Global Journal of Agricultural Sciences 2023-11-30T11:04:24+00:00 Prof. Barth N. Ekwueme Open Journal Systems <p><em>Global Journal of Agricultural Sciences</em> is aimed at promoting research in all areas of Agricultural Sciences including Animal Production, Fisheries, Agronomy, Processing and Agricultural Mechanization. Related topics in Biological Sciences will also be considered.</p> <p>Visit the Global Journal Series website here: <a href=""><span style="font-weight: 400;"></span></a></p> Evaluation of timber trees producing valuable fruits and seeds in cross river state 2023-08-22T12:31:28+00:00 Eric Offiong Daniel O Otu <p>The study assessed two rain forest reserves in Cross River State for timber trees producing economically valuable fruits and seeds. The reserves are Afi River and Oban West forest reserves. A total of 18 and 42 tree species were enumerated in Afi River and oban West respectively. In Afi River forest, Brachystegia eurycoma had the highest population of 5 per hectare while Canarium schweinfurtii, Dacroydes edulis, Garcinia kola, Irvingia gabonensis, Parkia bicolor, Pentaclethra macrophylla, Recinodendron heudelotii, Tetrapleura tetraptera and Vitex species had the least of 1 each per hectare. In Oban West forest reserve, Allanblakia floribunda had the highest population of 11 per hectare, while Brachystegia eurycoma, Chrisophyllum albidum, Recinodendron heudelotii, Tetrapleura tetraptera and Xylopia aethiopica had the least of 1 each per hectare. It is observed that most of the timber trees producing valuable fruits and seeds have low frequency of occurrence due to timber exploration thereby calling for their conservation and protection.</p> 2023-08-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Sustainable management of rainforest in cross river state, nigeria 2023-08-22T12:44:45+00:00 E E Offiong P B Ita <p>The study evaluate the matric models using trees stand parameters such as stem density, in-growth, rates of growth and mortality rate to predict the tree stand structure of the most complex tropical rainforest ecosystem in Cross River State, Nigeria. The model represented all tree species covering matrix for 6 years. The forest decline due to dominant eigenvalue (A) of the matrix R was 0.977, which is the intrinsic rate of natural increase with less than zero. A sensitivity analysis revealed that large recruitment rate of 87% was required to restore stability to the forest while only 16% improvement in growth rate would ensure sustenance and hence stabilized the forest.</p> 2023-08-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Inclusion of ecological sustainable development themes into agricultural extension education programme: content and delivery methods 2023-08-22T12:58:25+00:00 David Adie Alawa Azu Sunday Begianpuye Ibrahim Mohammed David Akpelishi Akem <p>The continuous adoption of unsustainable ecological practices by farmers on land resources threatens sustainable development in agricultural production. With increase in population and agricultural intensification, ecological problems such as erosion, deforestation, overgrazing, low yields of agricultural produce among others may be on the increase if farmers are not very conscious of their activities on land. This study determined the extent of inclusion of ecological sustainable development themes and methods used in teaching these content areas to farmers in the agricultural extension outreach programme of Cross River State. Two research questions were answered and two hypotheses were tested. The study adopted descriptive survey research design and was carried out in Cross River State with a sample of 250 comprising 180 registered farmers and 70 extension personnel. The researchers used mixed method of data collection involving quantitative and qualitative approaches. A 38-item structured questionnaire was used in collecting the quantitative data, while focused group discussions (FGD) and content analysis were used in generating qualitative data. The instrument was face validated by three experts and Cronbach Alpha reliability index of 0.84 was estimated. Out of 250 copies of questionnaire administered, 246 copies were retrieved and analyzed using mean, standard deviation and independent t-test statistic to answer the research questions and test the null hypotheses at p&gt;.05. The study found out that 15 ecological sustainable development themes were included as content areas into the agricultural extension outreach programme of Cross River State while only 7extension teaching methods out of 22 were used in teaching the farmers in the programme. It was recommended that Cross River Agricultural Development Programme should ensure that ESD themes not fully included into agricultural extension programme are integrated and taught to farmers while enabling conditions are made to facilitate individual contacts of extension personnel with farmers to reasonably convince them and prepare them for sustainable ecological resource use and conservation.</p> 2023-08-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 An Assessment Of The Potentials Of Artisanal Fisheries In Spearheading The Blue Economy Transformation In Zanzibar Islands 2023-09-25T12:42:04+00:00 Subira Muumin Ali Odass Bilame Deborah Ngusa <p>This article assesses the potentials of artisanal fisheries in spearheading the on-going Zanzibar blue economy transformation. It focuses on five artisanal fisheries potentials, adopted from the five livelihood assets of the Sustainable Livelihood Approach (SLA); financial, physical, natural, human and social. Data were drawn from 333 artisanal fishers in five Zanzibar villages using a cross-sectional research design. A questionnaire survey was employed to collect data and analysed using descriptive statistics of frequencies and percentages.&nbsp; Qualitative data were obtained through FGDs and direct observations and analysed thematically. The study results revealed that (96%) of fishers lacked access to loans to support their artisanal fisheries. Again, (54.65%) of fishers used canoe, which is one of the traditional and inefficient fishing vessels. Furthermore, (65.17%) of the fishers did not own the fishing vessels, however, majority of them (80.48%) owned fishing gears. The study also shows that there was low application of fishing technologies in artisanal fisheries. It further revealed that (79.88%) of the respondents had informal knowledge and skills which they inherited from their forefathers and (90.69%) of fishers were not attendants of any capacity building programmes organised either by governmental or non-governmental organisations, while, (58.86%) of the fishers sell their fish catches at their village market that lack modern fish preservation infrastructures. It also revealed that (77.78%) were non-members of fishers’ cooperatives. The study, therefore, recommends that the potentials of artisanal fisheries have to be improved and supported by governmental, non-governmental organisations, and other fisheries stakeholders to ensure sustainable spearheading of the exiting blue economy transformation in Zanzibar Islands.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> 2023-09-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 The effect of agricultural credit on cassava output and yield in nigeria. 2023-08-22T14:31:44+00:00 Timileyin Victoria Alabi Adegboyega Eyitayo Oguntade Reuben Adeolu Alabi <p>The broad objective of this study is the analysis of the long and short run effects of agricultural credit on cassava yield in Nigeria. The study applied descriptive statistics and autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) econometric) approach to the secondary data collected from Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin and FAOSTAT. The descriptive analysis shows that cassava output was increasing in Nigeria with decreasing trend in yield. It was revealed in the study that Roots and Tubers Expansion Programme (RTEP) has no significant effect on cassava production and yield. The result of the econometric analysis indicates that agricultural credit do not have significant long and short-run effects on cassava production and yield. This is because the real per capita agricultural credit is small. However, study indicates that fertilizer has long and short-run effects on cassava output but does not have a significant effect on cassava yield. This study also documented evidence of declined labour and land productivity on the long and short-run. The study reveals that ecessive rainfall can be detrimental to cassava production in the long and short-run. The study concludes that although, agricultural credit do not have significant long and short-run effects on cassava production and yield, it is positively correlated with agricultural inputs used in cassava production. The study recommended the need to address the decline in the real value of per capita credit by increasing the amount of credit given to the farmers. There is also the need to design more credit facilities suitable to the farmers. The current Anchor Borrowers programme should be designed to accommodate more resource-poor cassava farmers.</p> 2023-08-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 The potential of insects as alternative animal protein source for livestock feeding 2023-08-22T14:47:36+00:00 Tella Adetunmbi <p><sub>The livestock industry as an important component of general agriculture is a key contributor to economic growth and development of any nation. In addition to having the capacity for earning revenue for the governments, it provides employment, food, farm energy, manure, fuel and transport. Currently, important protein ingredients for animal feed are fish meal, processed animal proteins and soybean meal. However, in the European Union the use of processed animal proteins in animal feed is prohibited due to the TSE legislation, globally land availability for soya cultivation is limited, while marine overexploitation has reduced the abundance of small pelagic forage fish from which fish meal and fish oil is derived. The growing scarcity of resources to produce these increasingly demanded ingredients has doubled prices during the last five years, while it already represents 60-70% of production costs. So, alternative (animal) protein sources for livestock and aquaculture are urgently needed.<br>Insects are such an alternative animal protein source, which can sustainably reared on organic side streams. Reasons are that they have a favorable feed conversion efficiency, likely because they are cold-blooded. Insects contain between 30% and 70% protein on a dry matter basis. The protein content of the insect species is within the soybean/fish meal range and fat content is higher especially compared to (defatted) soybean meal. This review, however highlighted the environmental, health, livelihood and social benefits of insects. Recent efforts in feeding livestock, challenges limiting the use of insects as feed ingredients and moreover, the strategies for commercial production of insects as feed ingredients just to mention a few of the potentials of using insects for feeding livestock.</sub></p> 2023-08-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Production Returns Of Cassava-Turmeric Inter-Cropping System In Calabar, Southern Nigeria 2023-11-08T11:21:50+00:00 Francis A Nwagwu Okechukwu C Umunnakwe Thomas O Ojikpong Lawrence I Omadewu Emmanuel A Awelewa <p>Field experiments were conducted in the 2019 and 2020 early cropping seasons at the University of Calabar Teaching and Research Farm, Calabar, Nigeria, to assess the profitability of inter-cropping cassava with turmeric. There were seven treatments: sole cassava, sole turmeric, cassava intercropped with turmeric at 66,666; 50,000; 40,000; 35,714 and 28,571 turmeric plants/ha, laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) and replicated three times. The cost implication of the technology was analyzed by computing the production cost, gross income, gross margin, benefit/cost ratio and percentage net returns of each treatment. Results showed that maximum cost was incurred by cultivating cassava with the highest turmeric density of 66,666 turmeric plants/ha (30 cm x 50 cm spacing of turmeric). The lowest average percentage net return of 29.34 % was obtained from sole turmeric treatment plot. The inter-crop mixture with the lowest turmeric population density of 28,571 plants/ha produced the highest percentage net return of 62.78 % on the 2 year- average, and could therefore be recommended for optimum cassava/turmeric intercrop produc</p> 2023-11-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Analysis Of Training Needs Of Agricultural Extension Workers On Agroforestry In Cross River State, Nigeria 2023-08-22T15:19:37+00:00 Eremi E Ohara Hilda C Eta Eremi T Ohara Evey M Hichiegeri <p>This study examined the training needs of agricultural extension workers on agroforestry in Cross River State. The study was specifically aimed at ascertaining the types of agroforestry systems practiced in the state, determining extension workers’ level of knowledge of the various agroforestry practices, determining the areas of training required by extension workers on agroforestry and ascertaining the challenges hampering extension workers’ active involvement in agroforestry activities. The area of the study was Cross River State, and the study sample consisted of 66 purposively selected extension workers in the state. Data were obtained using a validated semi-structured questionnaire and analyzed using the mean, standard deviation, percentages and binary logistic regression. The results revealed that snail farming (ranked = 1st), shelter belt/windbreak (ranked = 2nd) and aquaforestry (ranked = 3rd) etc were some of the most popular agroforestry practices in the area. It was also observed that extension workers in the state were very conversant with taungya farming (66.7%), improved fallow/shifting cultivation (74.1%) and shelter belt/windbreak (70.4%) among other agroforestry practices, but not too conversant with alley cropping, aquaforestry and integrated taungya farming. The results further showed that extension workers needed training in various areas of agroforesy practices, including effective communication skills, technical knowledge/skills, ecosystem management, start-up procedures and processing operations, and policy formation etc. However, the study noted that extension workers faced funding, training, manpower shortages and lack of government support challenges among others in participating in agroforestry. The study recommended the provision of agroforesty training to extension workers, improved government funding of extension services and increase in monthly salaries and special allowances for extension workers among others.</p> 2023-08-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Bioaccummulation and health risk assessment of some potentially toxic elements in crops from farms round granite quarry sites in ibadan southwestern nigeria 2023-08-22T15:30:18+00:00 O O Akintola O O Akinola M Smart F M Jayeoba A R Falana <p>Potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in food crops have significant apprehension in the environment because of their impending human health risks. This study thus assessed PTEs concentrations in soils and crops from farmlands around quarry sites, quantifies their level of uptake by the crops and their potential health risks to human. Collection of Soil and crop (Dioscorea alata, Colocasia esculenta and Manihot esculenta ) samples were done and analysed for Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr, Co, Ni and Cd using suitable instrumentation methods Data were evaluated using accumulation factor (AF), calculated daily intakes (CDI), target hazard quotent (THQ) and hazard index (HI). Farmlands soils that are closer to studied sites had higher PTEs concentrations than those that are farther away. Mean PTEs concentrations in the crops were in the order of Dioscorea alata &gt; Colocasia esculenta &gt; Manihot esculenta. Mean values of AF are less than one indicating low potential PTEs accumulation in the crops. The mean CDI in mg/kg/day of PTEs in crops for children and adults were 0.0001 -0.060 while THQ values are in order Pb&gt; Mn&gt;Cu&gt; Cd&gt;Ni&gt; Co&gt;Fe &gt;Zn&gt;Cr. Hazard index (HI) is greater than one in all the crops from the farmlands closer to quarry sites, indicating risk upon consumption. Thus, necessary remediation methods should be taken to reduce the effect of these PTEs on the environment.</p> 2023-08-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Effect Of Women Participation In Artisanal Fishing On Their Socio-Economic Well-Being In Coastal Communities In Cross River State, Nigeria 2023-10-23T10:49:26+00:00 Eremi Emmanuel Ohara Idiku Friday Ogar Aya Comfort Felix Ita Okokon Okon <p>This study examined the effect of women participation in artisanal fishing on their Socio- economic well-being in coastal communities in Cross River State, Nigeria. The study focused specifically on the socio-economic characteristics of women artisanal fish farmers, areas of women participation in artisanal fishing, and effect of women participation in artisanal fishing on their socio-economic well-being. The population of the study comprised all rural women in the coastal communities, who are involved in artisanal fishing activities. The sample was drawn from the population of the study using simple random sampling techniques. A total of 200 respondents were used for the study. Data were collected using a semi-structured interview schedule, and analyzed using the mean, ranking, percentages and ordered probit regression model. Results of analysis indicated that 66% of the women were between the ages of 20-40 years, 39.5% of them attended secondary school, 60% of the women had 3-6 children and about 58% of them were married. Women were also involved in a wide range of areas of artisanal fishing, including fish catch, unloading of fish from canoes, fish processing and carrying and repair of fish gear etc. The study found that women participation in artisanal fishing enabled them to have more money (ranked = 1<sup>st</sup>), do not lack money again (ranked=2<sup>nd</sup> ),allowed them to build their own houses (ranked = 3<sup>rd</sup>) and&nbsp; enhanced their capacities to contribute donations to charities (ranked = 4<sup>th</sup>)&nbsp; among others. The result of probit analysis revealed that women participation in artisanal fishing was determined by their level of education, credit facilities, age, cultural/religious variables, and family factors etc. The study recommended that government should provide credit facilities in form of grants to rural women involved in artisanal fishing and provide basic training in terms of safety protocol, preservation and processing of fish.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2023-10-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Effects Of Lime And Poultry Manure On Soil Properties And Cucumber (Cucumis Sativum L) Performance In The Humid Tropics Of Southern Nigeria 2023-11-30T11:04:24+00:00 Joyce F Akpan Okechukwu C Umunnakwe Lawrence I Omadewu <p>Purpose: To investigate the effect of lime and organic fertilizer on soil properties and the performance of cucumber in Calabar.</p> <p>Method: Factorial combination of three levels of lime (0, 4 and 8 t/ha) and three levels of poultry manure (0, 3 and 6 t/ha), laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. Data were collected on crop growth and yield indices, and soil properties (physical, chemical and biological) each year, then combined and analyzed. Fisher’s least significant difference (FLSD) at 5 % probability was used to compare the means.</p> <p>Results: There was increase in soil pH, total nitrogen, organic carbon, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium as well as the population of beneficial soil microorganisms. Lime, poultry manure (PM) and their interactions significantly (p &lt;.0. 05) influenced the vegetative growth and fruit yield of cucumber. Cucumber treated with 8 t/ha lime had the highest vegetative growth and fruit yield (22.64 t/ha) values. Cucumber treated with 6 t/ha PM had superior growth and fruit yield (17.89 t/ha) than the control (14.27 t/ha). The interaction of 8 t/ha lime and 6 t/ha PM produced the highest values of vegetative growth and fruit yield of 25.66 t/ha and is therefore recommended for effective soil enhancement and optimum cucumber production in Calabar.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2023-11-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023