Application of Ecological Modernisation in Sand Winning in Building Construction in Tamale, Ghana
Sand is a raw material in the building and construction industry. Its sustainable supply is required to support infrastructure development in emerging cities in Ghana and elsewhere. However, sand is not adequately recognised as building construction foundational material, and is not sufficiently addressed by policy, planning, legislation and institutional management and remains a grey area in mainstream research. The increasing population in Tamale requires shelter which leads to exploitation of more sand. This study assessed sand winning from the periphery to support the core, Tamale. The study adopted crosssectional design with a mixed method approach. It involved a primary target of 200 sand winners and a secondary target of 59 household heads in a multi-stage sampling. Primary data were generated using questionnaire, key informant interview guide and personal observation. Data were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Scientists’ descriptive statistics, central tendencies and cross tabulation with chi square test. The results showed that sand winning was done in six districts outside Tamale Metropolitan Assembly. Sand was winned from riverbeds, river walls and sand deposits. Sand winners preferred the use of manual labour to excavators. Sand winning provided livelihoods for tipper truck drivers and loading boys. Government regulation of the activity is limited and unsatisfactory. There was cordial relationship between sand winners and sand winning communities. It is recommended that government creates an agency to manage sand winning.
Keywords: Sand Winning, Concretisation, Ecological Modernisation, Tipper Truck, Tamale
© 2018 The authors.
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