers' educational level influences the effectiveness of disseminating agricultural information (H1: <em>μ</em> &gt; 108 or H1: <em>p</em> = 0.25). The quantitative research approach was applied for the study and a total sample size of 108 farmers was used for the study. Quantitative data gathered were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 25.0. The Fishers’ Exact Test was applied to ascertain the significance of relationship between variables. The findings of the study found positive and significant (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.05) relationship between formal education and agricultural information dissemination. The study concludes that the middle-aged of 46 years of age were involved in agriculture. The study recommends that the Government of Ghana through the Ministry of Food and Agriculture should continue building capacity of agricultural extension agents to effectively disseminate relevant agricultural information to farmers. The studies advocate that information professionals should work together to strategize on how agricultural information can widely be disseminated to farmers in Africa. Agricultural information policies and strategies on effectiveness of disseminating agricultural information to farmers are urgently needed to address the call for best farming practices among farmers in sub-Saharan Africa.</p> P.S. Osei-Kofi, E.E. Badu, P.S. Dadzie, J. Bandanaa Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 28 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of women involvement in artisanal fishery enterprises in Lagos State, Nigeria <p>This study assessed women’s involvements in fishery enterprises in Lagos State, Nigeria. Multistage sampling procedure was used to select 120 women fisher folks (WFFs) involved in fishery enterprises. Data collected using structured interview guide were subjected to descriptive and inferential analyses. Results on socioeconomics characteristics revealed that majority of the WFFs were &gt;50 years, married and had primary education. Fish marketing (63.3%) and processing (82.5%) were the most dominant occupations of the WFFs. Also, women’s involvement in fisheries activities was either high (40.0%) or moderate (45.8%). Limited access to improved fisheries technologies, low literacy of women, and lack of collateral for bank loans were the most severe constraints limiting WFFs. Chi-square analyses established that there were significant associations between WFFs’ age group (χ<sup>2</sup> = 12.667, <em>p</em> ≤ 0.05), level of education (χ<sup>2</sup> = 28.967, <em>p</em> ≤ 0.01), area of specialization (χ<sup>2</sup> = 18.476, <em>p</em> ≤ 0.01), fisheries experience (χ<sup>2</sup> = 14.931, <em>p</em> ≤ 0.01) and their level of involvement in fisheries activities. It was concluded that WFFs’ level of involvement was relatively high due to their active participation in fisheries activities. Therefore, WFFs roles in fisheries can be improved through education, financial empowerment and availability of fishing inputs.</p> O.P. Oyetade, O.J. Olaoye, W.G. Ojebiyi, I.F. Idowu Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 28 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Agricultural markets integration and price transmission in West Africa: Evidence from a meta-analysis <p>Over the past thirty years, the examination of market integration and price transmission has gained significant importance in West Africa. This rise in significance can be attributed to their role in evaluating the effects of market reform policies implemented by regional governments. Nonetheless, the influence of price transmission and market integration on the current food policies in West Africa and Ghana remains unclear. This research offers a comprehensive overview, drawing on an extensive analysis of 30 studies on price transmission and market integration published between 1997 and 2019. Through the application of Meta-Regression Analysis, our meta-analysis findings demonstrate that the degree of price transmission in West Africa's agricultural markets is relatively limited. The factors contributing to this low level of price transmission and integration in agricultural markets in West Africa include physical infrastructure, market information accessibility, institutional frameworks, levels of competition, market dominance, trade dynamics, conflicts and security concerns, government interventions, as well as export restrictions and bans. Consequently, it is imperative for the regional governments to prioritize the development of physical infrastructure, particularly the enhancement of road networks within the sub-region. Moreover, the expansion of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) tools, like mobile phones, and their effective utilization can significantly enhance access to market information related to agricultural produce across the region.</p> S. Bekoe, S. Ayeduvor, P.M. Etwire Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 28 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Efficacy of some plant extracts as a safe and sustainable management option for <i>Sitophilus zeamais</i> (Motschulsky) in stored maize <p>The use of synthetic chemical insecticides has proven effective in controlling insects. However, indiscriminate use is associated with a variety of health and environmental problems. Plantbased products could be an alternative for pest control because of their natural originality, low/non mammalian toxicity, biodegradability, zero residual effect and accessibility. A survey conducted in the Southern part of Volta region in Ghana collected data on plant species used as maize protectants. A total of eleven plant species were obtained. Seven out of the eleven were selected based on their availability and accessibility including lemon grass (<em>Cymbopogon citratus</em>), basil (<em>Ocimum basilicum</em>), Acheampong leaves (<em>Chromolaena odorata</em>), garlic (<em>Allium sativum</em>), Africa scent leaf (<em>Ocimum gratissimum</em>), guava leaves (<em>Psidium guajava</em>), onion (<em>Allium cepa</em>) for preliminary screening. Four most efficacious species (<em>Cymbopogon citratus</em>, <em>Psidium guajava</em>, <em>Ocimum basilicum</em> and <em>Ocimum gratissimum</em>) were selected for further work in the laboratory at 28±2°C, 65% RH and 12D:12L against <em>S. zeamais</em>. The assays were conducted by treating 50 g of maize with methanol extracts at the rates of 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 g/mL. Contact toxicity, repellency, effects on oviposition, development, seed damage, and weight loss were assessed. The extracts significantly (<em>p</em> ≥ 0.05) reduced emergence of progeny from adult weevil, eggs and immature stages. The extracts had a reproduction inhibition rate of 81–100%. The extracts protected maize against damage by <em>S. zeamais</em> for 12 weeks. Maximum weight loss and seed damage of 11.3% and 8.7%, were recorded compared to control with 21.4% and 24.7%, respectively. The extracts could therefore be used as alternatives for synthetic insecticides.</p> V. Sackey, Y.V. Eziah, E.O. Owusu, M. Billah, S. Addae Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 28 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 ICT-enabled agribusiness: case of female fresh fish marketers in coastal area of Ogun State, Southwest Nigeria <p>This study investigated the use of ICTs and the influence on income among female fresh fish marketers. Multistage sampling procedure was employed in the selection of 80 respondents and primary data were collected using questionnaire. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, logit regression model and z-test. From the results, most of the respondents (67.5%) accessed marketing information through radio. Among the modern ICTs considered in the study, mobile phone was commonly used to access market information and to contact customers. Years of education, access to credit and marketing experience positively influenced the probability of utilizing modern ICTs in fish marketing while age had negative influence. The mean weekly net income of users of modern ICTs was significantly higher than income of non-users by ₦5,582.63 (US$15.50). The study concludes that ICTs enhanced fish marketing and have positive effect on the income of users. There should be public-private partnership investments in ICT and other infrastructure that could enhance agribusiness particularly for female agripreneurs in rural communities.</p> A.A. Obisesan, O. Oduntan, E.L. Adetola Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 28 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Age effect on quality traits of breeder Japanese quail eggs <p>The experiment explored the effect of age on the quality traits of breeder Japanese quail eggs. 204 eggs were sampled at 68 eggs/week in a Completely Randomised Design that involved 17-, 21- and 25-week-old quails. Data were analyzed with the one-way Analysis of Variance, Pearson Correlation and Best All-subset Regression Analyses in Minitab 18 at 5% significance level. Shell weight was significantly heavier (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.05) in the youngest quails than in the older groups. Albumen height and Haugh unit were significantly highest (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.05) in the 21-weekold quails. Egg weight associated positively and highly with egg length in the younger quails at weeks 17 and 21 but positively low in the oldest quails. Egg weight related positively and highly with egg width in the younger birds at 17 and 21 weeks. However, egg weight and egg width related moderately and positively in the 25-week-old quails. The overall best predictors of egg weight were egg length, egg width, albumen weight and yolk weight at <em>R<sup>2</sup></em> = 95.6% in the 17-week-old birds. Quality traits of breeder eggs and their relationships vary with layers age and quails that are 17 weeks old are most suitable for breeding purposes. However, management of breeder quails that are beyond 17 weeks old must be improved to enhance the quality of their eggs for hatching purposes.</p> F. Kruenti, M.A. Okai, V.K. Lamptey, G. Adu-Aboagye, A.D. Oduro-Owusu, B. Suurbesig, B. Mewu Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 28 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The influence of cropping system and soil amendment on the diversity and abundance of arthropods in cultivated cabbage and onion <p>Cabbage and onion are good sources of vitamins and minerals for humans and income to farmers and marketers. The current study sought to investigate the abundance of arthropods associated with cabbage, onion, and their intercrop under field conditions. These two crops were planted as sole and intercrop with different organic soil amendments during the major and minor rainy seasons of 2014 in the vertisols of the Accra Plains of Ghana. Insects on the two crops were counted weekly, in the sole crops and intercrop, and other arthropods were sampled from the topsoil around the crops, as well as catches from pitfall and yellow sticky traps placed in the vicinity of the crops. The highest abundance and diversity of arthropods occurred in the major than in the minor rainy season. Unexpectedly, the diversity indices revealed more diverse arthropods with high abundance occurring in sole onion than intercrop and sole cabbage. However, the intercrop had fewer incidence of pests (diamondback moth, whiteflies and cabbage webworm), and a high abundance of natural enemies. Organic soil amendment resulted in significantly higher diversity and abundance of soil arthropods, than unamended soil.</p> C.A. Oseifuah, K.O. Fening, K. Afreh-Nuamah, R.S. Anderson Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 28 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Efficacy and profitability of insecticides and crop management practices in the integrated management of <i>Leucinodes orbonalis</i> Guenée (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on garden eggs <p><em>Leucinodes orbonalis</em> is a key insect pest of garden eggs (<em>Solanum aethiopicum</em>) in Ghana. Generally, <em>L. orbonalis</em> is managed by the use of harmful pesticides, necessitating the development of strategies which are more environmentally benign. This study compared the effectiveness and profitability of using black plastic mulch (PM) to manage L. orbonalis incidence with chlorpyrifos-ethyl (C-ethyl) and emamectin benzoate (EB). The PM was laid before transplanting whilst C-ethyl and EB were applied fortnightly up to the fruiting stage. The incidence of <em>L. orbonalis</em> on shoots and fruits, the percentage of infested fruits, yield and gross margins of the treatments were determined. The incidence of plants with newly infested shoots between treatments across all treatment dates were not significant (<em>p</em> &gt; 0.05). Between 30.41% (PM+EB) and 94.49% (PM+C-ethyl) of fruits harvested showed signs of <em>L. orbonalis</em> infestation. Significant differences in the percentage of infested fruits between treatments were respectively observed at 12 (<em>p</em> = 0.021) and 16 (<em>p</em> = 0.035) weeks after transplanting. Plants from plots with EB as mixture (PM+EB) or sole (EB) treatment produced the highest yield advantage over the Control of 33.6% and 30.3%, respectively. Gross margin analysis indicated that the treatment of plants with EB was most profitable at peak price. At the least price obtainable, the use of all treatments particularly, PM was not profitable. Due to the possibility that movement of larvae between fields reduced the ability of PM to effectively suppress <em>L. orbonalis</em> populations, future work should evaluate the effect of PM using whole fields.</p> D.A. Kotey, A. Bosomtwe, J. Siamey, E. Acheampong, M.N. Bissah, R. Tetteh, V. Nketiah, E. Gyasi, E.D. Boamah, J. Bandanaa Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 28 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000