Causal Variables and Academic Performance of Students in Cross River State: A Basis for Counselling and Programme Planning

  • PMA Adadu
  • GE Okoli
  • AO Bassey
Keywords: Causal Variables, A Basis For Counselling, Programme Planning, Rejuvenation Of Teaching-Learning


This study investigated the causal variables (Child, Family, School, Society and Government) and academic performance of secondary school students in Cross River State: A basis for counselling and programme planning. The study adopted the descriptive survey method. It made use of two research questions and population of 850 Senior Secondary School Students. It used a sample of 200 students in SSII randomly selected from 20 public secondary schools. It made use of the five-factor inventory (AP5-F1) consisting of five sub-sectors of twenty items each. Multiple regression statistics was used to analyse the data. The result of question one (Q1) showed that the causal variables combined, impact significantly on academic performance of learners. The result of question two (Q2) showed that the relative effect of the causal variables is insignificant with the exception of the causation resident in the child or learner. A basis for counselling and programme planning was indicated to rejuvenate a good teaching-learning atmosphere in our schools for the benefit of the state and the nation at large.

Journal Identifiers

eISSN: 1596-6224