Global Journal of Agricultural Sciences <p><em>Global Journal of Agricultural Sciences</em> is aimed at promoting research in all areas of Agricultural Sciences including Animal Production, Fisheries, Agronomy, Processing and Agricultural Mechanization. Related topics in Biological Sciences will also be considered.</p><p>Visit the Global Journal Series website here: <a title="" href="" target="_blank"></a></p> en-US <span>©</span> 2018. This work is licensed under the creative commons Attribution 4.0 International license. (Prof Barth N Ekueme) (Prof Barth N Ekueme) Thu, 25 Aug 2022 23:49:35 +0000 OJS 60 Resource use in sweet potato production in delta state, nigeria: a technical efficiency approach <p>Sweet potato is one of the major staple crops in Nigeria and most parts Africa sub-region. Its importance continues to rise due to increased urbanization. This increase definitely come with its share of challenges that need to be addressed. The study was conducted within the framework of the rural farming households who constitute the backbone of the Nigerian agricultural sector, producing about 80 per cent of the total national agricultural output. It examined resource use in sweet potato production in Delta state, Nigeria. The specific objectives are to determine the technical efficiency of sweet potato farmers, assess the factors determining the technical efficiency of potato farmers and to determine the technical efficiency distribution of sweet potato farmers. Multi-stage random sampling technique was adopted to select 120 respondents and stochastic frontier production function employed to realize the objectives. Result of analysis showed that the least technically efficient farmers have to increase their level of production given their inputs and technology to at least 68 % for them to operate at the production frontier while the most technically efficient farmers have to increase their production to at least by 4% for them to operate on the production frontier and be fully efficient with a mean technical efficiency of 0.71. The estimates of the parameters of the production function (sweet potato seeds, labour, fertilizers and agrochemical) were positive and significant at 5% and 1% levels respectively, while capital input was positive and not significant. <strong>&nbsp;</strong>Factors affecting technical inefficiency of sweet potato farmers among others included: age of farmers and farm size which were negative and significant, while household size, educational qualification, type of cropping and farming experience were all positive and significant. The following recommendations were proffered: sweet potato farmers should have access to improved sweet potato varieties, modern storage technologies, markets and extension services. Adequate financial assistance and credit facilities should also be made available to the sweet potato farmers to enable them expand their crop output.</p> Ettah, Otu I, Udumo, Bassey O., , Abanyam, Victor A., , Bullem Francis A., Copyright (c) Thu, 25 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of agricultural policy regimes on the output of food crops in nigeria (1980 – 2015) <p>The study evaluated the impact of agricultural policy regimes on the output of food crops in Nigeria (1980-2015). The specific objective was to; determine the growth rate of selected crop output. Time series data were used for the study. Data used in the study were obtained from Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) crop production database for&nbsp; Nigeria, covering the period 1980-2015, and was analyzed using&nbsp; both descriptive and inferential statistics. Growth model was used to examine the trend in selected crop output. The study showed that the compound growth rates for all the crops were positive; cassava (4.92%), cocoa (2.61%), maize (5.84%), palm oil (2.84%) and rice (4.15%). This implies that there was a moderate increase in the output of the selected crops over the years. The compound growth rate in the output of maize among the crops considered was highest (5.84 % per annum) followed by cassava and was slow in cocoa with a compound growth rate of 2.61 % per annum. This result suggests that among the crops considered, maize is witnessing appreciable increase in production. The result specifically leads to the conclusion that output of cassava and rice had a direct influence on GDP growth in Nigeria from 1980 to 2015. The study therefore recommends that, the slow process of growth (deceleration) in the output of cassava, cocoa, maize and rice could be enhanced by the use of improved extension services and provision of input supports to the farmers involved in the cultivation of these crops.</p> Agbachom Emmanuel, , Ajigo Ikutal, , David Adie Alawa, Onabe Maria, , Ettah Otu, , Regina Ado Anoh, Copyright (c) Thu, 25 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Improving global foods system, human health, and alleviating poverty through small ruminant production: the nigerian gains <p>Small ruminant has great potential in enhancing the global food system, improving human health, and alleviating poverty.&nbsp; Nevertheless, on average, small ruminant production has not been able to keep pace with the overall food demand globally. Meaning that without drastic action, the world food crisis will continue to persist and many people around the world will continue to live in abject poverty. To avert this ongoing phenomenon, this paper examines how the global food system and human health can be improved and poverty alleviated through small ruminant production; and how Nigeria will benefit from it. To properly articulate the theme of this paper, the discussion will focus on what small ruminant animals are; their benefits and constrain; the global food system, small ruminant production and its relation to human health and poverty eradication, efforts at improving small ruminant production and how this will have an impact on the Nigerian economy. Furthermore, the paper provides recommendations for the improvement of small ruminant production in Nigeria</p> Tella, Adetunmbi, C .A. Chineke Copyright (c) Thu, 25 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Comparative evaluation of partial replacement of soybean meal with raw and oven-dried cassia tora seedmeal on the performance of broiler chickens <p>This study was conducted to comparatively evaluate partial replacement of soybean meal with raw and oven-dried <em>Cassia tora</em> seed meal (CTSM) on the performance of broiler chickens. An eight-week feeding trial involving two hundred and eighty eight (288), day-old chicks purchased from a reputable chick dealer in Uyo Metropolis was used for the study. Four experimental diets each of raw and oven-dried CTSM was formulated such that diets 1, 2, 3, and 4 contained 0%, 5%, 10%, and 15% CTSM respectively. The birds were randomly assigned to the eight dietary treatments of 36 birds each. A treatment was replicated thrice, with 12 birds per replicate in a completely randomized design (CRD). The parameters evaluated were body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio and blood parameters. Data obtained were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA), using SPSS version 20. The results showed that the dietary treatments significantly influenced the growth indices. Weight gain was highest at 10% inclusion of raw CTSM and also at 15% inclusion of oven-dried CTSM. Feed intake response was highest at 10% inclusion of raw CTSM and 15% inclusion of oven-dried CTSM while feed conversion ratio (FCR) was greatly improved at these inclusion levels. The inclusion of raw and oven-dried CTSM at 10% and 15% respectively did not adversely affect carcass qualities and organs. Inclusion of raw CTSM up to 15% adversely affected carcass quality and haematological parameters. Also, haematological parameters of broiler chicken were best at 10% and 15% inclusion of raw and oven-dried CTSM respectively. When all parameters were considered, performance of broiler chickens was best at 10% inclusion of raw CTSM and 15% inclusion of oven-dried CTSM. It is therefore recommended that raw CTSM can only be incorporated into the diets of broiler chickens up to 10% without any detrimental effect. But oven-dried CTSM can be incorporated up to 15% without any detrimental effect.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Ndak, U. U., , Usoro, O. O., , Christopher, G. I., , Okonkwo, A. C., , Ekette, I. E., Copyright (c) Thu, 25 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Effectiveness of use of information and communication technologies (icts) by extension agents and arable crop farmers in ido loal government area, oyo state, nigeria <p>The study was undertaken to ascertain effectiveness of use of ICTs by extension agents and arable crop farmers in Ido local government area Oyo State. Multiple stage sampling procedure was used to select 105 respondents for the study. Data were collected from the respondents through the use of structured questionnaire.. Descriptive statistics such as; mean, frequency table, and percentage were used to analysed data while inferential statistical tools such as Chi-square and Pearson Product Moment correlation (PPMC) were used to tested the hypotheses of the study. The result of the study showed that majority of the respondents were in the age bracket of 31-40 years, which could be categorized as adults, and more of them were males, while majority of them were married. Result revealed the level of ICTs used by extension agents for arable crop farmers were radio (97.1%), mobile phone (92.4%) and internet (81.9%).The result further shows major constraints militating the effectiveness of use of ICTs were network problem in the study area. There is no significant relationship between constraint and level of ICTs used by the arable crops farmer in the study area. It is therefore recommended that government should ensure that farmers should have access to and use ICTs by putting policies in place to ensure all rural area have access to ICTs tools ,also&nbsp; awareness on the use of ICTs should be intensify among arable crop farmers.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Olayemi, O. O., , Odeyale, O. C., , Ogunsola, J. O., Tunde-Francis, A. A., , Olawale, O. O., , Ogunlana, E. A., Copyright (c) Thu, 25 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Farmers’ utilization of improved rice production technologies in ebonyi state, nigeria <p>The study assessed farmers’ utilization of improved rice production technologies in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Both random and purposive sampling techniques were used in the selection of 140 respondents for the study who were administered with a structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as frequency, mean scores, and inferential statistics of principal factor analysis. The study shows that farmers are highly aware of existing improved rice production technologies. The most utilized rice production technologies by farmers in the area include use of improved rice varieties (), fertilizer application (), use of agrochemicals (), modern rice milling equipment () and timely transplanting and use of standard depths and spaces (). The major constraints to farmers’ utilization of improved rice production technologies in the study area are administrative, individual, environmental, financial and technical constraints. The study recommends that extension organisations should rejig their extension delivery system to ensure timely dissemination of information on improved rice production technologies to farmers; and farmers should organize themselves into cooperative organization to enhance their access to credit for procurement of modern rice storage and processing facilities.</p> Ezeh, A. N., , Enyigwe, J. O., , Egwu, P. N., Copyright (c) Thu, 25 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Biocidal effects of dennettia tripetala, zingiber officinale and benlate on seedborne fungal pathogen (fusarium moniliforme) of watermelon (citrullus lanatus) varieties. <p>This study was carried out to investigate the effect of plant extracts, African pepper fruit (<em>Dennettia tripetala) </em>and Ginger (<em>Zingiber officinale)</em> on seed borne fungal pathogens of Watermelon <em>(Citrullus lanatas)</em> seeds. Watermelon seeds were extracted for seed health test using blotter paper method. The antifungal effects of ethanol and acetone extracts of the two plant extracts and synthetic fungicide were studied under in- vitro experiment against the seed borne fungal pathogen of Watermelon at 0%, 50% and 75%. It was a 3x3 factorial experiment at 5% Probability level laid out in a Completely Randomized Design experiment with three replications Ninety percent germination was obtained in the germination and seed health test of Watermelon seeds. Seed borne fungal pathogen (<em>Aspergillus</em> <em>spp. </em>and<em> Fusarium spp</em>.) were identified. The potential of these organisms for pathogenicity were tested using Kock’s postulate. The result of the pathogenicity test showed that <em>Fusarium spp</em>. was pathogenic. All plant extracts and Benlate inhibited the fungus (<em>Fusarium moniliforme</em>) in culture. The inhibition was also greater as concentration increased from 50% to 75%.&nbsp; It was also observed that ethanol extraction solvent did better than acetone. Generally, <em>Dennettia tripetala </em>extract performed better than <em>Zingiber officinale. </em>It could therefore be recommended that the two plant extracts used in this investigation which were very effective in the control of <em>Fusarium moniliforme</em> of watermelon could be an alternative to the synthetic fungicide. It could also be suggested that further studies be carried out to isolate, identify, characterize and standardize the bioactive components of these phytochemicals in a bid to commercializing their production.</p> Iwuagwu, Christian C., , Ndife Bernadine E.,, Aguwa, Uwaoma O., Iheaturu, Donald E., , Apalowo, Oluropo A., , Ejiofor, Mary-Geraldine E, Iwu, Doris C., Copyright (c) Thu, 25 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Yard wastes generation, management and utilization in nigeria <p>Yard waste is a major constituent of municipal solid waste (MSW) that contain elements that can be used by microorganisms during biological degradation of MSW but whose economic values are less than the cost of collection, transportation, and processing for beneficial use. It is generated from the gardens, plant nurseries, road sweepings, and so on. Yard waste generation is inevitable in any society, and it is clear that rapid urbanization has resulted in significantly more yard waste generation than previously. Gardening is common in communities, whether rural and urban, resulting in garden wastes such as leaves, wood trimmings and grass clipping.&nbsp; At present, most of the yard wastes in Nigeria are illegally dumped into abandoned waste lands or burn up which is very harmful and had raised concerns for the environmental and human health.&nbsp; However, due to a lack of corresponding policy support and management requirements for yard waste usage in Nigeria, this study proposes remedies and proposals for yard waste utilization that are appropriate for Nigeria, based on successful technologies and regulations. So based on the real situation in Nigeria, it is imperative to replace the traditional methods of yard waste management with innovative ones to promote their proper utilization..</p> Osikabor, B., , Adeleye, A. S.,, Oyelami, B. A., Copyright (c) Thu, 25 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Asset based wellbeing of poverty of artisanal fish farmers in delta state, nigeria <p>This research carried out in Delta State, Nigeria, focuses on the empirical application of Principal Component Analysis (PCA), an asset based measure of wellbeing which can be used to assess level of poverty among households in rural areas of developing countries. The study employed questionnaire-based household survey data collection methods. The final wealth index was derived using data collected from 430 artisanal fishing households in riverine Delta State communities. Data on 16 variables measuring multiple aspects of household wealth status were used to extract the set of principal components utilized in the construction of the index. Two key statistical tests, the KMO and Bartlett’s tests, showed the appropriateness of the data for PCA. Results revealed that five major factors influence the wealth status and hence the wellbeing of households: home infrastructure, energy sources, durable home assets, water sources and mobility. Therefore, it is suggested that any efforts to improve the wellbeing of farm households in the study area as well as in other regions with similar socio- economic settings should consider these factors as entry point to poverty alleviation.</p> Oboh, J. E., Ada-Okungbowa, C. I.,, Emokaro C. O., Copyright (c) Thu, 25 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Foliage yield of fluted pumpkin (telfairia occidentalis hook f.) As influenced by organic manure and cutting frequencies on soil of calabar, nigeria. <p>Field experiment was conducted in the 2019 and 2020 early cropping seasons at the University of Calabar Teaching and Research Farm, Calabar, to assess the foliage yield of fluted pumpkin (<em>Telfairia occidentalis</em> Hook F.) as affected by organic manure and cutting frequency on soil of Calabar. The experiment was a factorial combination of four poultry manure rates (0, 3, 6 and 9 tonnes per hectare) and three cutting frequency (2, 3 and 4 weekly intervals), laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. Data were collected on vine length, number of leaves, internode length, fresh leaves, dry matter weights and soil physico-chemical properties, and analyzed. Significant means were compared using Fisher’s Least Significant Difference (FLSD) at 5 % probability. Results indicated that the sand proportions decreased after harvest while the silt and clay proportions, the soil pH, total nitrogen, organic carbon, organic matter, potassium, magnesium, effective cation exchange capacity (ECEC) and base saturation all increased after harvest in both cropping years. There were significant (p &lt;.0. 05) effects of PM, cutting frequency and their interactions on vine length, number of leaves, internode length, fresh leaves and leaves dry matter weights in both years of study. Plots treated with 9 t/ha of PM produced the longest vines, higher number of leaves, heavier fresh leaf and leaf dry matter. This was followed by plots treated with 6 t/ha of PM while the lowest was the plot with zero PM treatment. Foliage harvest at 3-weekly cut intervals produced the highest cumulative number of leaves, fresh leaf and leaf dry matter weights, followed by the 4-weekly cut intervals while the lowest was the 2-weekly cut intervals. The interaction of 9 t/ha PM with 3-weekly cut intervals produced the best effect and is therefore recommended.</p> Okechukwu C. Umunnakwe,, Joyce F. Akpan,, Fidelis V. Aberagi, Copyright (c) Wed, 31 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The effect of amf (glomus clarum) on tomato resistance to early leaf blight (alternaria solani) on tomato <p>Tomato (<em>Solanum lycopersicum</em> L.), is an economic plant which belongs to Family Solanaceae and is widely consumed as food and other processed natural products. Tomato production areas are faced with economic losses due to early blight disease caused by <em>Alternaria solani</em>. Early blight disease reduce yield and renders fruit unmarketable, Cultural practices and fungicides are majorly adopted in the management of this disease. The use of tolerant varieties and <em>Glomus clarum</em> as alternatives which are environmental friendly necessitated this study. Therefore, this study investigated genetic resistance of tomato to early blight disease using <em>Glomus clarum </em>as revealed by SSR marker . Eight tomato accessions obtained from NACGRAB and Technoserve were evaluated, while Ojoo market accession served as check. The experimental treatments Control, <em>Glomus clarum</em> + Pathogen and Pathogen only were laid out in a complete randomized design with three replicates. The result showed that Rukuta Jubia and NGB00727 accessions had the highest mean values for stem girth (0.59cm) and leaf width (3.74cm) respectively, while Ojoo Market performed best for leaf length (6.78cm). <em>Glomus clarum</em> significantly (p˂0.05) influenced the resistance of NGB00727 to <em>Alternaria&nbsp; solani ,</em>and enhanced the production of flowers (2.53) and&nbsp; mean weight of&nbsp; fruit per plant (0.94g). The NGB00727 accession showed the highest resistance to early blight disease, while NGB00754 accession was the most susceptible to <em>Alternaria solani</em>.</p> Olawuyi Odunayo Joseph,, Ogundipe Victor Olumide, Copyright (c) Thu, 25 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Properties of soils of different lithology in the humid tropics of southeastern nigeria <p>This study evaluated the properties of soils developed on diverse parent materials in Ogoja Local Government Area. Five profile pits on five different parent materials were dug, morphologically delineated and described. The five parent materials were basement complex (BC), mudstone (MS), sandstone (SS), shalestone (SH) and limestone (LS). Morphologically, the soils were deep with varying color, structure, texture and consistency. The results of chemical analyses revealed that the soils have acid pH with means of 5.4, 5.4, 5.4, 5.3 and 5.4 in BC, MS, SS, SH and LS. Organic carbon was low (&lt;15g/kg) across the parent materials while total N was slightly higher in MS, SS and LS with means of 0.04 g kg<sup>-1</sup>, 0.10 g kg<sup>-1</sup>, 0.04 g kg<sup>-1</sup>, 0.10 g kg<sup>-1</sup>&nbsp; and 0.20 g kg<sup>-1</sup>&nbsp; in BC, MS, SS, SH and LS accordingly. Available P was low (&lt;8mg/kg) across the parent materials with slightly higher value recorded in SH than in other parent materials. Calcium and sodium were the dominant and the least bases respectively with mean values of 3.2 cmol/kg, 3.93 cmol/kg, 3.65 cmol/kg, 3.3 cmol/kg and 3.95 cmol/kg and 0.25 cmol/kg, 0.10 cmol/kg, 0.08 cmol/kg, 0.08 cmol/kg, 0.08 cmol/kg in BC, MS, SS, SH and LS respectively. Exchangeable bases were higher in MS than other soils. Both Al<sup>3+</sup> and H<sup>+</sup> contributed at the same level to acidity of the soils. Correlation analysis showed that sand correlated negatively and significantly with clay (-0.81), OC (-0.41), TN (-0.42), and Al<sup>+++</sup> (-0.78) and positively and significantly with pH (0.72), Ca<sup>2+</sup> (0.7), Mg<sup>2+ </sup>(0.64), K<sup>+</sup> (0.56), ECEC (0.71) and BS (0.70).&nbsp; Correlation between pH and exchangeable bases, available P (0.83), ECEC (0.9) and base saturation (0.83) was significant and positive.&nbsp; However, most properties had negative and non-significant correlation with each other.</p> Afu, S. M.,, Adie, P. I.,, Olim, D. M.,, Isong, I. A.,, Akpama, A. I.,, Aaron, M. E., Copyright (c) Thu, 25 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000