Ghana Journal of Development Studies https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gjds <p class="western" align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-family: Arial, sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><em>Ghana Journal of Development Studies</em> (GJDS) is a multi – trans – and an interdisciplinary journal with a development focus. The GJDS publishes works on development policy, programming and projects, whether analytical, evaluative, basic, applicative and/or descriptive. It accepts papers from varied disciplinary areas; including the physical sciences, social sciences and the humanities. Articles must show direct relevance to development. Emphasis is on empirical research that build on and/or ground theory. However, manuscripts of high quality on theoretical aspects of development related disciplines as well as book reviews are considered for publication. The GJDS provides a forum for lecturers, researchers, and development-related professionals to re/present findings on critical research and/or analysis of development issues with emphasis on, but not exclusive to the Ghanaian as well as African settings. The GJDS is a journal of the Faculty of Integrated Development Studies of University for Development Studies, Ghana. The GJDS is a peer-reviewed journal and indexed on internationally acclaimed scholarly indexing/publishing systems: The International Bibliography of Social Sciences (IBSS), EBSCO and Society of African Journal Editors. </span></span></p> en-US <p>© 2018 The authors.</p><p>The Ghana Journal of Development Studies is published twice a year (May &amp; October) by the Faculty of Integrated Development Studies as a service to development related research.</p><p>No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any means; electronic, mechanical, photocopy, recording or otherwise, without the written authorisation of the publisher and copyright owner.</p><p>The content is licensed uder a CC-BY license.</p> gjds@uds.edu.gh (Dr. Naasegnibe Kuunibe) gjds@ubids.edu.gh (Editor) Wed, 03 Nov 2021 08:50:26 +0000 OJS 3.1.2.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Participation in “Planting for Food and Jobs” Programme and Commercialization among Maize Farm Households in Savelugu Municipality, Ghana https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gjds/article/view/216879 <p><span id="page2155R_mcid25" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 425.146px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">G</span></span><span id="page2155R_mcid26" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 61.095px; top: 424.848px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.837519);" role="presentation">hana’s “</span></span><span id="page2155R_mcid27" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 88.8251px; top: 425.146px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">P</span></span><span id="page2155R_mcid28" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 93.1102px; top: 424.848px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.873896);" role="presentation">lanting for </span></span><span id="page2155R_mcid29" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 132.431px; top: 425.146px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">F</span></span><span id="page2155R_mcid30" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 136.369px; top: 424.848px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.895312);" role="presentation">ood and </span></span><span id="page2155R_mcid31" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 168.591px; top: 425.146px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">J</span></span><span id="page2155R_mcid32" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 171.709px; top: 424.848px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.915055);" role="presentation">ob” programme</span></span><span id="page2155R_mcid33" class="markedContent"> </span><span id="page2155R_mcid34" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 231.354px; top: 424.848px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.816224);" role="presentation">aims to improve farmers’ access&nbsp; </span></span><span id="page2155R_mcid35" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 436.636px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.837077);" role="presentation">to farm inputs. </span></span><span id="page2155R_mcid36" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 110.095px; top: 436.934px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">T</span></span><span id="page2155R_mcid37" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 114.244px; top: 436.636px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.838004);" role="presentation">he idea is that through improved access to quality seed varieties,&nbsp; </span></span><span id="page2155R_mcid38" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 448.425px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.906605);" role="presentation">fertilisers and good agronomic practices, output would increase leading to an&nbsp; </span></span><span id="page2155R_mcid39" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 460.214px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.846067);" role="presentation">increased market surplus. </span></span><span id="page2155R_mcid40" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 149.603px; top: 460.512px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">T</span></span><span id="page2155R_mcid41" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 153.778px; top: 460.214px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.871628);" role="presentation">his study sought to investigate whether engagement&nbsp; </span></span><span id="page2155R_mcid42" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 472.002px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.854776);" role="presentation">in ‘</span></span><span id="page2155R_mcid43" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 66.0631px; top: 472.3px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">P</span></span><span id="page2155R_mcid44" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 70.3123px; top: 472.002px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.860179);" role="presentation">lanting for </span></span><span id="page2155R_mcid45" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 109.027px; top: 472.3px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">F</span></span><span id="page2155R_mcid46" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 112.929px; top: 472.002px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.882008);" role="presentation">ood and </span></span><span id="page2155R_mcid47" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 144.696px; top: 472.3px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">J</span></span><span id="page2155R_mcid48" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 147.778px; top: 472.002px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.860756);" role="presentation">ob’ (</span></span><span id="page2155R_mcid49" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 163.174px; top: 472.3px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.703312);" role="presentation">PFJ</span></span><span id="page2155R_mcid50" class="markedContent"> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 173.553px; top: 472.002px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.85064);" role="presentation">) programme influences farm households’ maize&nbsp; </span></span><span id="page2155R_mcid51" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 483.791px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.848155);" role="presentation">commercialization level in </span></span><span id="page2155R_mcid52" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 148.988px; top: 484.089px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">S</span></span><span id="page2155R_mcid53" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 153.032px; top: 483.791px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.837246);" role="presentation">avelugu </span></span><span id="page2155R_mcid54" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 182.997px; top: 484.089px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">M</span></span><span id="page2155R_mcid55" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 189.565px; top: 483.791px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.843718);" role="presentation">unicipality, in the </span></span><span id="page2155R_mcid56" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 251.15px; top: 484.089px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">N</span></span><span id="page2155R_mcid57" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 256.584px; top: 483.791px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.900595);" role="presentation">orthern </span></span><span id="page2155R_mcid58" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 285.228px; top: 484.089px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">R</span></span><span id="page2155R_mcid59" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 289.656px; top: 483.791px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.83581);" role="presentation">egion of </span></span><span id="page2155R_mcid60" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 320.577px; top: 484.089px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">G</span></span><span id="page2155R_mcid61" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 325.914px; top: 483.791px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.816622);" role="presentation">hana. <span id="page1R_mcid62" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 55.9177px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">T</span></span><span id="page1R_mcid63" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 59.354px; top: 55.6196px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.867465);" role="presentation">o correct for selectivity bias, unobserved endogeneity and avoid the problems&nbsp; </span></span><span id="page1R_mcid64" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 67.4083px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.833222);" role="presentation">associated with weak instrumentation, the conditional mixed process (</span></span><span id="page1R_mcid65" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 297.922px; top: 67.7064px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.860094);" role="presentation">CMP</span></span><span id="page1R_mcid66" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 313.144px; top: 67.4083px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.841874);" role="presentation">) method&nbsp; </span></span><span id="page1R_mcid67" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 79.1969px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.81365);" role="presentation">was used. </span></span><span id="page1R_mcid68" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 92.311px; top: 79.495px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">T</span></span><span id="page1R_mcid69" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 96.4487px; top: 79.1969px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.856225);" role="presentation">he results revealed that participation in the </span></span><span id="page1R_mcid70" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 251.43px; top: 79.495px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.70508);" role="presentation">PFJ</span></span><span id="page1R_mcid71" class="markedContent"> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 262.022px; top: 79.1969px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.868595);" role="presentation"> programme and maize&nbsp; </span></span><span id="page1R_mcid72" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 90.9856px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.857888);" role="presentation">yield positively influenced maize commercialization. </span></span><span id="page1R_mcid73" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 244.408px; top: 91.2837px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">H</span></span><span id="page1R_mcid74" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 249.852px; top: 90.9856px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.853931);" role="presentation">owever, commercialisation&nbsp; </span></span><span id="page1R_mcid75" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 102.774px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.832273);" role="presentation">was negatively influenced by gender of the farm household's head, household size&nbsp; </span></span><span id="page1R_mcid76" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 114.563px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.843366);" role="presentation">and membership of community based organisations (</span></span><span id="page1R_mcid77" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 243.611px; top: 114.861px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.860253);" role="presentation">CBO</span></span><span id="page1R_mcid78" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 258.306px; top: 114.563px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.627937);" role="presentation">s). </span></span><span id="page1R_mcid79" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 266.864px; top: 114.861px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">P</span></span><span id="page1R_mcid80" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 271.094px; top: 114.563px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.860705);" role="presentation">articipation in the </span></span><span id="page1R_mcid81" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 334.788px; top: 114.861px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.696356);" role="presentation">PFJ</span></span><span id="page1R_mcid82" class="markedContent">&nbsp; </span><span id="page1R_mcid83" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 126.352px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.83979);" role="presentation">programme itself was enhanced by education, marital status, increased farm size,&nbsp; </span></span><span id="page1R_mcid84" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 138.14px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.873188);" role="presentation">farm ownership, membership of farmer-based organization (</span></span><span id="page1R_mcid85" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 273.863px; top: 138.438px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.871727);" role="presentation">FBO</span></span><span id="page1R_mcid86" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 287.948px; top: 138.14px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.847237);" role="presentation">s) and non-farm&nbsp; </span></span><span id="page1R_mcid87" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 149.929px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.87703);" role="presentation">engagement. </span></span><span id="page1R_mcid88" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 105.755px; top: 150.227px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">G</span></span><span id="page1R_mcid89" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 111.196px; top: 149.929px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.848897);" role="presentation">overnment and all relevant stakeholders should step up efforts at&nbsp; </span></span><span id="page1R_mcid90" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 161.718px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.934296);" role="presentation">promoting the </span></span><span id="page1R_mcid91" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 111.75px; top: 162.016px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.72571);" role="presentation">PFJ</span></span><span id="page1R_mcid92" class="markedContent"> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 122.627px; top: 161.718px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.885243);" role="presentation"> programme and maize commercialisation through access to&nbsp; </span></span><span id="page1R_mcid93" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6945px; top: 173.506px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.844296);" role="presentation">formal education, farmland and other productivity enhancing inputs and services.</span></span></span></span></p> Suallah Abdallah , Hamdiyah Alhassan , Samuel A. Donkoh , Christina Appiah-Adje Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gjds/article/view/216879 Wed, 03 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Urban Growth, Fuel Service Station Disasters and Policy Compliance in Ghana https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gjds/article/view/216880 <p><span id="page2467R_mcid21" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 243.674px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">D</span></span><span id="page2467R_mcid22" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 61.4683px; top: 243.674px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.835663);" role="presentation">isasters associated with </span></span><span id="page2467R_mcid23" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 147.554px; top: 243.674px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">F</span></span><span id="page2467R_mcid24" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 151.544px; top: 243.674px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.829018);" role="presentation">uel service stations (</span></span><span id="page2467R_mcid25" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 224.377px; top: 243.674px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.68214);" role="presentation">FSS</span></span><span id="page2467R_mcid26" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 236.717px; top: 243.674px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.822628);" role="presentation">) in </span></span><span id="page2467R_mcid27" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 249.886px; top: 243.674px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">G</span></span><span id="page2467R_mcid28" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 255.528px; top: 243.674px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.865244);" role="presentation">hana have been debated&nbsp; </span></span><span id="page2467R_mcid29" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 255.462px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.827439);" role="presentation">severally and attracted policy attention, yet their mitigation strategies seem too far&nbsp; </span></span><span id="page2467R_mcid30" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 267.251px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.842513);" role="presentation">off and unimaginably&nbsp; unrealistic. </span></span><span id="page2467R_mcid31" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 173.645px; top: 267.251px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">K</span></span><span id="page2467R_mcid32" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 178.382px; top: 267.251px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.848055);" role="presentation">nowing that such disasters can limit enjoyment&nbsp; </span></span><span id="page2467R_mcid33" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 279.04px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.831858);" role="presentation">of citizenship rights, </span></span><span id="page2467R_mcid34" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 135.54px; top: 279.04px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">G</span></span><span id="page2467R_mcid35" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 141.368px; top: 279.04px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.82946);" role="presentation">hana has developed safety standards geared towards&nbsp; </span></span><span id="page2467R_mcid36" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 290.828px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.872599);" role="presentation">mitigating their effects. </span></span><span id="page2467R_mcid37" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 143.834px; top: 290.828px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">F</span></span><span id="page2467R_mcid38" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 147.862px; top: 290.828px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.902966);" role="presentation">ramed around the compliance theory and drawing on&nbsp; </span></span><span id="page2467R_mcid39" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 302.617px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.857667);" role="presentation">data from 150 residential owners located within 15.4m buffer zone and five state&nbsp; </span></span><span id="page2467R_mcid40" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 314.406px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.873439);" role="presentation">institutions, this article examined the extent of compliance with safety policies&nbsp; </span></span><span id="page2467R_mcid41" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 326.194px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.951492);" role="presentation">guiding </span></span><span id="page2467R_mcid42" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 86.5314px; top: 326.194px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.695252);" role="presentation">FSS</span></span><span id="page2467R_mcid43" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 99.2403px; top: 326.194px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.878001);" role="presentation"> in </span></span><span id="page2467R_mcid44" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 110.653px; top: 326.194px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">K</span></span><span id="page2467R_mcid45" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 115.287px; top: 326.194px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.823815);" role="presentation">umasi, </span></span><span id="page2467R_mcid46" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 141.218px; top: 326.194px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">G</span></span><span id="page2467R_mcid47" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 146.94px; top: 326.194px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.843421);" role="presentation">hana. </span></span><span id="page2467R_mcid48" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 169.258px; top: 326.194px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">T</span></span><span id="page2467R_mcid49" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 173.704px; top: 326.194px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.882314);" role="presentation">he results showed that compliance with safety&nbsp; </span></span><span id="page2467R_mcid50" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 337.983px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.832715);" role="presentation">policies was sinking into its bare existential levels as none of the facilities selected&nbsp; </span></span><span id="page2467R_mcid51" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 349.771px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.777076);" role="presentation">for the study passed all the 11 safety standards. </span></span><span id="page2467R_mcid52" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 218.088px; top: 349.771px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">T</span></span><span id="page2467R_mcid53" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 222.345px; top: 349.771px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.793222);" role="presentation">he facilities also negatively affected&nbsp; </span></span><span id="page2467R_mcid54" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 361.56px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.889794);" role="presentation">residents who never considered their place of abode as perilous and that they&nbsp; </span></span><span id="page2467R_mcid55" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 373.349px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.86786);" role="presentation">live in zones of vulnerabilities. </span></span><span id="page2467R_mcid56" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 168.495px; top: 373.349px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">T</span></span><span id="page2467R_mcid57" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 172.927px; top: 373.349px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.864262);" role="presentation">his situation it is argued, fundamentally affects </span></span><span id="page2467R_mcid58" class="markedContent"><br role="presentation"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 385.137px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.885355);" role="presentation">development trajectory of the contemporary </span></span><span id="page2467R_mcid59" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 223.034px; top: 385.137px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">A</span></span><span id="page2467R_mcid60" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 228.317px; top: 385.137px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.826608);" role="presentation">frican city. </span></span><span id="page2467R_mcid61" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 267.986px; top: 385.137px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">I</span></span><span id="page2467R_mcid62" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 270.095px; top: 385.137px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.850157);" role="presentation">t obviously obscures </span></span><span id="page2467R_mcid63" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 396.926px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.8642);" role="presentation">the realities of interrelated processes shaping urban disaster management. </span></span><span id="page2467R_mcid64" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 327.894px; top: 396.926px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">E</span></span><span id="page2467R_mcid65" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 332.076px; top: 396.926px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.79293);" role="presentation">ven&nbsp; </span></span><span id="page2467R_mcid66" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 408.715px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.860473);" role="presentation">though the spring-up of </span></span><span id="page2467R_mcid67" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 141.757px; top: 408.715px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.667876);" role="presentation">FSS</span></span><span id="page2467R_mcid68" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 153.975px; top: 408.715px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.835057);" role="presentation"> have catapulted economic growth, inherently they are&nbsp; </span></span><span id="page2467R_mcid69" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 420.503px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.882016);" role="presentation">also hazard-ridden. </span></span><span id="page2467R_mcid70" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 127.15px; top: 420.503px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">W</span></span><span id="page2467R_mcid71" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 134.257px; top: 420.503px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.867273);" role="presentation">e suggest that in the broad scheme of urban planning, </span></span><span id="page2467R_mcid72" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 332.85px; top: 420.503px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.683437);" role="presentation">FSS</span></span><span id="page2467R_mcid73" class="markedContent">&nbsp; </span><span id="page2467R_mcid74" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 432.292px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.818683);" role="presentation">safety policies must not be discussed in the margins. <br></span></span></p> Ebenezer Owusu-Sekyere, Hamdiyah Alhassan, Enock Jengre Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gjds/article/view/216880 Wed, 03 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Youth Perceptions, Use and Effects of Social Media on Peace and Conflicts in Tanzania https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gjds/article/view/216881 <p><span id="page2391R_mcid10" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 192.661px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">T</span></span><span id="page2391R_mcid11" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 59.8735px; top: 192.363px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.868104);" role="presentation">he article focused on examining how youth perception and use of social media&nbsp; </span></span><span id="page2391R_mcid12" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 204.151px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">(</span></span><span id="page2391R_mcid13" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 57.9848px; top: 204.449px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.886409);" role="presentation">SM</span></span><span id="page2391R_mcid14" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 68.5597px; top: 204.151px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.8648);" role="presentation">) influences peace and conflicts among </span></span><span id="page2391R_mcid15" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 213.846px; top: 204.449px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">T</span></span><span id="page2391R_mcid16" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 217.46px; top: 204.151px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.875181);" role="presentation">anzanians, using the </span></span><span id="page2391R_mcid17" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 294.479px; top: 204.449px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">D</span></span><span id="page2391R_mcid18" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 299.998px; top: 204.151px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.803158);" role="presentation">ar es </span></span><span id="page2391R_mcid19" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 319.269px; top: 204.449px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">S</span></span><span id="page2391R_mcid20" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 323.435px; top: 204.151px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.846255);" role="presentation">alaam&nbsp; </span></span><span id="page2391R_mcid21" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 215.94px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.787039);" role="presentation">region as a case study. </span></span><span id="page2391R_mcid22" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 135.177px; top: 216.238px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">A</span></span><span id="page2391R_mcid23" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 140.186px; top: 215.94px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.823705);" role="presentation"> qualitative approach was used to collect and analyse data.&nbsp; </span></span><span id="page2391R_mcid24" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 228.027px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">A</span></span><span id="page2391R_mcid25" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60.7443px; top: 227.728px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.852489);" role="presentation"> purposive sampling technique was used to select respondents, whereby youth,&nbsp; </span></span><span id="page2391R_mcid26" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 239.517px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.835628);" role="presentation">local government officers and community residents were interviewed. </span></span><span id="page2391R_mcid27" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 302.039px; top: 239.815px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">T</span></span><span id="page2391R_mcid28" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 306.122px; top: 239.517px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.832074);" role="presentation">he findings&nbsp; </span></span><span id="page2391R_mcid29" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 251.306px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.831576);" role="presentation">revealed that </span></span><span id="page2391R_mcid30" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 103.922px; top: 251.604px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.865779);" role="presentation">SM</span></span><span id="page2391R_mcid31" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 114.429px; top: 251.306px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.843018);" role="presentation"> has both advantages and disadvantages in promoting peace and&nbsp; </span></span><span id="page2391R_mcid32" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 263.094px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.858374);" role="presentation">activating conflicts, depending on users’ perceptions and interests. </span></span><span id="page2391R_mcid33" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 298.628px; top: 263.393px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.877813);" role="presentation">SM</span></span><span id="page2391R_mcid34" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 309.27px; top: 263.094px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.808107);" role="presentation"> facilitates&nbsp; </span></span><span id="page2391R_mcid35" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 274.883px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.898475);" role="presentation">conflicts due to the </span></span><span id="page2391R_mcid36" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 131.161px; top: 275.181px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">S</span></span><span id="page2391R_mcid37" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 135.376px; top: 274.883px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.87519);" role="presentation">ocial </span></span><span id="page2391R_mcid38" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 155.157px; top: 275.181px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">M</span></span><span id="page2391R_mcid39" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 161.984px; top: 274.883px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.886633);" role="presentation">edia </span></span><span id="page2391R_mcid40" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 180.246px; top: 275.181px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">N</span></span><span id="page2391R_mcid41" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 185.861px; top: 274.883px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.916804);" role="presentation">etworks (</span></span><span id="page2391R_mcid42" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 220.448px; top: 275.181px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.907269);" role="presentation">SMN</span></span><span id="page2391R_mcid43" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 236.868px; top: 274.883px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.872493);" role="presentation">s) ability to spread fake news&nbsp; </span></span><span id="page2391R_mcid44" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 286.672px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.824047);" role="presentation">quickly, unfounded claims, and rumours. </span></span><span id="page2391R_mcid45" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 198.53px; top: 286.97px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">T</span></span><span id="page2391R_mcid46" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 202.606px; top: 286.672px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.848793);" role="presentation">hese promote conflicts between political&nbsp; </span></span><span id="page2391R_mcid47" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 298.46px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.890194);" role="presentation">opponents as well as causing mistrust among citizens and their leaders. </span></span><span id="page2391R_mcid48" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 324.592px; top: 298.759px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">S</span></span><span id="page2391R_mcid49" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 328.785px; top: 298.46px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.87397);" role="presentation">ome&nbsp; </span></span><span id="page2391R_mcid50" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 310.249px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.845029);" role="presentation">artists, especially comedians, instigate conflicts in society by editing political and&nbsp; </span></span><span id="page2391R_mcid51" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 322.038px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.83448);" role="presentation">religious leaders’ messages. </span></span><span id="page2391R_mcid52" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 156.667px; top: 322.336px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">O</span></span><span id="page2391R_mcid53" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 162.393px; top: 322.038px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.852943);" role="presentation">n the other hand, it was revealed that </span></span><span id="page2391R_mcid54" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 298.009px; top: 322.336px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.874031);" role="presentation">SM</span></span><span id="page2391R_mcid55" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 308.616px; top: 322.038px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.85724);" role="presentation"> promotes&nbsp; </span></span><span id="page2391R_mcid56" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 333.826px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.870683);" role="presentation">peace due to quicker transfer of relevant information that nurtures positive unit&nbsp; </span></span><span id="page2391R_mcid57" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 345.615px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.808078);" role="presentation">values, solidarity, respect and love among the group, society members, and citizens.&nbsp; </span></span><span id="page2391R_mcid58" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 357.702px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">T</span></span><span id="page2391R_mcid59" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 59.856px; top: 357.404px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.85993);" role="presentation">hese values promote good deeds, such as worshipping </span></span><span id="page2391R_mcid60" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 259.334px; top: 357.702px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">G</span></span><span id="page2391R_mcid61" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 264.781px; top: 357.404px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.886505);" role="presentation">od, working and living&nbsp; </span></span><span id="page2391R_mcid62" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 369.192px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.831331);" role="presentation">together amicably. </span></span><span id="page2391R_mcid63" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 122.489px; top: 369.491px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">H</span></span><span id="page2391R_mcid64" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 127.841px; top: 369.192px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.828115);" role="presentation">owever, the study found out that lack of appropriate education&nbsp; </span></span><span id="page2391R_mcid65" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 380.981px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.881725);" role="presentation">on </span></span><span id="page2391R_mcid66" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 67.3529px; top: 381.279px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.880908);" role="presentation">SM</span></span><span id="page2391R_mcid67" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 78.07px; top: 380.981px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.860705);" role="presentation">’s use and importance among many youths on youth development seems&nbsp; </span></span><span id="page2391R_mcid68" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 392.77px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.888069);" role="presentation">to have hindered </span></span><span id="page2391R_mcid69" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 120.528px; top: 393.068px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.886409);" role="presentation">SM</span></span><span id="page2391R_mcid70" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 131.275px; top: 392.77px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.881066);" role="presentation"> use in peace promotion. </span></span><span id="page2391R_mcid71" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 224.672px; top: 393.068px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">T</span></span><span id="page2391R_mcid72" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 228.893px; top: 392.77px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.871583);" role="presentation">he study calls for strengthening&nbsp; </span></span><span id="page2391R_mcid73" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 404.558px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.847702);" role="presentation">stakeholders’ initiative to educate and mobilise improved use of </span></span><span id="page2391R_mcid74" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 284.542px; top: 404.857px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.87128);" role="presentation">SM</span></span><span id="page2391R_mcid75" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 295.108px; top: 404.558px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.852767);" role="presentation"> among youth&nbsp; </span></span><span id="page2391R_mcid76" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 416.347px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.853817);" role="presentation">to sustain peace and security, which is a pre-condition for their self-development&nbsp; </span></span><span id="page2391R_mcid77" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 428.136px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.833124);" role="presentation">and prosperity of their country. <br></span></span></p> David J. Manyerere Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gjds/article/view/216881 Wed, 03 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Examining the Psychological Health Quality of Life of Older People with Disability in Selected Districts in Ghana https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gjds/article/view/216882 <p><span id="page3177R_mcid35" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 440.904px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.793046);" role="presentation">Older people in Ghana suffer from a wide range of disabilities including visual, </span></span><span id="page3177R_mcid36" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 452.693px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.851189);" role="presentation">physical, and hearing with serious ramifications on their quality of life. Therefore, </span></span><span id="page3177R_mcid37" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 464.481px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.817085);" role="presentation">this paper examines the psychological health quality of life (PHQOL) of older people&nbsp; </span></span><span id="page3177R_mcid38" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 476.27px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.776999);" role="presentation">with disability in selected Districts in the Upper West Region of Ghana. Through&nbsp; </span></span><span id="page3177R_mcid39" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 488.059px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.773125);" role="presentation">a census survey, questionnaires were used to obtain data from 810 respondents.<span id="page1R_mcid40" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 55.6196px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.811903);" role="presentation">Independent-samples t-test and one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) were used to&nbsp; </span></span><span id="page1R_mcid41" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 67.4083px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.817525);" role="presentation">examine their PHQOL. The results showed that mean scores in PHQOL were highest&nbsp; </span></span><span id="page1R_mcid42" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 79.1969px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.790587);" role="presentation">among those aged 60-69 and lowest for those aged 80 years and older with a&nbsp; </span></span><span id="page1R_mcid43" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 90.9856px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.779897);" role="presentation">significant difference [F (807) = 23.872 value, p = 0.000] in PHQOL of their ages. Those&nbsp; </span></span><span id="page1R_mcid44" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 102.774px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.865189);" role="presentation">who were married had the highest PHQOL mean score compared with those who&nbsp; </span></span><span id="page1R_mcid45" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 114.563px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.826712);" role="presentation">were separated / divorced and widowed with significant difference [F (807) = 42.690&nbsp; </span></span><span id="page1R_mcid46" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 126.352px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.802079);" role="presentation">value, p = 0.000] noticed in PHQOL across marital statuses. Also, those with physical&nbsp; </span></span><span id="page1R_mcid47" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 138.14px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.845556);" role="presentation">disability had a higher mean score in PHQOL than those with visual disability. The&nbsp; </span></span><span id="page1R_mcid48" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 149.929px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.806595);" role="presentation">study concludes that any geriatric policy interventions aimed at improving the&nbsp; </span></span><span id="page1R_mcid49" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 161.718px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.807495);" role="presentation">PHQOL of older people with disability ought not to downplay their background&nbsp; </span></span><span id="page1R_mcid50" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 173.506px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.815982);" role="presentation">characteristics </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 110.684px; top: 173.506px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.712283);" role="presentation">as </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 122.71px; top: 173.506px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.798761);" role="presentation">they </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 143.049px; top: 173.506px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.911504);" role="presentation">underpin </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 180.452px; top: 173.506px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.871212);" role="presentation">their </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 201.514px; top: 173.506px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.780259);" role="presentation">PHQOL. </span></span><span id="page1R_mcid51" class="markedContent"></span></span></span></p> Bismark Nantomah, Elijah Yendaw, Frank M. Borbor, Kwando Asante-Afari Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gjds/article/view/216882 Wed, 03 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Understanding the causes and dynamics of conflicts in Ghana: Insights from Bawku Traditional Area https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gjds/article/view/216883 <p><span id="page2463R_mcid9" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 179.988px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">A</span></span><span id="page2463R_mcid10" class="markedContent"> </span><span id="page2463R_mcid11" class="markedContent"> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 63.721px; top: 179.988px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">C</span></span><span id="page2463R_mcid12" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 68.6103px; top: 179.69px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.838956);" role="presentation">onflict can be resolved when there is an adequate understanding of its&nbsp; </span></span><span id="page2463R_mcid13" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 191.478px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.781774);" role="presentation">causes. </span></span><span id="page2463R_mcid14" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 84.2136px; top: 191.776px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">T</span></span><span id="page2463R_mcid15" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 88.4536px; top: 191.478px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.887237);" role="presentation">he objective of this study is to contribute to the understanding of the&nbsp; </span></span><span id="page2463R_mcid16" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 203.267px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.844725);" role="presentation">contributory factors of the </span></span><span id="page2463R_mcid17" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 151.983px; top: 203.565px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">B</span></span><span id="page2463R_mcid18" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 156.487px; top: 203.267px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.829279);" role="presentation">awku chieftaincy conflict as a case study and explore&nbsp; </span></span><span id="page2463R_mcid19" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 215.056px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.906583);" role="presentation">the lasting solutions to the conflict which contributes to the political, cultural,&nbsp; </span></span><span id="page2463R_mcid20" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 226.844px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.885789);" role="presentation">and socio-economic development. </span></span><span id="page2463R_mcid21" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 185.005px; top: 227.142px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">T</span></span><span id="page2463R_mcid22" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 189.216px; top: 226.844px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.859757);" role="presentation">he study surveyed 200 householders using </span></span><span id="page2463R_mcid23" class="markedContent"><br role="presentation"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 238.633px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.814623);" role="presentation">systematic and snow-balling in five spatial locations in the </span></span><span id="page2463R_mcid24" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 278.853px; top: 238.931px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">B</span></span><span id="page2463R_mcid25" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 283.512px; top: 238.633px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.904737);" role="presentation">awku </span></span><span id="page2463R_mcid26" class="markedContent"> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 305.829px; top: 238.931px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">T</span></span><span id="page2463R_mcid27" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 309.577px; top: 238.633px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.938914);" role="presentation">raditional&nbsp; </span></span><span id="page2463R_mcid28" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 250.72px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">A</span></span><span id="page2463R_mcid29" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60.7405px; top: 250.422px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.791975);" role="presentation">rea. </span></span><span id="page2463R_mcid30" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 75.9746px; top: 250.72px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">S</span></span><span id="page2463R_mcid31" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 80.0257px; top: 250.422px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.876602);" role="presentation">ubsequently, face-to-face interviews were conducted with the </span></span><span id="page2463R_mcid32" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 307.029px; top: 250.72px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">T</span></span><span id="page2463R_mcid33" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 310.662px; top: 250.422px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.911941);" role="presentation">raditional&nbsp; </span></span><span id="page2463R_mcid34" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 262.508px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">A</span></span><span id="page2463R_mcid35" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60.7401px; top: 262.21px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.906401);" role="presentation">uthorities, the </span></span><span id="page2463R_mcid36" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 115.11px; top: 262.508px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">P</span></span><span id="page2463R_mcid37" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 119.466px; top: 262.21px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.890305);" role="presentation">olice, and the </span></span><span id="page2463R_mcid38" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 171.982px; top: 262.508px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">B</span></span><span id="page2463R_mcid39" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 176.617px; top: 262.21px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.939022);" role="presentation">elim-</span></span><span id="page2463R_mcid40" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 195.461px; top: 262.508px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">W</span></span><span id="page2463R_mcid41" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 202.399px; top: 262.21px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.807301);" role="presentation">usa </span></span><span id="page2463R_mcid42" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 217.385px; top: 262.508px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">D</span></span><span id="page2463R_mcid43" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 223.062px; top: 262.21px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.893247);" role="presentation">evelopment </span></span><span id="page2463R_mcid44" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 269.965px; top: 262.508px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">A</span></span><span id="page2463R_mcid45" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 275.071px; top: 262.21px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.853263);" role="presentation">gency to verify the&nbsp; </span></span><span id="page2463R_mcid46" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 273.999px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.893338);" role="presentation">claims made in the survey and to obtain further insights into the conflict. </span></span><span id="page2463R_mcid47" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 331.771px; top: 274.297px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">T</span></span><span id="page2463R_mcid48" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 336.045px; top: 273.999px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.853396);" role="presentation">he&nbsp; </span></span><span id="page2463R_mcid49" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 285.788px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.87332);" role="presentation">responses obtained from the interviews were analyzed for patterns and themes </span></span><span id="page2463R_mcid50" class="markedContent"><br role="presentation"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 297.576px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.823438);" role="presentation">and used as narratives in the work. </span></span><span id="page2463R_mcid51" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 179.195px; top: 297.874px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">T</span></span><span id="page2463R_mcid52" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 183.296px; top: 297.576px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.866629);" role="presentation">he geographical location and socio-economic&nbsp; </span></span><span id="page2463R_mcid53" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 309.365px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.849587);" role="presentation">activities such as population growth, farming, and poverty have made the </span></span><span id="page2463R_mcid54" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 321.592px; top: 309.663px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">B</span></span><span id="page2463R_mcid55" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 326.095px; top: 309.365px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.877109);" role="presentation">awku&nbsp; </span></span><span id="page2463R_mcid56" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 321.452px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">T</span></span><span id="page2463R_mcid57" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 59.4394px; top: 321.154px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.942566);" role="presentation">raditional </span></span><span id="page2463R_mcid58" class="markedContent"> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 97.7391px; top: 321.452px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">A</span></span><span id="page2463R_mcid59" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 102.897px; top: 321.154px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.812517);" role="presentation">rea more prone to persistent conflicts. </span></span><span id="page2463R_mcid60" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 249.987px; top: 321.452px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">A</span></span><span id="page2463R_mcid61" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 255.132px; top: 321.154px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.849496);" role="presentation">gain, other contributory&nbsp; </span></span><span id="page2463R_mcid62" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 332.942px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.848585);" role="presentation">factors included; political interference, freedom from fear, a proliferation of small&nbsp; </span></span><span id="page2463R_mcid63" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 344.731px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.80922);" role="presentation">arms, and inadequate access to social services. </span></span><span id="page2463R_mcid64" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 222.397px; top: 345.029px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">T</span></span><span id="page2463R_mcid65" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 226.532px; top: 344.731px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.867624);" role="presentation">he empirical findings support the&nbsp; </span></span><span id="page2463R_mcid66" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6945px; top: 356.52px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.868236);" role="presentation">proposition that political interventions sowed the seed of the </span></span><span id="page2463R_mcid67" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 276.27px; top: 356.818px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">B</span></span><span id="page2463R_mcid68" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 280.769px; top: 356.52px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.84031);" role="presentation">awku conflict. </span></span><span id="page2463R_mcid69" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 332.037px; top: 356.818px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">T</span></span><span id="page2463R_mcid70" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 336.181px; top: 356.52px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.842889);" role="presentation">he&nbsp; </span></span><span id="page2463R_mcid71" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 368.308px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.858269);" role="presentation">study recommended that the </span></span><span id="page2463R_mcid72" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 162.134px; top: 368.606px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">N</span></span><span id="page2463R_mcid73" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 167.552px; top: 368.308px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.874011);" role="presentation">ational </span></span><span id="page2463R_mcid74" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 193.758px; top: 368.606px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">P</span></span><span id="page2463R_mcid75" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 197.98px; top: 368.308px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.793876);" role="presentation">eace </span></span><span id="page2463R_mcid76" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 216.223px; top: 368.606px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">C</span></span><span id="page2463R_mcid77" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 220.855px; top: 368.308px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.876797);" role="presentation">ouncil should organize a workshop&nbsp; </span></span><span id="page2463R_mcid78" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6945px; top: 380.097px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.822254);" role="presentation">to educate the political parties on the need to stay away from chieftaincy matters. <br></span></span></p> Lawrence Opoku Agyeman Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gjds/article/view/216883 Wed, 03 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Inflation on Gross Domestic Product Growth in Ghana https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gjds/article/view/216884 <p><span id="page1584R_mcid9" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 206.272px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">T</span></span><span id="page1584R_mcid10" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 59.8834px; top: 205.974px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.868508);" role="presentation">his paper examines the impact of inflation and other macroeconomic variables&nbsp; </span></span><span id="page1584R_mcid11" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 217.763px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.811013);" role="presentation">such as physical capital, government expenditure, and money supply on </span></span><span id="page1584R_mcid12" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 329.764px; top: 218.061px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.92326);" role="presentation">GDP</span></span><span id="page1584R_mcid13" class="markedContent">&nbsp; </span><span id="page1584R_mcid14" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 229.551px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.901762);" role="presentation">growth in </span></span><span id="page1584R_mcid15" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 91.7524px; top: 229.849px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">G</span></span><span id="page1584R_mcid16" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 97.0887px; top: 229.551px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.814959);" role="presentation">hana. </span></span><span id="page1584R_mcid17" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 118.076px; top: 229.849px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">T</span></span><span id="page1584R_mcid18" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 122.178px; top: 229.551px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.83737);" role="presentation">he study obtained data from the </span></span><span id="page1584R_mcid19" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 237.722px; top: 229.849px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">W</span></span><span id="page1584R_mcid20" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 244.458px; top: 229.551px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.894039);" role="presentation">orld </span></span><span id="page1584R_mcid21" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 260.356px; top: 229.849px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">D</span></span><span id="page1584R_mcid22" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 265.873px; top: 229.551px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.860645);" role="presentation">evelopment </span></span><span id="page1584R_mcid23" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 310.438px; top: 229.849px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">I</span></span><span id="page1584R_mcid24" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 312.34px; top: 229.551px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.848625);" role="presentation">ndicators&nbsp; </span></span><span id="page1584R_mcid25" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 241.34px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.837987);" role="presentation">for the period 1986-2018 and employed vector autoregressive (</span></span><span id="page1584R_mcid26" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 297.954px; top: 241.638px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.928027);" role="presentation">VAR</span></span><span id="page1584R_mcid27" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 312.162px; top: 241.34px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.796533);" role="presentation">) models&nbsp; </span></span><span id="page1584R_mcid28" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 253.129px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.756055);" role="presentation">for the analysis. </span></span><span id="page1584R_mcid29" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 116.926px; top: 253.427px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">T</span></span><span id="page1584R_mcid30" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 121.224px; top: 253.129px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.823735);" role="presentation">he results showed that general inflation, low inflation rates, </span></span><span id="page1584R_mcid31" class="markedContent"><br role="presentation"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 264.917px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.843109);" role="presentation">physical capital, and money supply have positive, statistically, significant, effect&nbsp; </span></span><span id="page1584R_mcid32" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 276.706px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.872548);" role="presentation">on </span></span><span id="page1584R_mcid33" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 67.0313px; top: 277.004px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.896562);" role="presentation">GDP</span></span><span id="page1584R_mcid34" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 82.2578px; top: 276.706px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.865592);" role="presentation"> growth, while, government expenditure and high inflation have negative,&nbsp; </span></span><span id="page1584R_mcid35" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 288.495px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.852393);" role="presentation">statistically significant, effect on </span></span><span id="page1584R_mcid36" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 176.714px; top: 288.793px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.915494);" role="presentation">GDP</span></span><span id="page1584R_mcid37" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 192.259px; top: 288.495px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.913306);" role="presentation"> growth for the period studied. </span></span><span id="page1584R_mcid38" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 309.142px; top: 288.793px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">T</span></span><span id="page1584R_mcid39" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 313.383px; top: 288.495px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.853393);" role="presentation">he study&nbsp; </span></span><span id="page1584R_mcid40" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 300.283px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.872391);" role="presentation">concludes that </span></span><span id="page1584R_mcid41" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 111.525px; top: 300.581px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.908698);" role="presentation">GDP</span></span><span id="page1584R_mcid42" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 126.965px; top: 300.283px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.864675);" role="presentation"> grows positively at a general level of inflation and low rates&nbsp; </span></span><span id="page1584R_mcid43" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 312.072px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.883633);" role="presentation">of inflation but grows negatively at a high rate of inflation in </span></span><span id="page1584R_mcid44" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 280.115px; top: 312.37px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">G</span></span><span id="page1584R_mcid45" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 285.582px; top: 312.072px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.84126);" role="presentation">hana. </span></span><span id="page1584R_mcid46" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 307.795px; top: 312.37px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">T</span></span><span id="page1584R_mcid47" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 312.028px; top: 312.072px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.844207);" role="presentation">he study,&nbsp; </span></span><span id="page1584R_mcid48" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 323.861px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.87961);" role="presentation">therefore, recommends that government should implement</span></span><span id="page1584R_mcid49" class="markedContent"> </span><span id="page1584R_mcid50" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 274.076px; top: 323.861px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.84116);" role="presentation">monetary and fiscal&nbsp; </span></span><span id="page1584R_mcid51" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 335.649px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.906511);" role="presentation">policies that will help keep inflation rates low and redirect her spending to the&nbsp; </span></span><span id="page1584R_mcid52" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 55.6944px; top: 347.438px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.839501);" role="presentation">productive sectors in the country to</span></span><span id="page1584R_mcid53" class="markedContent"> </span><span id="page1584R_mcid54" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 183.332px; top: 347.438px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.849987);" role="presentation">enhance </span></span><span id="page1584R_mcid55" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 215.491px; top: 347.736px; font-size: 8.25206px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.890738);" role="presentation">GDP</span></span><span id="page1584R_mcid56" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 230.617px; top: 347.438px; font-size: 8.64502px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.892297);" role="presentation"> growth.</span></span></p> Justine G. Kankpeyeng, Ishaque Maham, Marzuk Abubakar Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gjds/article/view/216884 Wed, 03 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Organizational Conflicts and Performance Outcomes: The Perspective of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research — Savanna Agricultural Research Institute https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gjds/article/view/216885 <p>No Abstract</p> John Yaw Akparep, Asiata Alhaji Ali, Bismark Yeboah Boasu Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gjds/article/view/216885 Wed, 03 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000