Determinants of Climate Smart Agriculture (CSA) Adoption among Smallholder Food Crop Farmers in the Techiman Municipality, Ghana
Climate change is already influencing crop production and distribution, and exacerbating the risks associated with farming. Smallholder farmers, especially from developing countries, have been identified as the most vulnerable to climate hazards due to prevalence of low adaptive measures. Climate Smart Agriculture (CSA) has therefore been presented as an alternative form of agriculture that can help to improve food security and reduce poverty, especially in developing countries. In Ghana, efforts are being made to build farmers adaptive capacity in various agro-ecological zones to enable them to effectively adapt to climate change through various CSA practices. However, inadequate attention has been paid at the institutional and academic levels to facilitate comprehensive understanding of the push and pull factors of CSA adoption in rural communities, and to scale-up CSA blueprints. The paper examines CSA among smallholder food crop farmers in the Techiman municipality in Brong Ahafo Region of Ghana. The results of the data analysis indicate that the CSA practices implemented by most of the farmers include using personal experience to predict weather events, reliance on radio/television to access weather information, minimum tillage, use of organic manure and afforestation. Economic, environmental, socio-cultural and institutional factors influenced CSA adoption. The paper concludes that, to ensure a smooth transition to climate-sensitive agricultural practices in Ghana, development actors need to vigorously support the inculcation of indigenous knowledge in modern agricultural technologies. It is also important for the government of Ghana and the Ministry of Food and Agriculture to develop and execute more elaborate capacity building programmes at the local level to influence farmers’ personal attitudes towards pro-environmental behaviour.