Comparative Analysis of Change between Ellipsoidal Height Differences and Equivalent Orthometric Height Difference

  • Tata Herbert Department of Surveying and Geoinformatics, Federal University of Technology Akure, Nigeria
  • Raufu Ibrahim Olatunji Department of Surveying and Geoinformatics, Federal University of Technology Akure, Nigeria
Keywords: GPS, levelling, Ellipsoidal height, Orthometric height, Statistical analysis


Height is an important component in the determination of the position of a point. The study aimed at performing a comparative analysis of change between ellipsoidal height differences and the equivalent orthometric height difference of points. A hi-target Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) was used to acquire GPS data with an occupation period of thirty (30) minutes on each point, which were processed using Hi-target Geomatics Office (HGO) software to obtain the ellipsoidal heights. An automatic level instrument was used to acquire leveling data, which were processed using the height of collimation method to obtain the orthometric heights. A total of fifty (50) points were occupied as common points for both the GPS and levelling observations at 20-meter intervals. The accuracy of the height difference was determined using standard deviation with the ellipsoidal height difference as 53.59cm and the orthometric height as 53.07cm respectively. A Root Mean Square Error value of 0.0621m was obtained as the accuracy of the change between the two height differences. Statistical analysis using the independent-sample Z test was used to analyze the data at a 5% significant level. The result shows no significant difference in the performance of the two height systems. It is worthy to note that GPS and spirit levelling height differences can be used interchangeably for any heighting in short distances for surveying and engineering applications.


Journal Identifiers

print ISSN: 0855-9414