Global Journal of Educational Research https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gjedr <p><em>Global Journal of Education Research</em> is aimed at promoting research in all areas of Education including curriculum development, educational technology, foundation, administration etc.</p><p><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:WordDocument> <w:View>Normal</w:View> <w:Zoom>0</w:Zoom> <w:PunctuationKerning /> <w:ValidateAgainstSchemas /> <w:SaveIfXMLInvalid>false</w:SaveIfXMLInvalid> <w:IgnoreMixedContent>false</w:IgnoreMixedContent> <w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText>false</w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText> <w:Compatibility> <w:BreakWrappedTables /> <w:SnapToGridInCell /> <w:WrapTextWithPunct /> <w:UseAsianBreakRules /> <w:DontGrowAutofit /> </w:Compatibility> <w:BrowserLevel>MicrosoftInternetExplorer4</w:BrowserLevel> </w:WordDocument> </xml><![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:LatentStyles DefLockedState="false" LatentStyleCount="156"> </w:LatentStyles> </xml><![endif]--> <!-- /* Style Definitions */ p.MsoNormal, li.MsoNormal, div.MsoNormal {mso-style-parent:""; margin:0cm; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";} @page Section1 {size:612.0pt 792.0pt; margin:72.0pt 90.0pt 72.0pt 90.0pt; mso-header-margin:35.4pt; mso-footer-margin:35.4pt; mso-paper-source:0;} div.Section1 {page:Section1;} --> <!--[if gte mso 10]> <mce:style><! /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} --> <!--[endif]--></p><p class="MsoNormal">Visit the Global Journal Series website here: <a title="http://www.globaljournalseries.com/" href="http://www.globaljournalseries.com/" target="_blank">http://www.globaljournalseries.com/</a></p><p> </p> Bachudo Science Company Limited en-US Global Journal of Educational Research 1596-6224 © 2018. This work is licensed under the creative commons Attribution 4.0 International license. Leadership Styles of Social Studies Teachers and Academic Achievement of Junior Secondary School Students in Social Studies in Calabar Metropolis, Cross River State Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gjedr/article/view/218773 <p><span id="page3R_mcid14" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 96.04px; top: 400.69px; font-size: 16.6px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(1.06258);" role="presentation">This study was carried out to determine leadership styles of Social Studies teachers and academic</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 96.04px; top: 419.89px; font-size: 16.6px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(1.0317);" role="presentation">achievement of junior secondary school students in Social Studies in Calabar Metropolis, Cross River </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 96.04px; top: 439.09px; font-size: 16.6px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(1.01373);" role="presentation">State-Nigeria. Ex-post facto research design was adopted. The simple random sampling technique was</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 96.04px; top: 458.29px; font-size: 16.6px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(1.03752);" role="presentation">used in selecting the six public secondary schools used for the study. A sample of two hundred junior</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 96.04px; top: 477.49px; font-size: 16.6px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(1.02378);" role="presentation">secondary school three students (JSS 3) was drawn from the population and used for the study. Three</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 96.04px; top: 496.49px; font-size: 16.6px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(1.02373);" role="presentation">research questions and hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Data were collected using two</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 96.04px; top: 515.69px; font-size: 16.6px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(1.00165);" role="presentation">researcher</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 186.709px; top: 515.69px; font-size: 16.6px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(1.0072);" role="presentation">made</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 239.862px; top: 515.69px; font-size: 16.6px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(1.00123);" role="presentation">instruments</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 337.172px; top: 515.69px; font-size: 16.6px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(1.00238);" role="presentation">tagged</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 399.339px; top: 515.69px; font-size: 16.6px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(1.00254);" role="presentation">“Social</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 461.688px; top: 515.69px; font-size: 16.6px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.999599);" role="presentation">Studies</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 528.453px; top: 515.69px; font-size: 16.6px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(1.03138);" role="presentation">Teachers</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 609.362px; top: 515.69px; font-size: 16.6px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(1.00105);" role="presentation">Leadership</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 703.085px; top: 515.69px; font-size: 16.6px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.997836);" role="presentation">Styles</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 759.625px; top: 515.69px; font-size: 16.6px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(1.00211);" role="presentation">Questionnaire</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 96.04px; top: 534.924px; font-size: 16.6px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(1.04116);" role="presentation">(STLSQ) and Social Studies Achievement Test (SOSAT) The Data Collected was analysed using the</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 96.04px; top: 554.124px; font-size: 16.6px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(1.02973);" role="presentation">Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and the Fisher Least Square Difference (SLD) was used in the multiple</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 96.04px; top: 573.324px; font-size: 16.6px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(1.03535);" role="presentation">comparism. The findings of the study revealed significant differences in the academic achievement of</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 96.04px; top: 592.524px; font-size: 16.6px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(1.04856);" role="presentation">students based on&nbsp; their teachers’ lead</span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 390.483px; top: 592.524px; font-size: 16.6px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(1.04896);" role="presentation">ership styles. Students taught by teachers with autocratic and</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 96.04px; top: 611.524px; font-size: 16.6px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(1.0542);" role="presentation">laissez-faire leadership styles had a lower LSD&nbsp; value compared to students taught by teachers with</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 96.04px; top: 630.724px; font-size: 16.6px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(1.00336);" role="presentation">democratic</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 191.523px; top: 630.724px; font-size: 16.6px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.999794);" role="presentation">leadership</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 282.043px; top: 630.724px; font-size: 16.6px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.998648);" role="presentation">styles.</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 342.965px; top: 630.724px; font-size: 16.6px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(1.00323);" role="presentation">Students</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 422.695px; top: 630.724px; font-size: 16.6px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(1.00212);" role="presentation">taught</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 482.853px; top: 630.724px; font-size: 16.6px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(1.00879);" role="presentation">by</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 514.211px; top: 630.724px; font-size: 16.6px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(1.00317);" role="presentation">teachers</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 592.297px; top: 630.724px; font-size: 16.6px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.996281);" role="presentation">with</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 635.474px; top: 630.724px; font-size: 16.6px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(1.00357);" role="presentation">democratic</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 730.774px; top: 630.724px; font-size: 16.6px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(1.00598);" role="presentation">styles&nbsp; </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 787.281px; top: 630.724px; font-size: 16.6px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(1.00786);" role="presentation">performed</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 96.04px; top: 649.924px; font-size: 16.6px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(1.06615);" role="presentation">academically higher than those taught by teachers with either autocratic or laissez-faire leadership</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 96.04px; top: 669.124px; font-size: 16.6px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(1.0403);" role="presentation">styles. Based on this, it was recommended amongst other things that Social Studies teachers imbibe</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 96.04px; top: 688.324px; font-size: 16.6px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(1.03433);" role="presentation">more of democratic rather than autocratic or laissez faire leadership styles in their classroom and that</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 96.04px; top: 707.324px; font-size: 16.6px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(1.04382);" role="presentation">educational administrator should organize workshop and seminars for teachers on proper classroom </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 96.04px; top: 726.524px; font-size: 16.6px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(1.00541);" role="presentation">management.</span></span></p> Edward Ogar Odey Esther Edward Odey Copyright (c) 2021-12-14 2021-12-14 20 2 97 105 10.4314/gjedr.v20i2.1 Perception of Undergraduate Students on Availability and Utilization of Interactive White Board on Performance in Biology https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gjedr/article/view/218775 <p><span id="page3R_mcid15" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 96.04px; top: 408.49px; font-size: 16.6px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(1.04817);" role="presentation">The aim of this research is to assess availability and utilization of Interactive White Boards (IWBs) in</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 96.04px; top: 427.69px; font-size: 16.6px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(1.05448);" role="presentation">teaching and learning of&nbsp; Biology among Undergraduate students in Sokoto State. The research is a</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 96.04px; top: 446.89px; font-size: 16.6px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(1.01258);" role="presentation">descriptive survey with a</span></span><span id="page3R_mcid16" class="markedContent"></span><span id="page3R_mcid17" class="markedContent"> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 284.483px; top: 446.89px; font-size: 16.6px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(1.01746);" role="presentation">population of 587 and a sample size of 234 100 level students of Science and</span></span><span id="page3R_mcid18" class="markedContent"> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 96.04px; top: 466.09px; font-size: 16.6px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(1.05376);" role="presentation">Vocational Education department who are offering biology courses at Usmanu Danfodiyo University</span></span><span id="page3R_mcid19" class="markedContent"> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 96.04px; top: 485.29px; font-size: 16.6px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(1.06266);" role="presentation">Sokoto. A self</span></span><span id="page3R_mcid20" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 205.033px; top: 485.29px; font-size: 16.6px; font-family: sans-serif;" role="presentation">-</span></span><span id="page3R_mcid21" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 210.633px; top: 485.29px; font-size: 16.6px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(1.02749);" role="presentation">designed questio</span></span><span id="page3R_mcid22" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 339.883px; top: 485.29px; font-size: 16.6px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(1.06333);" role="presentation">nnaire tagged „Assessment of the use of Interactive White Board in</span></span><span id="page3R_mcid23" class="markedContent"> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 96.04px; top: 504.29px; font-size: 16.6px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(1.07572);" role="presentation">Teaching and</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 212.323px; top: 504.29px; font-size: 16.6px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(1.04462);" role="presentation">Learning Biology‟ (AIWBTLB)</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 449.736px; top: 504.29px; font-size: 16.6px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.998099);" role="presentation">and</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 487.518px; top: 504.29px; font-size: 16.6px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(1.07195);" role="presentation">Biology Performance Test</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 700.147px; top: 504.29px; font-size: 16.6px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.999446);" role="presentation">(BTP)</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 753.5px; top: 504.29px; font-size: 16.6px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(1.11115);" role="presentation">were used as</span></span><span id="page3R_mcid24" class="markedContent"> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 96.04px; top: 523.49px; font-size: 16.6px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(1.01193);" role="presentation">instruments for data collection. The instruments were validated by experts and exhibited reliability</span></span><span id="page3R_mcid25" class="markedContent"></span><span id="page3R_mcid26" class="markedContent"> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 824.367px; top: 523.49px; font-size: 16.6px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(1.00081);" role="presentation">index</span></span><span id="page3R_mcid27" class="markedContent"> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 96.04px; top: 542.724px; font-size: 16.6px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(1.06161);" role="presentation">of 0.87 and 0.77 using Cronbach alpha and split half method respectively. The data generated was</span></span><span id="page3R_mcid28" class="markedContent"> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 96.04px; top: 561.924px; font-size: 16.6px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(1.06353);" role="presentation">statistically analyzed using descriptive statistics and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Findings</span></span><span id="page3R_mcid29" class="markedContent"> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 96.04px; top: 581.124px; font-size: 16.6px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(1.00174);" role="presentation">revealed</span></span><span id="page3R_mcid30" class="markedContent"></span><span id="page3R_mcid31" class="markedContent"> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 165.24px; top: 581.124px; font-size: 16.6px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(1.02214);" role="presentation">that the required IWBs for teaching and le</span></span><span id="page3R_mcid32" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 478.517px; top: 581.124px; font-size: 16.6px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(1.01806);" role="presentation">arning Biology were not available; and the available</span></span><span id="page3R_mcid33" class="markedContent"> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 96.04px; top: 600.324px; font-size: 16.6px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(1.02605);" role="presentation">IWBs were not adequately utilized. Equally important, a positive relationship was found between IWBs</span></span><span id="page3R_mcid34" class="markedContent"> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 96.04px; top: 619.324px; font-size: 16.6px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(1.03162);" role="presentation">utilization and undergraduate students‟ performance in biology. It was however recommended among</span></span><span id="page3R_mcid35" class="markedContent"> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 96.04px; top: 638.524px; font-size: 16.6px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.997691);" role="presentation">other</span></span><span id="page3R_mcid36" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 133.84px; top: 638.524px; font-size: 16.6px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(1.0327);" role="presentation">s that, government; management of universities should as a matter of urgent importance provide</span></span><span id="page3R_mcid37" class="markedContent"> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 96.04px; top: 657.724px; font-size: 16.6px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(1.07463);" role="presentation">adequate IWBs devices for the teaching and learning of Biology in the universities; and to provide</span></span><span id="page3R_mcid38" class="markedContent"> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 96.04px; top: 676.924px; font-size: 16.6px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(1.03746);" role="presentation">modalities in which students are encouraged to make full use o</span></span><span id="page3R_mcid39" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 575.917px; top: 676.924px; font-size: 16.6px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(1.04387);" role="presentation">f IWBs in the teaching and learning of </span></span><span id="page3R_mcid40" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 96.04px; top: 696.124px; font-size: 16.6px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(1.01968);" role="presentation">Biology. <br></span></span></p> Suleiman Sa’adu Mataz Copyright (c) 2021-12-14 2021-12-14 20 2 107 115 10.4314/gjedr.v20i2.2 Teachers’ pedagogic variables and students’ academic performance in social studies in Calabar education zone, cross river State-Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gjedr/article/view/218871 <p>This study was carried out to determine teacher pedagogic variables and the differences that exist in the academic performance of secondary schools’ students in Socials Studies in Calabar Education Zone, Cross River State, Nigeria. The population of the study comprised of all the 126 Social Studies teachers and 6476 JSS3 students in the 72 public secondary schools in Calabar Education Zone. Since all the 126 Social Studies teachers and 6476 students were manageable for the study, purposive sampling was adopted. Ex-post facto research design was used for the study. Data collection was obtained with the use of researcher’s made questionnaire tagged Teacher Pedagogic Variables Questionnaire (TPVQ) and Social Studies Academic Records (SSAR). The instrument had reliability co-efficient 0.793 for the TPVQ. Results from the analysis show no significant difference in the academic performance of students in Socials Studies in terms of teachers’ educational qualification and experience. It was therefore recommended among others that teacher training institutions should scrutinize would-be teachers to ensure that their interest is continuous in their teaching subject.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Teachers’ Pedagogy, Variables, Academic Performance, Social Studies.</p> Edward Ogar Odey Esther Edward Odey Copyright (c) 2021-12-14 2021-12-14 20 2 117 126 Education, accountability and transparency: A catalyst for sustainable development in Nigeria society https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gjedr/article/view/218874 <p>The paper examined education, accountability and transparency, a catalyst for sustainable development in Nigeria Society. Education in this context is seen as a tool in ensuring accountability and transparency and also to attain sustainable development. It also paraphrased some key concepts such as, education, accountability, transparency and sustainable development. The theory of structural functionalism was adopted to offer credence to the paper. The paper also comments on the factors that hinder sustainable development in Nigeria such as poor leadership, poor resource management, lack of accountability and public employees, weak governmental institutions and high cost of governance and also the strategies to improve transparency and accountability in education to achieve sustainable development. The paper therefore summarizes Education as a tool in ensuring transparency and accountability as it, instills in citizen, good moral behaviour, norms, values, honesty, good attitude and so on toward work delivery, to achieved sustainable development in Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Keyword:</strong> Education, Accountability, Transparency and Sustainable Development</p> Peter Ogbaji Onah Matilda Ernest Eteng Adie Rose Unwanung Copyright (c) 2021-12-14 2021-12-14 20 2 127 137 Role of gender in students’ perception of research and statistics in education: A panacea for sustainable governance https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gjedr/article/view/218875 <p>The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of gender on students‟ perception of research and statistics among post graduate students in Abia State University as a panacea for sustainable governance. A survey design was used. Two hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. A sample of 150 post graduate students from Abia State University was drawn using stratified random sampling and purposive sampling techniques. The study used a 26-item instrument. The statistical technique used in testing the hypotheses was the independent T-test. Results showed that gender do not have any significant influence on the perception of research methods by students but had effect on their perception of statistics. It was recommended that, students should endeavor to master the skills and techniques that research and statistics will proffer to them; since when they graduate, they will be expected to go into the society, identity problems, follow the acquired techniques and proffer solution to the societal problems. When this is actualized, every citizen will contribute his/her part towards actualizing sustainable governance irrespective of his/her gender.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Gender role, Students‟ perception, Research, Statistics and Sustainable Governance</p> Chidirim Esther Nwogwugwu Sylvia Victor Ovat Copyright (c) 2021-12-14 2021-12-14 20 2 139 143 Assessment of school location, class size and academic performance of upper basic students in Cross River State, Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gjedr/article/view/218876 <p>The main thrust of this study was to assess the influence of school location and class size on academic performance of upper basic nine students in Cross River State, Nigeria. The design adopted for the study was ex-post facto research design. A sample of 1600 upper basic nine students was drawn from 81 out of 464 secondary schools in Cross River State using stratified and simple random sampling techniques. The data analysis techniques used included independent t-test and one-way analysis of variance. The results revealed that, there was a significant influence of school location on upper basic nine students’ academic performance: urban students performed significantly better than their rural counterparts in core subjects like Mathematics and Basic Science. Again, there was a significant influence of class size on the academic performance of upper basic nine students. Recommendations were made among others that, class sizes in schools should be relatively small to encourage effective learning, and that modern facilities and instructional materials should be provided for rural students who lack the opportunity of urban life and learning experiences. Furthermore, conducive learning environment such as spacious classrooms, well-equipped laboratories, accessible library facilities, recreational facilities, etc., should be made available to all upper basic nine students, irrespective of their location – urban or rural schools.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> School location, Class size, Academic performance, Secondary education and Upper basic students</p> Sylvia V. Ovat C. E. Nwogwugwu Delight O. Idika Copyright (c) 2021-12-14 2021-12-14 20 2 145 151 Effect of instructional materials on students’ academic achievement in fishery in senior secondary schools https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gjedr/article/view/218878 <p>This study determined the effects of instructional materials on students’ academic achievement in Fishery in senior secondary schools. The study used a quasi-comparative-experimental research design. The study was carried in Enugu State, Nigeria, precisely in Nsukka Education Zone. The population of the study was 5726, which comprised all the SS II students in senior secondary school offering Fishery in Enugu State. The sample size for this study was 161 SS II Fishery students in 4 intact classes drawn from rural and urban senior secondary schools. An instrument titled “Fishery Achievement Test (FAT)” was used for data collection. The instrument was subjected to face and content validation by three experts. The instrument was trial tested on 50 SS II students in coeducational secondary school (intact class). Kuder-Richardson formula (K-R<sub>21</sub>) was used to determine reliability of the test which gave a coefficient of 0.81. Data collected was analyzed using mean to answer the research questions while Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) to test the null hypotheses at .05 level of significance. It was found that instructional materials had an increasing effect on student’s achievement in Fishery in secondary schools, instructional materials has more increasing effect on female than male students’ achievement in Fishery in secondary schools and instructional materials has more increasing effect on urban than rural senior secondary schools students’ achievement in Fishery. It was therefore recommended among others that teachers should always make use of instructional materials in Fishery during classroom instructions to enhance the students’ achievement in Fishery.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> academic achievement, fishery, instructional delivery, teachers, teaching resources</p> Vincent Chidindu Asogwa Edward Chukwuka Isiwu Cajethan Uche Ugwuoke Copyright (c) 2021-12-14 2021-12-14 20 2 153 161 Perceived teacher’s culture and teaching of environmental education at the Universal Basic Education (UBE) level in Cross River State, Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gjedr/article/view/218879 <p>This study investigated perceived influence of teachers’ culture and Teaching of Environmental Education at the UBE Level in Cross River State. One hypothesis was used to guide the study. A sample of 450 teachers was used from the 3 education zones of the state. Proportionate stratified random sampling was used to select the sample size of the teachers. The researcher designed and administered an instrument titled, Perceived Influence of Teachers’ Culture and Teaching of Environmental Education questionnaire (PITCTEEQ) which was the main instrument used for data collection. An Ex-post Facto design was adopted for the study. The reliability estimate of the instrument was established through Cronbach Alpha Reliability Method with reliability index of 0.81. ANOVA was the statistical techniques employed to test the null hypothesis under study. 10 items questionnaire was adopted. Each was tested at .05 level of significance. The result of the analysis revealed that: There was no statistically significant difference between male and female teachers in their teaching of Environmental Education with respect to TCC, KSM, TCM, TCWS and TEC. Teachers’ culture showed significant influence on the teaching of EE in the study area. By these findings, the study recommended among others that UBE teachers must be aware that culture and the concept of EE are two different ways of knowing, and therefore, their attitudes towards the teaching of EE have to be unrelated to their cultural beliefs.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Teachers, Culture, Teaching, Environmental Education</p> Charles Edet Kingsley Copyright (c) 2021-12-14 2021-12-14 20 2 163 171 Collection development policy on library resources and users in university libraries in South-South Geo-political zone of Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gjedr/article/view/218880 <p>The study examined the effect of collection development policy on library resources and users in university libraries in South-South Geo-Political Zone of Nigeria. A collection development policy established ground rules for planning and budgeting, selecting and acquiring library resources. These documents provide a framework for coordinated collection development programmes for academic libraries for effective service to the academic community. A descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. A purposive sampling technique was used to draw a sample of one hundred and fifty (150) library users from three university libraries namely: University of Calabar (UNICAL), Cross River State University of Technology (CRUTECH) and University of Uyo (UNIUYO). The instrument used to collect data was titled: Collection Development Policy on Library Resources and Users Questionnaire (CDPLRUQ). Cronbach Alpha reliability coefficient of 0.78 was established. Simple percentages were used to analyze the data collected from the respondents. From the findings, it was observed that problems such funding pattern, information explosion and inflation were some of the variables affecting the smooth collection development policy in Nigerian university libraries. It was recommended that, the university libraries should train the librarians on business and negotiation skill that will enable them to understand the integrity of licensing and negotiation involved in the subscription of resources. More so, there should be an increase in the internet bandwidth in order to improve the network access to resources on regular basis.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Collection development, policy, library resources, library users, university libraries</p> Margaret Sylvanus Umoh Anthony Pius Effiom Mayen Ndaro Igaja Copyright (c) 2021-12-14 2021-12-14 20 2 173 179