Global Journal of Educational Research <p><em>Global Journal of Education Research</em> is aimed at promoting research in all areas of Education including curriculum development, educational technology, foundation, administration etc.</p><p><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:WordDocument> <w:View>Normal</w:View> <w:Zoom>0</w:Zoom> <w:PunctuationKerning /> <w:ValidateAgainstSchemas /> <w:SaveIfXMLInvalid>false</w:SaveIfXMLInvalid> <w:IgnoreMixedContent>false</w:IgnoreMixedContent> <w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText>false</w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText> <w:Compatibility> <w:BreakWrappedTables /> <w:SnapToGridInCell /> <w:WrapTextWithPunct /> <w:UseAsianBreakRules /> <w:DontGrowAutofit /> </w:Compatibility> <w:BrowserLevel>MicrosoftInternetExplorer4</w:BrowserLevel> </w:WordDocument> </xml><![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:LatentStyles DefLockedState="false" LatentStyleCount="156"> </w:LatentStyles> </xml><![endif]--> <!-- /* Style Definitions */ p.MsoNormal, li.MsoNormal, div.MsoNormal {mso-style-parent:""; margin:0cm; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";} @page Section1 {size:612.0pt 792.0pt; margin:72.0pt 90.0pt 72.0pt 90.0pt; mso-header-margin:35.4pt; mso-footer-margin:35.4pt; mso-paper-source:0;} div.Section1 {page:Section1;} --> <!--[if gte mso 10]> <mce:style><! /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} --> <!--[endif]--></p><p class="MsoNormal">Visit the Global Journal Series website here: <a title="" href="" target="_blank"></a></p><p> </p> Bachudo Science Company Limited en-US Global Journal of Educational Research 1596-6224 © 2018. This work is licensed under the creative commons Attribution 4.0 International license. The influence of school type on pupils’ proficiency in selected school subjects: Implications for curriculum implementation in Ghana <p>This research examined the influence of private and public schools on pupils‟ proficiency in mathematics and English language subjects. The theoretical model that supported the study was the bioecological model of human development. The sample comprised 16,481 Primary 3 and 14,495 Primary 6 pupils from 448 and 426 schools respectively. The research design was a descriptive cross-sectional survey. Schools were sampled using a stratified random sampling technique. Data were analyzed using a multilevel modeling technique. The significance or otherwise of the influence of school type on pupils‟ proficiency in both subjects was assessed at p &lt; 0.001. The results showed that many pupils performed below the minimum competency level in both subjects uniquely because they attended public schools. Conversely, many pupils were found to be proficient in both subjects exclusively because they attended private schools. The research findings suggest that the type of primary schools pupils attend in Ghana significantly mattered for their academic success and the progression from one grade-level to another. The results imply that learning opportunities are not equal for all pupils. This has implications for the effective implementation of the primary school curriculum in the country. To improve upon the academic achievement of primary school children in Ghana, first, there is the need to eliminate the achievement gap between private and public schools.</p> Maxwell Kwesi Nyatsikor Winston Kwame Abroampa Kweku Esia-Donkoh Copyright (c) 2021-08-06 2021-08-06 20 1 1 16 10.4314/gjedr.v20i1.1 A comparative review of literature on the integration of soft skills in Mathematics as reflected in the revised curriculum frameworks for Kenya, Rwanda, and Zambia <p>This paper comparatively analysed policy documents and peer-reviewed papers regarding the integration of soft skills in Mathematics taught in secondary schools in Kenya, Rwanda, and Zambia. The analysis highlights how the curricula for Kenya, Rwanda, and Zambia were revised, how soft skills were integrated and assessed in Mathematics and how Mathematics teachers were prepared to integrate soft skills in the teaching and learning of Mathematics. The review has shown that the three countries acknowledge Mathematics as one of the subjects in which soft skills should be integrated. Additionally, the three countries have a common understanding that the integration of soft skills requires changes in pedagogical and assessment approaches. However, the literature reviewed from the three countries indicates that there is very little data available highlighting the integration and assessment of soft skills in Mathematics as well as how mathematics teachers were prepared. This lack of adequate information on the integration and assessment of softs kills points to the fact that these skills may not be integrated in the teaching and learning of Mathematics which could lead to producing secondary school graduates, who are not creative, innovative, critical thinkers and problems solvers. The paper, therefore recommends that researchers should explore the challenges related to the deficiency in policy focus by the three countries on the integration of soft skills in&nbsp; Mathematics.</p> Chileshe Busaka Septimi Reuben Kitta Odette Umugiraneza Copyright (c) 2021-08-06 2021-08-06 20 1 17 27 10.4314/gjedr.v20i1.2 Entrepreneurial skills and retention ability among students of faculty of education, University of Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria <p>This study determined the relationship between entrepreneurial skills and retention ability among students of faculty of education, University of Calabar, Cross River States. Correlational survey design was adopted for the study. The population of the study comprised of UTME 2018/2019 academic session 200-400 level students and this was also used as sample. A validated research-made questionnaire with reliability range of 0.81-0.89 was used for data collection. The data collected were analysed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation at 0.05 level of significance. The result of the analysis showed that acquisition of indexing skills and book publishing skills significantly relate with retention ability. It was recommended among others that support grants from school management and government should be granted to graduates with passion and enthusiasm to set-up their own business ventures on indexing and book publishing upon&nbsp; graduation either from their various institutions or after graduation from the National Youth Service Corps (NYSC).</p> Emmanuel Ubi Omini Aniah Bernard Beshigim Copyright (c) 2021-08-06 2021-08-06 20 1 29 34 10.4314/gjedr.v20i1.3 Environmental factors as correlates of research attitude among post-graduate students in Nigeria: A path model approach <p>The study investigated the relationship among some environmental factors and research attitude of post-graduate students in Nigeria using a path model approach. The researchers were poised at filling the gap in the type of multivariate statistical tools that have hitherto been used in comparing these variables by authors in the research area. One research question was formulated to guide the study. Survey research design was adopted for the study. The study area, which was south-south Nigeria, is one of the geo-political zones in the country with six federal universities. The population of the study was made up of 1,299 post graduate students of education faculties in the six universities. A sample of 520 students (40% of the population) was selected for the study through stratified random sampling method. The study instrument was a questionnaire titled Environmental and Attitude variables Questionnaire (EAVQ) prepared by the researchers. Result of the study showed that 14 out of 15 pathways in the hypothesized model for the relationship between environmental variables and research attitudewere significant and meaningful, withfive direct and nine indirect pathways. Based on the finding, the study recommends an improvement in those environmental factors to bring about corresponding improvement in research attitude. The study suggests that a study of the relationship between other environmental variables not included in this study on graduate students‟ research attitude in federal universities in south-south Nigeria should be carried out by future researchers. Such research can be extended to cover more geo-political zones in the country.</p> Isaac Ofem Ubi Jacob Esu Odiong Copyright (c) 2021-08-06 2021-08-06 20 1 35 44 10.4314/gjedr.v20i1.4 Age differentials in calibrated items of WAEC English Language Objective test taken by students in Nigeria <p>The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of age differentials on item difficulty and discrimination indices of West African School Certificate (WAEC) English Language Objective test for May/June 2014 taken by students in Nigeria. The study area was the southern Education Zone of Cross River State. The design used for the study was ex-post facto, justified by the fact that the variable of the study had occurred before being studied and that no manipulation of subjects of study was involved. The 2014 May/June English objective test items were used as they were. The instrument (made up of all the fifty items of the test) was administered to a sample of 100 students selected through accidental sampling procedure. Results of the study indicate that item response to the test depended, among other things, on the age brackets of the students. The older students seem to respond more correctly to items than their younger counterparts. The study recommends more proactive steps in admission of age compliant candidates for terminal examinations in Secondary Schools.</p> Isaac Ofem Ubi Esther Chinenye Udemba Copyright (c) 2021-08-06 2021-08-06 20 1 45 54 10.4314/gjedr.v20i1.5 Test fairness and assessment of differential item functioning of mathematics achievement test for senior secondary students in Cross River state, Nigeria using item response theory <p>This study used Item Response Theory approach to assess Differential Item Functioning (DIF) and detect item bias in Mathematics Achievement Test (MAT). The MAT was administered to 1,751 SS2 students in public secondary schools in Cross River State. Instrumentation research design was used to develop and validate a 50-item instrument. Data were analysed using the maximum likelihood estimation technique of BILOG-MG V3 software. The result of the study revealed that 6% of the total items exhibited differential item functioning between the male and female students. Based on the analysis, the study observed that there was sex bias on some of the test items in the MAT. DIF analysis attempt at eliminating irrelevant factors and sources of bias from any kind for a test to yield valid results is among the best methods of recent. As such, test developers and policymakers are recommended to take into serious consideration and exercise care in fair test practice by dedicating effort to more unbiased test development and decision making. Examination bodies should adopt the Item Response Theory in educational testing and test developers should therefore be mindful of the test items that can cause bias in response pattern between male and female students or any sub-group of consideration.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Assessment, Differential Item Functioning, Validity, Reliability, Test Fairness, Item Bias, Item Response Theory.</p> Anthony Pius Effiom Copyright (c) 2021-08-18 2021-08-18 20 1 55 62 10.4314/gjedr.v20i1.6 Scaling up self- regulatory ability in childhood education as correlate of creative mindset <p>The study is on the need to scale up self – regulatory abilities in learners towards more sustainable national development in Nigeria. This study was instigated by the poor nature of children that need to create a background on purposeful activities in the learning environment. Three research questions raised which were translated into correspondent null hypotheses to guide the study. Some related literatures were reviewed accordingly. The study adopted a Survey research design with 218 samples selected through simple random sampling technique from primary school Pupils in Ogoja Education Zone of Cross River State. A four points likert scale questionnaire with eighteen items was adapted and validated and used for data collection. The reliability estimate was established for the instrument using the Cronbach alpha reliability method, the values were between o.76 and 0.81. Pearson product moment correlation method of analysis was employed to analyze the data. All hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The result of the analysis revealed that all hypotheses were significant. Based on the findings, the researcher concluded that there was a relationship between self-regulatory learning ability and pupils’ creative mindset. The use of SRL strategy by pupils significantly correlates with pupils’ creative mindset. It was recommended among others that schools should organize sensitive educational programmes to develop children’s creative mindset. Parents, teachers and caregivers should encourage the values of managing emotions, behaviour and learning in children.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Self-regulatory ability, Early childhood education, creative mindset</p> Maria Ofie Sunday Godwin Obogo Obogo Rose Unwanung Adie Copyright (c) 2021-08-18 2021-08-18 20 1 63 71 10.4314/gjedr.v20i1.7 Measures of enhancing food security among households in Edo Central Senatorial District <p>This paper is aimed at examining the enhancement of food security among households in Edo Central Senatorial District. The study examines the measure used by households in enhancing food security. A descriptive survey design was adopted in this study, using a population of about 664,059 households, with a sample size of 300 households using multi-stage sampling technique. The instrument for data collection was a questionnaire. A mean score of 2.5 was used as the benchmark rating score for decision rule. The t-test for two independent sample means was used to test the hypothesis at 0.05 level of significance. The result showed that poverty, lack of food preservation knowledge, lack of food and nutrition knowledge, low morale towards the practice of agriculture and lack of facilities for food preservation such as refrigerators and deep freezers are the factors responsible for food insecurity amongst households in Edo Central Senatorial District. To reduce food shortage and promote food security, the measures commonly used among households in enhancing their food security in Edo Central Senatorial District include: food preservation and bulk purchasing. The use of these food security measures varies with the size of household. It was recommended that large households should endeavour to practice crop farming and animal rearing such as poultry farming for family subsistence.</p> J. Abhulimen E.E. Idialu B.E. Uwameiye Copyright (c) 2021-08-20 2021-08-20 20 1 73 80 10.4314/gjedr.v20i1.8 Financial resources and junior secondary school students’ academic performance in Cross River State, Nigeria <p>The study investigated the relationship between financial resources and junior secondary school students’ academic performance in Cross River State, Nigeria. Four null hypotheses were formulated and tested. Ex-post facto design was used for the study. Subjects who participated in the study were 397 students from 277 public junior secondary schools in the study area but data was collected from only 386 representing 97.2 percent. Two instruments titled “Financial Resources Questionnaire (FRQ) and Junior Secondary School Students’ Academic Performance Scale (JSSSAPS)” were used for data collection. Data was analyzed using Population t-test and Multiple Regression analysis. The result indicated that junior secondary school students’ academic performance is significantly high. The result further revealed that financial resources in terms of: investment in school facilities, allocation of financial resources, structure of financial resources and amount of financial resources jointly predicts students’ academic performance. It was concluded that school business just like every other economic unit and business concerns alike, cannot thrive by mere availability of financial resources but by its utilization.</p> Wokasor Eni Ofem Mercy Nkiruka Godwin Akeke Eyiene Ameh Copyright (c) 2021-08-20 2021-08-20 20 1 81 88 10.4314/gjedr.v20i1.9