Ghana Journal of Development Studies <p class="western" align="JUSTIFY"><em>Ghana Journal of Development Studies</em> (GJDS) is a multi – trans – and an interdisciplinary journal with a development focus. The GJDS publishes works on development policy, programming and projects, whether analytical, evaluative, basic, applicative and/or descriptive. It accepts papers from varied disciplinary areas; including the physical sciences, social sciences and the humanities. Articles must show direct relevance to development. Emphasis is on empirical research that build on and/or ground theory. However, manuscripts of high quality on theoretical aspects of development related disciplines as well as book reviews are considered for publication. The GJDS provides a forum for lecturers, researchers, and development-related professionals to re/present findings on critical research and/or analysis of development issues with emphasis on, but not exclusive to the Ghanaian as well as African settings. The GJDS is a journal of the Faculty of Integrated Development Studies of SD Dombo University of Business and Integrated Development Studies, Ghana. The GJDS is a peer-reviewed journal and indexed on internationally acclaimed scholarly indexing/publishing systems: The International Bibliography of Social Sciences (IBSS), EBSCO and Society of African Journal Editors.</p> The Faculty of Integrated Development Studies of University for Development Studies, Ghana en-US Ghana Journal of Development Studies 0855-6768 <p>© 2018 The authors.</p><p>The Ghana Journal of Development Studies is published twice a year (May &amp; October) by the Faculty of Integrated Development Studies as a service to development related research.</p><p>No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any means; electronic, mechanical, photocopy, recording or otherwise, without the written authorisation of the publisher and copyright owner.</p><p>The content is licensed uder a CC-BY license.</p> Patterns and Causal Connections between Changes in Exchange Rates and Interest Rates in Ghana <p>Trends and causal relationships between Ghana's exchange rate and interest rate are investigated in this paper using Granger causality, cointegration,&nbsp; and error correction models. Monthly data from 2007 to 2020 are employed. The results show that both variables show a strong positive trend. Also,&nbsp; strong causation runs from the exchange rate to the interest rate, but the interest rate only weakly accounts for exchange rate changes. The findings&nbsp; further reveal that the two variables are co-integrated, and thus, using the interest rate lags in describing the exchange rate and vice versa is beneficial.&nbsp; Finally, it is suggested that policymakers closely track the exchange rate-interest rate nexus to craft policies that engender macroeconomic stability in the&nbsp; long run.</p> Haruna Issahaku Abubakari Kabiru Dawud Abdul Basit Copyright (c) 0 2023-06-01 2023-06-01 20 1 1 19 10.4314/gjds.v20i1.1 On the Nexus of Foreign Capital Inflow, Volatility, Financial Development and Economic Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Sectoral Approach <p>There is increasing concern among policymakers over the effect of capital inflows and volatility on economic growth. The empirical literature on the&nbsp; foreign capital - growth nexus in subSaharan Africa has, however, focused on aggregate growth overlooking sector-specific dynamics that might lead to&nbsp; varying responses. This study, therefore, examines whether the impacts of capital inflows and volatility in the region vary across different sectors, namely service, industry, and agriculture over the period 1990 to 2017. It also assesses the role of financial development. The study employed the dynamic panel&nbsp; ordinary least square technique due to its ability to correct for serial correlation and endogeneity. The results reveal that capital flows and volatility have&nbsp; varying effects on the three sectors. In the service sector, only aid exerted a significant negative effect while FDI and cross-border bank lending volatilities&nbsp; showed a depressing effect. Regarding the agricultural sector, only FDI had a negative impact, with the rest showing significant positive&nbsp; relationships. Concerning industrial growth, FDI and remittances had the potential to drive growth, while aid exhibited negative impacts. The findings&nbsp; thus have some policy implications. Policymakers in sub-Saharan Africa could target FDI and remittances to develop the industrial sector while aid and&nbsp; remittances could be channeled into the agricultural sector.&nbsp;</p> Yazidu Ustarz Copyright (c) 0 2023-06-01 2023-06-01 20 1 20 39 10.4314/gjds.v20i1.2 Collaborative Procurement Practices in Public Organizations: A Review of Forms, Benefits and Challenges <p>This study reviewed forms, benefits, and challenges of collaborative procurement practice that could be applied in public organizations in developing&nbsp; countries like Tanzania. The study is exploratory and descriptive in nature under which a systematic literature review was conducted to examine the&nbsp; various forms, benefits, and challenges of collaborative procurement. In this approach, information was gathered from the existing body of literature on&nbsp; collaborative procurement and cooperative purchasing practices. Based on the main results, the study ascertained that piggy-backing groups, third-party&nbsp; groups, professional networks, and project groups are the main four forms of collaborative procurement practices that may be applicable in public&nbsp; organizations. Results suggested that organizations that engage in collaborative procurement practices enjoy several benefits, including minimum prices,&nbsp; low transaction costs, high-quality products, reduced workloads, and minimal supply risks. However, demand heterogeneity can complicate the&nbsp; procurement process, and inflexibility and control of collaborative procurement activities are major challenges for implementing collaborative&nbsp; procurement practices. Despite these challenges, the study concluded that collaborative procurement practices can be beneficial in public organizations in developing countries like Tanzania. The study recommends that collaborative members establish clear guidelines and agreements for collaborative&nbsp; procurement practices to ensure successful implementation.&nbsp;</p> Richard Manase Nkunda Isaac Kazungu Ismail Abdi Changalima Copyright (c) 0 2023-06-01 2023-06-01 20 1 10.4314/gjds.v20i1.3 Factors Influencing Gender Inequality in Land and Property Ownership Among Peri-Urban Women in Minna, Nigeria <p>This study investigates the factors influencing gender inequality in land and property ownership among peri-urban women in Minna, Nigeria. The data&nbsp; for this study came from 622 women in 12 peri-urban localities of the 25 neighborhoods in Minna, Nigeria. A closed-ended questionnaire was&nbsp; administered by field assistants with the aid of mobile data collection application called kobotool. Descriptive statistics such as frequency count and&nbsp; proportion methods were used in describing the respondents’ socio-demographic patterns, level of ownership, and mode of acquisition. Inferential&nbsp; statistical techniques were also employed to analyze the data collected for the study such as chi-square and relative importance index. The chi-square&nbsp; test examined whether the underlying socio-demographic/economic characteristics of the two groups of respondents (Women without Property&nbsp; ownership and Women with Property ownership) are independent in terms of the level of property ownership. The study identified among others&nbsp; religious beliefs and orientations and Economic and financial constraints with relative importance index of 0.7412 and 0.7218 respectively, as the core&nbsp; factors constituting obstacles to women access to land/property among the respondents. The study recommends legislation from the state house of&nbsp; assembly on gender inclusion on issues relating to religious belief, Economic and financial empowerments in the study areas.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Naomi Ijadunola Popoola Ismail Ojetunde Abass Iyanda Sule Supreme Ayewoh Okoh Copyright (c) 0 2023-06-01 2023-06-01 20 1 58 81 10.4314/gjds.v20i1.4 Heterogeneous Effects of Demographic Factors on Healthcare Utilisation in Ghana <p>The purpose of this paper is to examine the heterogeneous effects of demographic factors on healthcare utilisation. The two-stage residual inclusion&nbsp; (2SRI) strategy was utilised in the study to address the endogeneity problem. The study discovered significant differences in the utilisation of healthcare&nbsp; services based on age distribution and gender after decomposing the data. Based on age distribution disaggregated data, the study discovered&nbsp; considerable differences in the use of healthcare services. According to the age distribution subsample analysis, gender, education, and obesity were the&nbsp; variables that determined healthcare utilisation for the working class, whereas locality (rural) determined utilisation for the elderly. Physical inactivity was&nbsp; the only variable that influenced the working class and the elderly use of healthcare. For children, those from the working class, and the elderly,&nbsp; healthcare use was commonly determined by NHIS membership, self-assessed health, chronic illness and type of illness. Furthermore, the study found&nbsp; significant variations in healthcare utilisation when the analysis was based on gender. For the children subsample, self-assessed health and chronic illness&nbsp; determined females’ healthcare utilisation. Working-class males’ healthcare use was influenced by education, but females’ healthcare use was&nbsp; affected by NHIS participation, obesity and physical inactivity. Finally, chronic sickness and diarrhoea affected how elderly males used healthcare,&nbsp; whereas NHIS membership, physical inactivity, and location (rural) affected elderly females’ healthcare utilisation. The study suggests that age and&nbsp; gender information be taken into account when developing, planning, and implementing healthcare policy to increase the use of healthcare services.&nbsp;</p> Samuel Sekyi Prosper Basommi Laari Gideon Kwaku Minua Ampofo Copyright (c) 0 2023-06-01 2023-06-01 20 1 82 97 10.4314/gjds.v20i1.5 Serial Callers: Hatchet Men or Political Communicators? <p>This article looks at the extent to which radio stations use offensive language, the reasons why serial callers use such language and how this threat to&nbsp; Ghana’s peace can be curtailed within the Tamale Metropolis. Using in-depth interviews, focus group discussions and content analysis as methods of&nbsp; investigation, the study found that among the political communicators on radio, serial callers used the most offensive language to defend either the New&nbsp; Patriotic Party (NPP) or the National Democratic Congress (NDC). The two parties sponsor the activities of these callers who, in return for stipends&nbsp; from politicians, fearlessly denigrate opponents while trumpeting their parties’ achievements. Unsubstantiated allegations against political opponents emerged as the most frequently used offensive pronouncement by serial callers who admit to the dangers of their conduct for peaceful co-existence but&nbsp; insist they must do everything possible to ensure victory for their parties. The study concludes that despite the threat posed by serial callers to peaceful&nbsp; co-existence, employing extra security measures to contain the situation is not an option. Instead, the study recommends that radio stations field&nbsp; technocrats in place of political party representatives to review newspaper headlines during Morning Show programmes.&nbsp;</p> Damasus Tuurosong Copyright (c) 0 2023-06-01 2023-06-01 20 1 98 116 10.4314/gjds.v20i1.6 Premium exemptions and active health insurance membership among teenage migrant head porters in Ghana: a cross-sectional study <p>Ghana’s national health insurance scheme (NHIS) aims to provide financial risk protection to vulnerable populations by making provisions for premium&nbsp; exemptions for all people below 18 years. This study assessed the factors associated with active insurance membership and access to premium&nbsp; exemptions among teenage migrant head porters in Ghana. Data collected from 257 migrant female head porters (10-17 years old) in Accra and Kumasi&nbsp; in a cross-sectional survey were analysed using descriptive statistics and regression models. Only 25% of participants had active membership cards&nbsp; although about 54% had ever registered with the NHIS. Among registered members, only 40% benefited from NHIS premium exemptions as per the insurance policy. Respondents who benefited from premium exemptions were more likely to maintain active membership (OR=3.58, p-value&lt;0.01).&nbsp; Relatively higher income earners (OR=2.72, p-value&lt;0.05) and those who migrated to Kumasi (OR=5.17, p-value&lt;0.01) were more likely to maintain active&nbsp; membership. Although benefiting from premium exemptions improves active enrolment, many migrant teenage head porters were unable to benefit&nbsp; from exemptions. We recommend that the National Health Insurance Authority takes pragmatic steps to identify and enrol all female head porters below&nbsp; 18 years to improve their access to healthcare.&nbsp;</p> Kennedy A. Alatinga Gilbert Abotisem Abiiro Edmund Wedam Kanmiki Copyright (c) 0 2023-06-01 2023-06-01 20 1 117 135 10.4314/gjds.v20i1.7 Pros and Cons of Ghana as a Destination for Foreign Direct Investment <p>This study presents an in-depth analysis of foreign direct investments (FDI) determinants in Ghana. Following the typology of Dunning’s motives of FDI&nbsp; location, they are categorised under the resource-seeking, market-seeking or efficiency-seeking FDI they foster. Literature on FDI drivers in Africa was&nbsp; considered and based on the tendency and/or comparison of the most recent official data (2000-2022), the pros and cons of such determinants were&nbsp; identified. The analysis reveals that Ghana presents a mostly favourable profile to attract resource-seeking and market-seeking FDI but a mixed situation&nbsp; in the determinants of efficiency-seeking FDI. This study adds to the FDI literature by categorising the drivers under Dunning’s motives of FDI and&nbsp; studying the evolution of these factors in a specific developing African country (Ghana) in order to reveal the country’s performance with the&nbsp; determinants. Results show that Ghana’s trend is very positive and can become an attractive market for foreign companies. And government and&nbsp; policymakers should continue in the trend of improving their factors to attract and retain foreign investment.</p> Evans Coffie Nuria Alcalde-Fradejas Marisa Ramírez-Alesón Copyright (c) 0 2023-06-01 2023-06-01 20 1 136 159 10.4314/gjds.v20i1.8 Sanitation and Hygiene Practices in Northern Ghana: An Analysis of Household Health Risks <p>This study assessed household health risks in relation to sanitation and hygiene practices. A convergent parallel mixed method design, involving a survey&nbsp; of 200 household heads and two semi-structured interviews, was employed. The forward linear regression method was used to determine how&nbsp; sanitation and hygiene practices influence household health risks. From the results, age was the most considered criterion for using a homestead toilet&nbsp; facility. Income made the most significant contribution to change in the choice of toilet facility with a Beta Weight of 0.313 at a statistically significant level&nbsp; of p&lt;0.00. Income was again identified to be the most statistically significant determining factor for access to sanitation and hygiene materials with&nbsp; 0.389 at a significant alpha level of p&lt;0.00. The identified factors that define sanitation and hygiene practices cut across gender division of labour, age,&nbsp; occupation, housing type and residential location. Owing to the range of demographic, social and economic factors influencing the adoption of proper&nbsp; sanitation and hygiene practices, it is recommended that sanitation and hygiene improvement interventions should inculcate socio-demographic and&nbsp;&nbsp; economic concepts to reduce household health risks.</p> Issaka Kanton Osumanu Awzai Mohammed Amin Copyright (c) 0 2023-06-01 2023-06-01 20 1 160 179 10.4314/gjds.v20i1.9 Factors Affecting Sustainability of Cocoa Life Project Interventions in Ghana: Views of Beneficiaries in Wassa East District <p>This study interrogated the factors affecting the sustainability of project interventions implemented in the Wassa East District by World Vision Ghana&nbsp; (WVG) under the Cocoa Life Project in the country. Based on a mixed method research approach, a total of 406 respondents who were farmers, members&nbsp; of village savings and loans associations, gari processors, and soap makers were involved in the study using stratified, simple random, and convenience&nbsp; sampling methods. Structured interviews and focus group discussion guides were the instruments used for data collection. For the quantitative data&nbsp; analysis, frequencies, percentages, means, standard deviation and chi-square were used whereas qualitative data obtained was analyzed thematically.&nbsp; The study observed that project interventions implemented in the District by WVG were generally sustainable. Factors such as local ownership,&nbsp; commitment of community members, teamwork, and supportive relationship between WVG team and community members aided the sustainability of&nbsp; the interventions. Despite the flexibility in the delivery of the project interventions, community members who benefited from the interventions had some&nbsp; concerns about the Project. Concerns were particularly raised with respect to the level of participation, the nature of communication, and the level of&nbsp; accountability and transparency which characterized the Project. We recommend that World Vision Ghana, Mondelez International, and Cocoa Life&nbsp; Division team up with local authorities and community members to come out with clear measures to: increase local participation, improve&nbsp; communication, and enhance transparency and accountability throughout the delivery of Cocoa Life Project interventions in the country.&nbsp;</p> Daniel Odoom Festus Annor-Frempong Selorm Akaba Albert Obeng Mensah Copyright (c) 0 2023-06-01 2023-06-01 20 1 180 194 10.4314/gjds.v20i1.10 Contribution of Shea-Based Livelihoods to Income of Rural Women in North-Western Ghana <p>The shea industry is a self-contained industry, and it is argued that with critical investment in processing machinery and skill training of the primary&nbsp; actors, it can sustainably enhance the livelihoods of poor rural households. Following an investment in semi-mechanised shea butter processing projects&nbsp; in two communities in North-Western Ghana, this study examined the contribution of the projects to rural women’s income in the communities. Data&nbsp; were collected from 156 shea butter producers, using questionnaires, two key informant interviews and two focus group discussions with the executives&nbsp; of the producer associations. The study found that although farming is the main occupation of the majority of women, shea butter processing is the&nbsp; leading sector because it contributes relatively higher to women’s income. Intriguingly, the income from shea-based livelihood is higher than the&nbsp; minimum annual wage in Ghana. This implies that the shea sector has the potential of contributing to household income, just as the formal sector. In&nbsp; order to enhance the role of the sector towards livelihoods, continuous support to the primary actors (women), and the ability to link them to external&nbsp; market remain critical.</p> Rose Tanzile Nicholas Fielmua Maximillian Kolbe Domapielle Copyright (c) 0 2023-06-01 2023-06-01 20 1 195 212 10.4314/gjds.v20i1.11 Factors that Influence Women Agro-Processors Credit Utilization in The Northern Region of Ghana <p>Access to credit for financing agro-processing enterprises has been one of the critical constraints facing small-scale women agro-processors in&nbsp; developing countries. Microfinance institutions (MFIs) have been hailed for providing tailored-made financial products for such small-scale businesses.&nbsp; However, the use of borrowed money from MFIs is critical in the improvement of the general well-being of women borrowers. This paper presents the&nbsp; findings of a study that examined factors affecting credit utilization among women agro-processors in the Northern Region of Ghana. The theory&nbsp; underpinning the study is the life cycle theory which suggests that there exists a relationship between productivity and some socioeconomic characteristics such as age. A descriptive survey design was used to gather data from 402 women agro-processors in two districts of the Northern Region&nbsp; of Ghana. Descriptive and inferential statistics were employed in analyzing the data. Women agro-processors surveyed largely invest about (60%)&nbsp; of their borrowed monies in their agro-processing businesses. They also invest almost (13%) in other businesses and in household consumption (15.4%).&nbsp; About 12% of agro-processors borrowed for others. The study also found a significant relationship between women’s socio-economic characteristics such&nbsp; as household size, religious background, location of respondents, household headship status of respondents, literacy, and their utilization of credit. It is&nbsp; therefore recommended that MFIs should incorporate training on credit utilization and financial management as part of their social intermediation&nbsp; activities.</p> Fadilah Mohammed Hudu Zakaria SethDenkyi Boateng Copyright (c) 0 2023-06-01 2023-06-01 20 1 213 232 10.4314/gjds.v20i1.12 Performance and Prospects of the Wa Municipal Assembly in Revenue Generation <p>The Wa Municipality has several developmental challenges such as rapid population growth, high rates of illiteracy, poor environmental sanitation, and&nbsp; poverty. Besidesthe developmental challenges, the Municipality’s average contribution of IGF to its total annual revenue basket is minimal. This has&nbsp; created room for more dependence on external sources for development funds which often fluctuate and are generally on a decline. The study was&nbsp; conducted with the aim of evaluating the prospects of the Wa Municipal Assembly in relation to levels of revenue generation. Primary and secondary data&nbsp; were used for the study. Questionnaires and structured interview schedules were used to collect primary data from 467 respondents within the&nbsp; Municipality. The study shows that the Assembly’s potentials in relation to revenue generation are tourism promotion, investment in agriculture,&nbsp; improving on the database, expanding the revenue base, and taking advantage of the presence of NGOs and CBOs. It is concluded that the Wa Municipal&nbsp; Assembly should properly identify and valuate properties in a timely manner, adopt good resource mobilisation strategies, properly train Revenue Collectors and finally take keen interest in tapping into the prospects identified by the study so as to improve on levels of revenue generation.&nbsp;</p> Shamsia Abdul-Wahab Paul Bata Domanban Paul Kwame Nkegbe Copyright (c) 0 2023-06-01 2023-06-01 20 1 233 251 10.4314/gjds.v20i1.13 Factors Influencing Intentions and Acceptance of COVID-19 Vaccines in Ghana <p>In this study, we examined the perceptions of Ghanaians about COVID-19 vaccines and the factors that may influence their intentions to vaccinate. We&nbsp; conducted an online survey to collect data from 331 Ghanaians, between 22nd March 2021 and 15th April 2021. Descriptive multivariate analyses were&nbsp; performed using STATA version 13. The findings revealed that 45.7% of respondents were reluctant to vaccinate even if the vaccines were available for&nbsp; free. Age, region and residential area were significant predictors of intention to vaccinate. Misinformation, side effects and lack of trust were among&nbsp; some reasons cited for not intending to vaccinate. However, some people were likely to vaccinate when they were encouraged by a trusted community&nbsp; leader. To ensure higher uptake of vaccines, government officials must engage trusted community leaders to increase public education, targeting specific&nbsp; age groups, areas and regions in Ghana.</p> Rita Udor Samuel Nuamah Eshun Anthony Mwinilanaa Tampah-Naah Copyright (c) 0 2023-06-01 2023-06-01 20 1 252 266 10.4314/gjds.v20i1.14