Some aspect of the physico-chemical and biological properties of Cross river, an inland water body in South-eastern Nigeria

  • SN Ochang Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Agriculture, Cross River University of Technology, Obubra Campus, PMB 102, Obubra, Cross River State, Nigeria
  • EO Ayotunde Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Agriculture, Cross River University of Technology, Obubra Campus, PMB 102, Obubra, Cross River State, Nigeria
  • IB Okey Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Agriculture, Cross River University of Technology, Obubra Campus, PMB 102, Obubra, Cross River State, Nigeria

Abstract

Some aspect of Physico-Chemical and Biological properties of Cross River was investigated once every month from May 2001-May 2002, measurements were made from the surface water at three locations, Ikot Okpora in Biase, Obubra, and Ikom. The temperature of the river varied from27.38±0.74°C at Ikot Okpora to 27.79 ± 0.49°C at Ikom, the highest temperature of 29.3°C was recorded in the month of December at Obubra, while the lowest temperature of 25.9oC was recorded at Ikot Okpora in March, The Biochemical oxygen demand fluctuate widely and varied from 1.23±0.35mg/l at Ikot Okpora to1.21 ±0.26mg/l at Ikom, the highest BOD of 1.80mg/l was recorded at Ikot Okpora, in the month of April, while the lowest BOD of 0.70mg/l was recorded at Ikom in May. The pH varied from 6.63 ± 0.31 at Ikot Okpora to 6.79±0.56 at Ikom, the highest pH of 7.89 was recorded at Ikom, in the month of September, while the lowest pH of 5.17 was recorded at Obubra in November. Dissolved oxygen concentration varied from 4.8±0.02 at Ikot Okpora to 5.02±0.50 at Ikom, the highest DO2 of 5.9mg/l was recorded at Ikom and Obubra, in the month of March and November respectively, while the lowest DO2 of 4.3mg/l was recorded at Ikom and Obubra in December and January respectively. The electrical conductivity varied from 69.13±18.37µS/cm at Ikot Okpora to 322.28 ±248.40µS/cm at Ikom, the highest Conductivity 710.4µS/cm was recorded at Ikom, in the month of February, while the lowest conductivity of 20.01µS/cm was recorded at Ikot Okpora in September. TSS varied from 18.62 ±6.12mg/l at Ikot Okpora to 39.85±23.66mg/l at Ikom, the highest TSS of 75.0mg/l was recorded at Ikom, in the month of November, while the lowest TSS of 11.0mg/l was recorded at Ikot Okpora in January. Turbidity varied from 20.31 ±5.31 FTU at Ikot Okpora to 21.12±14.31 FTU at Ikom, the highest turbidity of 29.0FTU, was obtained during June at Obubra, while the lowest of 10.0FTU occurred in Ikom in April, Total Alkalinity varied from100.68±22.93 at Ikot Okpora to 119.38± 27.05 at Ikom, the highest alkalinity of 181.0mg/l was obtained during February at Obubra, while the lowest of 10.8mg/l occurred at Ikom in June. Total hardness varied from 52.25 ± 18.92 at Ikot Okpora to 47.48 ± 23.02 at Ikom, the highest value of 91.06mg/l was recorded at Ikom in the month of March while the lowest value of 12.83mg/l was recorded at Ikot Okpora in the month of April. The river had high level of nutrients, phosphate varied from 0.11±0.08mg/l at Ikot Okpora to 0.202±0.13mg/l, the highest value of 0.362mg/l was recorded at Ikom in the month of September, while the lowest level of 0.006mg/l was recorded at the three stations in April. Nitrate varied from 0.37±0.39mg/l to at Ikot Okpora to 1.01±0.69mg/l the highest value of 3.14mg/l was recorded at Obubra in March, while the lowest value of 0.8mg/l was recorded at Biase in the month of June. Silicate varied from 1.60 ±0.71mg/l at Ikot Okpora to 2.39±1.38mg/l at Ikom, colour (89.0-247.0, 78.0-199.0, 87.0-287.0) mg/l, at Ikom, Obubra and Ikot Okpra respectively. The major ions fluctuate widely between February and May, highest value was recorded in February and lowest in May, Cacium varied from14.06±5.27 at Ikot Okpora to 24.28 ±4.0 at Ikom, the highest value of 30.78mg/l was recorded at Obubra during the month of February, while the smallest value of 9.17mg/l was recorded at Ikot Okpora during the month of May. Chloride varied from 24.77±0.0 at Ikot Okpora to 93.92 ±62.30mg/l at Ikom, the highest value of 40.65mg/l was recorded at Obubra during the month of January, while the smallest value of 10.65mg/l was recorded at Ikom during the month of May. Sulphate varied from4.53 ±0.0mg/l at Ikot Okpora to 10.54 ±9.78mg/l at Ikom, the highest value of 38.34mg/l was recorded at Ikom during the month of February, while the smallest value of 0.9mg/l was recorded at Ikom during the month of May. Ammonium varied from 0.42±0.14mg/l at Ikot Okpora to 0.84 ± 0.47mg/l at Ikom, the highest value of 1.89mg/l was recorded at Ikom during the month of July, while the smallest value of 0.287mg/l was recorded at Ikot Okpra during the month of April. Metal fluctuated widely in the river, Copper varied from 0.71 ±1.0mg/l at Ikot Okpora to 2.06±2.36mg/l at Ikom, the highest value of 6.28mg/l was recorded at Obubra during the month of February, while the smallest value of 0.02mg/l was recorded at Obubra during the month of April. Iron varied from 10.54 ±1.92mg/l at Ikot Okpora to 0.202±0.13mg/l at Ikom, the highest value of 13.15mg/l was recorded at Ikot Okpora during the month of February, while the smallest value of 0.196mg/l was recorded at Obubra during the month of April. Phytoplankton was represented by five families, Chlorophyceae, Dinophyceae, Cyannophyceae, and Chrysophyceae. Dictyosphaeriun sp in the family Chyptophyceae dominated the Phytoplankton with value of 17,780cells/ml at Obubra, 213,815cells/ml at Ikot Okpora and 295,185cells/ml at Ikom, and the lowest number recorded was Tetraedron sp with 580cells/ml at Obubra, 567cells/ml at Ikot Okpora, and 956cells/ml at Ikom. Zooplankton was dominated by ciliata, Tintinnopisis sp, with value of 4,65,00cells/ml, 2,500,650cells/ml, and 5,356,000cells/ml for Obubra, Ikot Okpora, and Ikom respectively and the Zooflagellate, Collodictyon tricilliatum with value of 2,330,000cells/ml, 678,000cells/ml, and 4,105,000cells/ml for Obubra, Ikot Okpora, and Ikom respectively, while the copepod,(Naupili). with value of 400cells/ml, 567cells/ml, 875cells/ml for Obubra, Ikot Okpora, and Ikom respectively represent the least zooplankton species, Ten bacterial species, Aeromonas sp., Vibrio sp., Acinetobacter sp., Moraxella sp., Streptococi sp., Corynebacterium sp., Bacillum sp., Neisseria sp., Pseudomonas sp, and Micrococcus sp., were enumerated . Corynebacterium sp and Vibrio sp are the most dominant species with value of 9.6x10104cells/ml each. Biase is the most endemic area.

Keywords: physico-chemical studies, biological studies, Cross River, inland water, Nigeria

Global Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol. 4(2) 2005: 139-158
Published
2006-04-24
Section
Articles

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eISSN: 1596-2903