Ghana Journal of Geography <p>The<em> Ghana Journal of Geography</em> publishes the best of original research and scholarship in physical and human geography as well as research from other disciplines working on ideas of relevance to the Developing world.</p> Department of Geography and Resource Development en-US Ghana Journal of Geography 0855-9414 <span>The copyright belongs to the Department of Geography and Resource Development, and the Ghana Geographical Association.</span> Urban Sprawl in sub-Saharan Africa: A review of the literature in selected countries <p>Urban sprawl has gained popularity in academic discourse in recent times, but the majority of the research was conducted in developed countries. There is a marginal body of works on the character and nature of urban sprawl in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), although the region is<br>experiencing one of the fastest rates of sprawl. Urbanisation in SSA is very rapid, and in addition to the emerging challenges of globalisation, climate change and poverty, SSA cities have an enormous task to manage urban sprawl. This paper reviews the literature on urban sprawl in SSA<br>to identify research gaps and propose a research agenda. Published articles from five Anglophone countries in three of the four regional blocks in SSA were selected. The literature was organised into the causes and effects of urban sprawl and showed that the previous research on the subject<br>focused mainly on its environmental impacts. Few studies have looked at the effects of sprawl on rural livelihoods, agriculture and food security considering the challenges of global climate change and poverty. Other studies have used Remote Sensing and Geographic Information<br>Systems, but these were conducted largely for change detection. The paper recommends the deployment of a more comprehensive methodology incorporating remote sensing/GIS with ethnographic methods to capture better the complexity and impacts of urban sprawl in SSA.<br>Additionally, further research attention must be paid to the effects of urban sprawl on rural livelihoods and overall sprawl-induced agrarian change.</p> Gerald Albert Baeribameng Yiran Austin Dziwornu Ablo Freda Elikplim Asem George Owusu Copyright (c) 2020 Ghana Journal of Geography 2020-07-25 2020-07-25 12 1 1 28 10.4314/gjg.v12i1.1 Cost-Benefit Analysis of On-Farm Climate Change Adaptation Strategies in Ghana <p>Climate change continues to hamper crop-based systems across sub-Sahara Africa. Adaptation strategies prove to be effective at improving production and enhancing livelihoods of farm households. This study employs Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) to assess the perceived economic profitability of adopting various on-farm climate change adaptation strategies among farmers in Zabzugu and South Tongu districts in the north and south of Ghana. A simple random sampling approach was used to select 300 farmers who had previously benefited from climate change projects. Major strategies adopted in both districts were: changing of planting dates, planting early maturing varieties, row planting, seed refilling and planting drought tolerant varieties. Adoption intensity was high in Zabzugu district compared to the South Tongu District. Generally, the adoption of each strategy was perceived to be profitable since the estimated average benefits outweighed the average costs. However, the most profitable strategies were strip cropping, repeated sowing, refilling, zero tillage and row planting. Less profitable strategies included land rotation, mixed farming, early planting, tractor ploughing and “A-frame” contour farming. Among others, drought tolerant varieties of rice, maize and soybeans, as well as zero tillage, repeated sowing and strip cropping, should be promoted and farmers encouraged to adopt these practices for enhanced benefits.</p> Shaibu Baanni Azumah William Adzawla Aminu Osman Paul Yao Anani Copyright (c) 2020 Ghana Journal of Geography 2020-07-25 2020-07-25 12 1 29 46 10.4314/gjg.v12i1.2 Better Safe than Sorry: Local Impacts of Climate Change on Agricultural Activities in North-East Ghana <p>&nbsp;Water is precious and vulnerable simultaneously in the face of climate change impacts. Farmers respond differently to climate change impacts depending on available resources. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of access to water on smallholder farmers’ coping strategies to climate change impacts in the semi-arid zone (Aw climate). Using a mixed method approach, 6 focus group discussions, 10 key informant interviews and 148 questionnaires were administered to farmers. Quantitative data were analysed and presented using descriptive statistics whilst qualitative data were transcribed and discussed alongside. The study found that in coping with local climate change, farmers’ incomes are dependent on availability of water to supplement rainfall. Therefore, communities closer to the waters of the Tono irrigation dam have greater advantage over other communities that rely on waters from dugouts and wells. Also, income gained from farming is complemented with supplementary incomes from activities such as petty trading, carpentry and sale of farmers’ labour on other farms. Availability of water, particularly, during the dry season is a determinant factor of success in terms of good farm produce, income and better coping with local climate change impacts. To help these water-stressed farmers, the provision of sustainable sources of water is inevitable.&nbsp; The government and smallholders need to work together to solve the problem.</p> Mary Ann Alua Kenneth Peprah Godwin Thomas Wedam Achana Copyright (c) 2020-07-25 2020-07-25 12 1 47 73 10.4314/gjg.v12i1.3 Quantifying perceived landscape desirability in human settlements: the case of four communities in Cape Coast, Ghana <p>Through their natural, aesthetic and cultural attributes, landscapes serve a range of human needs. The perception and value placed on these attributes and services confer desirability on a given landscape. Landscape desirability refers to the extent of acceptability or preferability of the perceived state and functioning of a given landscape in relation to serving the landscape needs of its human inhabitants. This paper presents the idea of, and an approach for quantifying landscape desirability using four communities in Cape Coast, Ghana. A landscape desirability index was derived from four factors (attractivity, wellbeing, dignity, and eco-resilience) based on scores assigned by respondents to three sub-components of each of the four factors. The results show that all the communities scored their landscapes moderately on attractivity, wellbeing, dignity, and eco-resilience, as well as overall landscape desirability. Bare surfaces and contribution to flood and&nbsp; erosion mitigation were a major consideration in respondents’ scores of the sub-components of the factors. Nature and beauty (sub-components of attractivity) and sub-components of eco-resilience contributed considerably to the low desirability indices for the communities. This suggests the need to focus on these components in efforts to enhance landscape desirability. The findings suggest a need for wider studies to capture residents’ perceptions of their landscapes as an input into participatory landscape planning, transformation and management in Ghana. The quantitative approach applied can easily be adapted and replicated across communities and spatial scales to provide a comparable basis for sustainable landscape transformation in human settlements.</p> David Oscar Yawson Copyright (c) 2020-07-25 2020-07-25 12 1 74 98 10.4314/gjg.v12i1.4 “Being fat is not a disease but a sign of good living”: The Political Economy of Overweight and Obesity in Nigeria <p>Increasing overweight and obesity rates have accompanied economic development in recent years. This twofold health issue has become increasingly worrisome and is currently receiving academic interest and government attention.&nbsp; A growing volume of studies has examined the demographic, socio economic, environmental and cultural risk factors of overweight and obesity in Nigeria where fatness is culturally revered. However, information on large scale factors associated with economic development shaping the geographical distribution of overweight and obesity is sparse. From the political economic standpoint, the central question of this paper is: ‘Does the spatial pattern of overweight and obesity correspond with the varying levels of economic development in Nigeria? The study relied on secondary data from published sources.&nbsp; Linear regression models were estimated to determine the impact of economic development variables on overweight and obesity. Results reveal that percent population with white collar jobs had a significant positive effect on overweight whereas poverty, gross domestic product (GDP) and degree of urbanization were significantly related to obesity. The paper concludes that the spatial patterns of overweight and obesity follow the pathways of economic development in Nigeria.</p> Tolulope Osayomi Copyright (c) 2020 Ghana Journal of Geography 2020-07-25 2020-07-25 12 1 99 114 10.4314/gjg.v12i1.5 Use of Mobile Phone and In-Vehicle Interaction: A Case study among selected students in Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria <p>Mobile phone use among university students is now pervasively altering their social interaction with others. The study investigated the influence of mobile phone use among commuting University Students on their interaction with co-travellers and the environment through which they travel. Three hundred students of Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria were purposively sampled to respond to a 10-minute questionnaire. The questionnaire contained questions such as ownership of mobile phones, type and number of phones owned, frequency of usage and the influence of mobile phone usage during transit on interaction between the students and their co-travelers and with the environment they traveled through. Results showed that all the respondents possessed at least one mobile phone. In addition, results revealed a negative correlation between time of use of mobile phone and interaction with co-travelers (α=0.05, r= -0.039) and no significant correlation between length of use of mobile phone and interaction with the environment (α=0.05, r=0.079). The study established that mobile phone intrusiveness has an influence on students' interaction during commuting.</p> Olabisi Olapoju Copyright (c) 2020 Ghana Journal of Geography 2020-07-25 2020-07-25 12 1 115 132 10.4314/gjg.v12i1.6 Comparative Analysis of Change between Ellipsoidal Height Differences and Equivalent Orthometric Height Difference <p>Height is an important component in the determination of the position of a point. The study aimed at performing a comparative analysis of change between ellipsoidal height differences and the equivalent orthometric height difference of points. A hi-target Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) was used to acquire GPS data with an occupation period of thirty (30) minutes on each point, which were processed using Hi-target Geomatics Office (HGO) software to obtain the ellipsoidal heights. An automatic level instrument was used to acquire leveling data, which were processed using the height of collimation method to obtain the orthometric heights. A total of fifty (50) points were occupied as common points for both the GPS and levelling observations at 20-meter intervals. The accuracy of the height difference was determined using standard deviation with the ellipsoidal height difference as 53.59cm and the orthometric height as 53.07cm respectively. A Root Mean Square Error value of 0.0621m was obtained as the accuracy of the change between the two height differences. Statistical analysis using the independent-sample Z test was used to analyze the data at a 5% significant level. The result shows no significant difference in the performance of the two height systems. It is worthy to note that GPS and spirit levelling height differences can be used interchangeably for any heighting in short distances for surveying and engineering applications.</p> Tata Herbert Raufu Ibrahim Olatunji Copyright (c) 2020 Ghana Journal of Geography 2020-07-25 2020-07-25 12 1 132 144 10.4314/gjg.v12i1.7 Detection of Sulphide Deposit Using Uranium/Potassium Ratio Map <p>Potassium (K) response is associated with minerals that can be easily weathered, whereas uranium (U) is usually related to residual clay, oxides and accessory minerals. With a view to interpret for the detection of sulphide deposit based on similar responses exhibited by the various rock units, radiometric data set was interpreted. The study area is located within Latitude +8000’00’’to +8030’00’’ and Longitude +5030’00’’E to +6000’00’’E. The data was collected in most parts of the Nigeria by Fugro Airborne Services Ltd. Johannesburg in collaboration with the Nigerian Geological Survey agency using a light aircraft that was flown in NW-SE direction with a nominal terrain clearance of 80 m and at a speed of 70-80 m/s, with a flight line spacing of 500 m apart. The acquired data was subjected to elemental concentration enhancement using Geosoft Oasis Montaj Software. From the interpreted data, the red coloured portions indicate high uranium and low potassium formations (H-U/K), while the blue coloured portions indicate low uranium and high potassium formations (L-U/K). The regions L-U/K have recorded low U/K ratios, meaning that L-U/K have very low uranium count rates as compared to the count rates of potassium in these regions; this signifies potassium abundance. This also suggests igneous activities that usually culminate to the emplacement of the meta-volcanic lithologies. H-U/K and M-U/K (Moderate U/K formations) are seen to have patches of high U/K ratios within the central portions. This high U/K ratio was therefore, as a result of sulphide deposition.</p> Ohi Jerry Ohioma Copyright (c) 2020 Ghana Journal of Geography 2020-07-25 2020-07-25 12 1 145 158 10.4314/gjg.v12i1.8 Effects of Effluents on the Quality of River Rido, Kaduna- State, Nigeria <p>This study examines the effect of discharged effluents on the quality of river Rido in Kaduna. Ten water samples were collected and tested for Arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Lead (Pb), Manganese (Mn), Mercury (Hg), Nickel (Ni) and Zinc (Zn). The results revealed that in&nbsp; the dry season,&nbsp; six heavy metals, namely As, Cd, Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn, presented mean values that were&nbsp; higher&nbsp; after the point of effluent discharge; while Cr, Fe and Pb&nbsp; had lower values and Hg was not detected. In the wet season all the heavy metals tested, except Hg, increased in values after the point of effluent discharge. The values of As, Cd,&nbsp; Fe, Mn, Ni and Pb after the discharge point, in dry and wet seasons, were greater than the maximum tolerable limits set by the Standard Organisation of Nigeria (SON) and the World Health Organisation (WHO).&nbsp; The values recorded for Zn and Cu at both dry and wet seasons were below the limit set by the Standard Organisation of Nigeria (SON) and the World Health Organisation (WHO), but the value of Cr was lower than the maximum tolerable limit only in the dry season.&nbsp; The contamination of the river with heavy metals poses a grave danger to human health, as its water is used for diverse purposes. The wastewater treatment plant of KRPC should be rehabilitated and the wastewater can be pre-treated before it is discharged into the river.</p> Louis Buggu Funmilayo Yusufu - Alfa Abigail Abenu Copyright (c) 2020 Ghana Journal of Geography 2020-07-25 2020-07-25 12 1 159 170 10.4314/gjg.v12i1.9 Modelling catchment area of economic activity using GIS-based Huff Gravity Model: A case of Edo State, Nigeria <p>The need for rapid economic development to match increasing population in Nigeria cannot be overemphasised. For this need to be met, it is pertinent that resources in each state and region of the country are efficiently and effectively utilised to maximise return on investments. Thus, it is necessary to identify the catchment area of the current markets to provide an understanding of the market structure which exists at different scales. This study utilised a Geographic Information System (GIS) -based Huff Gravity model to identify the economic catchment areas of major centres. Results show that 13 out of the 14 centres attracted nearby subregions (SRs). The top 7 centres identified accounted for 86% of the potential economic activities. There is a tendency for limited spatial interaction for some SRs in the south in contrast to northern SRs. In conclusion, there is more competition for economic activities among centres in the northern part with the potential to create some winners and losers. Therefore, place-based policies which can enhance economic development across all regions are necessary.</p> Olanrewaju Lawal Okey Onuchuku Copyright (c) 2020 Ghana Journal of Geography 2020-07-25 2020-07-25 12 1 171 197 10.4314/gjg.v12i1.11