Global Journal of Agricultural Sciences <p><em>Global Journal of Agricultural Sciences</em> is aimed at promoting research in all areas of Agricultural Sciences including Animal Production, Fisheries, Agronomy, Processing and Agricultural Mechanization. Related topics in Biological Sciences will also be considered.</p><p>Visit the Global Journal Series website here: <a title="" href="" target="_blank"></a></p> Global Journal Series en-US Global Journal of Agricultural Sciences 1596-2903 <span>©</span> 2018. This work is licensed under the creative commons Attribution 4.0 International license. Analysis of the profitability of micro broiler enterprises in Calabar Metropolis, Cross River State <p>This study was undertaken to evaluate the profitability micro broiler businesses in Calabar metropolis. The specific objectives of the study were to evaluate the profitability of micro broiler enterprises in Calabar metropolis, analyses selected factors which affects the profitability of micro broiler enterprises and to identify the constraints faced by micro broiler enterprises in Calabar metropolis. It made use of primary data obtained from a random sample of 112 micro broiler operators. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, profitability ratios, cost and return analysis and Ordinary Least Square Multiple regression approach. The cost and returns analysis showed that the total variable cost of production per cycle amounted to <span style="text-decoration: line-through;">N</span>45,931,670.00 with cost of feed contributing 60.11 percent to the total cost. Total production cost per bird was <span style="text-decoration: line-through;">N</span>1,213.77 and total revenue per bird was <span style="text-decoration: line-through;">N</span>1,862.39, showing a gross margin of &nbsp;<span style="text-decoration: line-through;">N</span>684.96 and a net income of <span style="text-decoration: line-through;">N</span>648.62 per bird produced. The rate of return on sales (0.35), rate of return on investment (0.53), rate of return on variable cost (1.55) and operating ratio (0.63) all show that micro broiler business in Calabar metropolis was profitable. Output of broiler (flock size) (p&lt;0.01), cost of day old chicks (p&lt;0.05), and transportation fare (p&lt;0.1) were significant to the variation in maximum variable profit. The most dominant constraints identified in the study included; inflationary/recessionary trends, high cost of inputs, poor access to credit, high competition and disease/pest in that order. The study recommended that micro broiler operators should organize themselves into cooperative societies to enable them enjoy the benefits of economies of size and credit facilities from lending agencies.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Profitability, enterprises, micro, broiler, cost and returns</p> Joseph Ugah Ukpabuku Susana Ben Ohen Copyright (c) 2020-04-02 2020-04-02 19 1 1 9 10.4314/gjass.v19i1.1 Factors affecting entrepreneurship development among the food marketers in Ilorin Metropolis, Kwara State, Nigeria <p>The study assessed the factors affecting entrepreneurship development among Food Marketers in Ilorin Metropolis, Kwara State, Nigeria. One hundred and ten respondents were randomly selected in four markets in Ilorin. The data was analyzed using frequency count, percentage, mean and Pearson Product Moment Correlation. The result reveals that mean age of the respondents was 30.5 years and about 58.2% were female. Record keeping skills (mean score =2.42) was the highest ranked entrepreneurial information needs of the respondents while lack of start-up capital (mean score =2.40) was the most severe factor affecting entrepreneurial activities of food marketers. There is a weak positive significant relationship between the entrepreneurial information needs and factors affecting entrepreneurial development of the respondents (r=0.407, p=0.0001). The study recommends that there should be provision of training on entrepreneurial skills based on the identified areas of needs and there should be provision of credit facilities to the food marketers as these will enhance their productivity.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Entrepreneurial Development, Factors, Information Needs, Food Marketers, Ilorin Metropolis</p> J.O. Ifabiyi I.K. Banjoko S.A. Ahmed S.W. Lawal M.A. Isiaka O Awarun Copyright (c) 2020-04-02 2020-04-02 19 1 11 15 10.4314/gjass.v19i1.2 Assessment of growth performance of African catfish (Clariasgariepinus) fed with feed produced from blend of pigeon pea (<i>Cajanuscajan</i>) bambara groundnut (<i>Vignasubterranea</i>) and fish meal <p>A 3-factor -factorial experiment (<strong>2</strong><sup><strong>K</strong></sup>) was designed to produce fish feeds from mixture of pigeon pea, bambara groundnut and fish meal as major ingredients, while maize, red palm oil, salt and micro nutrient pre-mix were added as minor ingredients. The raw materials were processed into flours. The ingredients were weighed out in various ratios and mixed. The mixture was extruded; sun-dried and packaged and labeled F1-F8 and a commercial feed labeled F9 served as control. The feeds were feed to juvenile <em>Clariasgariepinus </em>kept in 9 separate plastic bowels and fed for 42 days. The forty-five fish of uniform weight and age were grouped into 9 and stocked in the nine artificial ponds, each pond contained five fish<em>.</em> The feeds were analyzed for proximate composition, while the growth performance of the fish was evaluated at the end of the feeding period. Result showed that F3 (20g pigeon pea, 20g Bambara ground nut and 16g fish meal) contains the highest protein (33.14 %) and F1(20g pigeon pea, 30g bambara ground nut and 16g fish meal) the least (23.13 %). F3 exhibited the highest specific growth rate (1.14 %) followed by the F9 (control) which contains 1.09%. The highest weight gain (16 g) was observed in the fish fed the control feed. However, F3 and F4 (20g pigeon pea, 30g bambara ground nut and 18g fish meal) ranked next to the control with respect to growth performance. It is therefore possible to produce quality catfish feed from bend of pigeon pea, Bambara ground nut and fish meal.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> catfish, fish feed, bambara groundnut, pigeon pea, fish meal</p> C.N. Ishiwu A.G. Opara J.E. Obiegbuna P.A. Okeke Copyright (c) 2020-04-02 2020-04-02 19 1 17 26 10.4314/gjass.v19i1.3 Impact of palm oil mill effluent (POME) on the populations of rhizobium and meloidogyne species in Awka, Nigeria <p>The impact of palm oil mill effluent (POME) on the populations of Rhizobium and Meloidogyne species was tested at the Teaching and Research Farm of Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka, Nigeria. Three cowpea cultivars ,Dan Kano, Borno local and Sokoto local were used as target crops on plots that received 0 l/ha(control),4000l/ha,6000l/ha and 8000l/ha levels of&nbsp; POME applications. The&nbsp; treatments combinations were randomized&nbsp; within each block and replicated three times. Generally, increasing level of POME application increased number of functional root nodules in all the cultivars, but decreased length of roots and number of non- functional nodules. Nematode populations drastically decreased with increase in POME quantities. Both Rhizobium and Meloidogyne species compete for establishment sites on cowpea roots and high POME rates decreased Nematode population which is why all the three cowpea cultivars had their highest yields at 8000l/ha&nbsp; POME application&nbsp; rate. So POME, an organic waste from oil palm processing can be used at up to 8000l/ha to effectively control obnoxious root knot nematode and enrich soil for crop cultivation especially Sokoto local cowpea cultivar.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>POME (palm oil mill effluent), Rhizobium, Meloidogyne liters/hectare, cowpea cultivars</p> Henry Okolie Chukwuemeka Ekwuribe Eucharia Obidiebube Chiamakai Obasi Copyright (c) 2020-04-02 2020-04-02 19 1 27 32 10.4314/gjass.v19i1.4 Genesis and classification of soils along a toposequence in the teaching and research farm of Taraba State University, Jalingo, Nigeria <p>Investigations were made to reflect the genesis and classification of soils along a toposequence in the Teaching and Research farm of Taraba State University. The topographic map of the farm was developed in the ArcGIS 10.8 environment and a profile graph plotted out. One profile pit was sunk in each elevation range to represent soils in the summit, shoulder, back slope, foot slope and toe slope positions using the free survey approach. The soils were deep, well drained and generally described as A, B, C soils with extensive B horizons that showed clear illuviation of clay and sesquioxides. The soils were brown (7.5YR 3/4), dark brown (10YR 3/3) and dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/6) in the surface and dominated by sand with bulk density values that exceeded 1.5 Mg/m<sup>3</sup>. Soil pH values were moderately acid to neutral while organic C and exchangeable bases were low in all but foot slope position where high values of organic carbon were obtained in the surface soils. The content of dithionite and oxalate Fe and Al, and their derivatives indicate intense weathering condition of the soils as well as their combined movement with clay to endopedons. However, moderately high CEC and the likely presence of montmorillonite (via CECE/clay) are indications that the soils had good potentials for agriculture. Among the soil forming processes in the area were mineralization, eluviation-illuviation as well as ferritization. The soils were classified as Typic Rhodustults (Pretic Acrisols), Arenic Haplustults (Chromic Acrisols) and Paleustults (Haplic Acrisols).</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> pedogenesis, sesquioxides, classification, Basement Complex</p> P.K. Kefas S Ali K.I. Ofem C.P. Umeugokwe Copyright (c) 2020-04-02 2020-04-02 19 1 33 43 10.4314/gjass.v19i1.5 Assessment of adoption and utilisation of superior rice germplasm by smallholder farmers in four rice producing zones of Nigeria <p>Conservation and sustainable use of plant genetic resources is essential to the sustainable development of agricultural production and rural in production zones in Nigeria. This study, therefore investigated the utilisation of recently released superior rice germplasm among smallholder farmers in Nigeria. A post- crop varietal release impact assessment was conducted in Oyo, Ekiti, Kwara and Ebonyi states of Nigeria in 2019. Structured questionnaires were administered to 120 farmers using a simple random sampling technique. Result from the study revealed that rice<br>farmers are mainly males, middle aged, married, with some form of education. They have medium (3-6 household member) household size with longer years of farming experiences. Inadequate capital and limited credit facilities, plant disease, birds and insect infestation are the major constraints encountered by the farmers. Result of the correlation analysis shows that there was no significant relationship between sources of planting materials and frequently planted varieties (r = 0.100 and p = 0.786). However, there was significant relationship between production&nbsp; constraints and frequently planted varieties (r = 0.010 and p = 0.648). It is recommended that more channels of credit facilities should be provided to rice farmers by governments at various levels to improve their level productivity.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Rice, adoption, genetic resources, utilisation, smallholder farmers</p> O. Alamu S.E. Aladele A.U. Okere S.O. Osewa M.R. Olubiyi M. Lee O.B. Jolaiya O.K. Hassan Copyright (c) 2020-07-01 2020-07-01 19 1 45 49 10.4314/gjass.v19i1.6 Population dynamics of <I>Mormyrus rume</I> (Valenciennes, 1847; Osteoglossiformes; Mormyridae) Of Ikere-Gorge, Iseyin, Oyo State, Nigeria <p>The structure of a fish population is determined by the equilibrium between growth, recruitment and total mortality. But, there is paucity of information on the growth and mortality of Mormyrus rume in Nigeria. Therefore this study is needful to determine its population parameters, with a view of evolving management strategies for its sustainable exploitation. Estimates of population parameters of Mormyrus rume were obtained from length-frequency data of 836 individuals collected monthly for a period of 24 months from January 2017 to December 2018. The estimated growth parameters were: asymptotic length (L∞) was 100.8cm; growth coefficient (K) was 0.62/year; growth performance (Ɵ) was 3.8; length at maturity (Lm) was 52.57cm; reproductive load (Lm/L∞) was 0.52 and optimum length (Lopt) was 65.10cm. Likewise, natural, fishing and total mortalities were 0.93, 1.46 and 2.39 respectively. The values of exploitation rate (0.61) and ratio of total mortality and growth coefficient (3.85) showed that <em>Mormyrus rume</em> is most exploited in Ikere-gorge. Therefore, appropriate fishing regulations should be enforced to regulate fishing gears and mesh size that will fish Mormyrus rume at sustainable level.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Recruitment, mortality, growth, exploitation, length</p> Stephen O. Ajagbe Folashade. F. Ojo-fakuade Copyright (c) 2020-07-01 2020-07-01 19 1 51 57 10.4314/gjass.v19i1.7 Credit rationing by deposit money banks and implication on agricultural output in Nigeria <p>The study examined the effects of credit rationing by deposit money banks on the performance of agriculture in Nigeria using secondary data&nbsp; between 1981 and 2016 obtained from the CBN Statistical bulletin. The study applied both Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) and Phillips-Perron (PP) unit root test to determine the order of integration of each variable, Johansen cointegration and Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) were employed to determine if there is a long run, the short-run relationship between credit rationing and agricultural output. The result showed that all the variables were integrated of order one. The results revealed that credit rationed for fishery has a short-run significant impact on agricultural output while credit rationed for cash crops, food crops, and livestock do not have a significant short-run impact on agricultural output. The findings further revealed that credit rationed for cash crops and livestock farming significantly decline agricultural output to the tune of 26.48% and 75.87% in the long run while credit rationed for food crops and fishery significantly result in 43.52% and 41.89% rise in agricultural output in the long run. Therefore, the study recommends the establishment of special financial institutional to give unconditional loans to farmers, raise credit rationing for food crop production above the current ceiling, and emphasis should be on exchange rate liberalization policy that will shift consumption from imported agricultural produce to local agricultural produce. These measures will promote farmers’ access to funding which will invariably translate&nbsp; to a rise in agricultural output.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Credit, Rationing, Money Deposit Bank, Agriculture, Output, Nigeria </p> P.N. Egwu Bernard E Nnabu B.N. Mbam S.U. Nwibo Copyright (c) 2020-10-30 2020-10-30 19 1 59 69 10.4314/gjass.v19i1.8 Ecology and population dynamics of silver catfish, <I>Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus</I> (Siluriformes: Claroteidae), of the Cross River, Nigeria <p>Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus forms the most commercially important freshwater single species fishery in the Cross River, Nigeria. Studies were&nbsp; conducted on the dynamics of the exploited population of the species and the influence of rainfall on its catch rate. The objectives were to assess the level of exploitation and impacts of rainfall on its catch rate. A time series of length frequency and meteorological parameters was conducted. Length frequency data were analyzed using FiSAT software to estimate population parameters. The asymptotic length, Lı was 105 cm, growth constant (K) was 0.68 year<sup>-1</sup>, total mortality (Z) was 2.48 year<sup>-1</sup>, Natural mortality (M) was 0.99 year<sup>-1</sup> and fishing mortality (F) was 1.49 year<sup>-1</sup>. The exploitation rate was 0.60 year<sup>-1</sup>, indicating overfishing. Natural mortality accounted 40% of the total mortality, presenting a worrisome trend in the fishery. There was a correlation between rainfall and catch rate, which increased at the onset of rains but decreased at the peak of the rains due to increased depth of the river. For management purposes, it is recommended that the fishing effort should be reduced by the regulation of the number of boat-days; for conservation, domestication of the species should be adopted as an adaptation to climatic influence.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Freshwater Catfish, Fishing Mortality, Exploitation Rate, Overfishing, Rainfall Impact, Niger Delta. </p> Daniel Ama-Abasi Edak Aniedi Uyoh Copyright (c) 2020-10-30 2020-10-30 19 1 71 82 10.4314/gjass.v19i1.9