Ghana Journal of Geography <p>The <strong><em>Ghana Journal of Geography (GJG)</em></strong> is published by the Department of Geography and Resource Development, University of Ghana. The Journal publishes the best of original research and scholarship in physical and human geography as well as research from other related disciplines working on issues of spatial relevance. It provides a forum for discussing new issues and ideas of relevance to the developing world.</p> Department of Geography and Resource Development en-US Ghana Journal of Geography 0855-9414 <span>The copyright belongs to the Department of Geography and Resource Development, and the Ghana Geographical Association.</span> A Comparison of the Efficiency of Aquatic Macroinvertebrate Sampling Tools Used in Lotic Environmental Impact Assessment of Human Activities in A Tropical Mountain Stream in Eastern Uganda <p>The study was aimed at comparing the efficiency of three macroinvertebrate sampling tools used in lotic environmental impact assessment of River Sipi including Surber sampler, rock-filled basket and Kick net sampling tools. The efficiency of the sampling tools was based on the data collected by each sampling tool, which was in turn used to calculate the Relative variation (RV) (efficiency), diversity, richness, and relative abundance, time taken to sort macroinvertebrate per sample and taxa assemblage. Data was analysed using a two-way ANOVA that was performed under the R Development Core Team 2010. The results indicated that despite the fact that all the sampling tools were efficient in sampling macroinvertebrates with RV&lt;25%, both kick net and rock-filled basket obtained closely comparable efficiency results with Relative Variation ranging between 0.54-2% for the kick net and 1.4-3.6% for rock filled basket. Of the three sampling tools, the kick net was the most efficient, collecting a greater diversity of macroinvertebrate taxa (1.81±0.04) and a greater number of specimens (1444), abundance (66.4±0.25%), greater taxa richness (11±0.41) but required the biggest amount of time to sort macroinvertebrates (26±0.71minutes). In conclusion, the rock-filled basket served as the next best alternative efficient sampling tool to kick net in sampling macroinvertebrates.</p> Remigio Turyahabwe Caroline Mulinya Andrew Mulabbi Moses Olowo Copyright (c) 2022-08-11 2022-08-11 14 2 1 23 10.4314/gjg.v14i2.1 Factors Affecting the Adoption of Soil and Water Conservation Practices by Small-Holder Farmers in Muyembe Sub-County, Eastern Uganda <p>Farmers in tropical rural areas are confronted with several challenges but outstanding among these<br>challenges is soil degradation arising from soil erosion. This study involved identifying the dominant soil and<br>water conservation practices and assessing the factors affecting their adoption in the Muyembe sub-county,<br>Eastern Uganda. A total of 500 respondents were used to obtain primary data. As the study adopted a crosssectional<br>design, we used questionnaires, interviews, focus group discussions and field observations to collect<br>the required data. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and the non-parametric (Chi-square) test.<br>The results indicated that the dominant soil and water conservation practices adopted in the study area were,<br>contour cropping (77%), mixed cropping (59% and crop rotation (51%). The remaining five practices had<br>less than a 50% adoption rate. The chi-square test revealed that the age and gender of the farmers had a<br>significant association with the levels of the adoption of soil and water conservation practices among farmers<br>at P&lt;0.001. We concluded that the adoption of soil and water conservation practices was low, which left the<br>majority of farmers vulnerable to soil erosion effects such as low yields and crop failure. We recommend that<br>stakeholders who work on soil and water conservation programs use model farmers in the area to educate<br>and demonstrate the importance of soil and water conservation practices to other farmers.</p> Remigio Turyahabwe Nabalegwa Muhamud Wambede Joyfred Asaba Andrew Mulabbi Loy Gumisiriza Turyabanawe Copyright (c) 2022-08-11 2022-08-11 14 2 24 49 10.4314/gjg.v14i2.2 Spatial Analyses of Air Pollutants Concentration around the Warri Refining and Petrochemical Company (WRPC), Delta State, Nigeria <p>This study investigates air pollution from the Warri Refining and Petrochemical Company (WRPC) of Delta<br>Sate, Nigeria with the intent of determining the variations in pollution levels associated with increasing<br>distance from the refinery. The following pollutant gases: Carbon monoxide (CO), Volatile organic<br>compounds (VOC), Hydrogen sulphide (H2S), Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), Sulphur dioxide (SO2) and<br>Particulate Matter (PM2.5 and PM10), were monitored intermittently with the use of digital hand-held<br>probes, at sampling points located between 1,500 meters to 16,000 meters from WRPC. Air sampling was<br>carried out on a weekly basis, for a duration of one (1) year. The average annual concentration of CO, VOC,<br>H2S, NO2, SO2, PM2.5 and PM10 measured were 0.2543 ppm, 4.4922 mg/m3, 0.0004 ppm, 0.0063 ppm,<br>0.5263 ppm, 36.3825 μg/m3, 91.7346 μg/m3 respectively. The results of the spatial analyses of air pollutants<br>show that concentrations of VOC, NO2, PM2.5, and PM10 shared a significant inverse relationship with<br>distance (p values 0.00 ≤.0.05). The study suggests a minimum of 10,250 meters radial extent of buffers<br>around WRPC, as a long-term strategy in reducing exposure of residents to air pollution. Short-term<br>strategies include enforcement of legislation reducing/banning emissions from industries and bush fires, use<br>of alternative eco-friendly technologies and energy sources, tree planting, revamp of the hydroelectricity<br>power sector and general sanitization of the environment.</p> Verere Sido Balogun Peter Akpodiogaga Ovuyovwiroye Odjugo Copyright (c) 2022-08-11 2022-08-11 14 2 50 81 10.4314/gjg.v14i2.3 The Use of Family Planning Methods (FPMs) in Ilala Municipality, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania <p>This paper examines the use of family planning methods in Ilala Municipality, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A<br>total of 55 respondents were involved in the study. The study used both quantitative and qualitative techniques<br>in collecting and analysing data. A questionnaire, in-depth interviews and documentary review were used to<br>gather data. The findings indicated that the modern family planning methods, such as condoms and oral<br>contraceptives like postinor-2, the morning after pills, injection, and implant, were preferred over the<br>traditional family planning methods, such as withdrawals, calendar rhythm method and periodic abstinence.<br>The factors influencing family planning methods were education, access to information, fear and unfounded<br>ethical beliefs, number of siblings, children as an indicator of one’s high status, prestige, and children<br>confirming one’s virtue. Generally, the use of family planning methods was determined by socio-economic<br>status of the users and environmental variables. Therefore, it is recommended that the stakeholders construct<br>health centres and educate people on good family planning methods.</p> David Msokwe Christopher Mulungu Copyright (c) 2022-08-11 2022-08-11 14 2 82 106 10.4314/gjg.v14i2.4 Community Based Flood Risk Management Approach in Northeastern Uganda <p>This study was conducted in the Amuria district of Northeastern Uganda. The aim of the study was to assess<br>the performance of Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction (CMDRR) approach in mitigating disaster<br>effects in the area. The objectives were to assess the effectiveness of community preparedness, response, and<br>recovery efforts in mitigating disasters in the study area. Aberilela and Wera sub-counties were purposively<br>selected, and two parishes were chosen from each of the two sub counties based on their vulnerability to flood<br>disasters. A sample of 300 household heads were randomly selected. Methods of data collection included<br>questionnaires, in-depth interviews with key informants, focus group discussions, observation, and documents<br>review. The collected data were analysed using descriptive statistics and triangulated with thematic analysis<br>of the data from interviews and field observations. Results from the study indicate that the CMDRR approach<br>had performed well despite some shortcomings. The approach had been able to prepare the community by<br>training them in disaster management activities, developing hazard prone maps, disaster plans, established<br>effective rescue measures and other response measures for the affected communities. However, it had failed<br>in building capacity among the communities to stock essential services including food, early warning systems<br>and in detecting and predicting disaster as well as building gender and age balanced capacity in the<br>communities. Overall, the performance of CMDRR committees in Amurai and particularly Abarilela and<br>Wera sub-counties was above average. The study recommends that government should adopt this approach<br>and replicate it in other disaster-prone areas for effective disaster management.</p> Muhamud Nabalegwa Wambede Robert Tweheyo Copyright (c) 2022-08-11 2022-08-11 14 2 107 134 10.4314/gjg.v14i2.5 Exploring the Characteristics, Drivers and Control Strategies of Informal Settlements on Mkimbizi Hill in Iringa Municipality, Tanzania <p>This study explored the characteristics, drivers, and control strategies of informal settlements on Mkimbizi<br>Hill in Iringa Municipality, Tanzania. The study employed a mixed research design whereby heads of<br>households were randomly selected while key informants were purposively sampled. Data were collected<br>through a questionnaire survey with heads of households, in-depth interviews with key informants, and field<br>observations. Quantitative data were analysed by statistical product and service solution software.<br>Qualitative data were organised into themes and involved content analysis. It was established that the study<br>area is occupied by individuals of different social and economic characteristics with informal land tenure,<br>limited access to social services, and are exposed to the risk of the collapse of buildings and rockfalls. The<br>study also found that informal settlements in the study area were caused by the lack of education on urban<br>settlements, proximity to essential social services, cheap plots, and poor settlement planning. Nonetheless, the<br>study showed that the strategies used to control informal settlements in the study area included intermittent<br>patrol, awareness creation on sustainable urban development, and settlements for economically weak<br>individuals. The study recommends proper land use planning for sustainable urban development by the<br>authorities.</p> Evarist Fundisha Copyright (c) 2022-08-11 2022-08-11 14 2 135 166 10.4314/gjg.v14i2.6 Socio-Economic Background of Households and the implication for Housing Choices in Urban Ghana <p>This study examines the linkages between the socio-economic background of households and their housing<br>choices in the urban enclaves of Ghana. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 900 participants<br>from the study areas. Questionnaire was used to glean data from the participants. Pearson correlation and<br>multinomial logistic regression were used to estimate the level of association between socio-economic<br>characteristics of households and their housing choices. The study found that the choice of housing type was<br>significantly associated with sex (χ2=56.004, p&lt;0.001), education level (χ2=238.895, p&lt;0.001), marital status<br>(χ2=28.871, p&lt;0.001), occupation (χ2=202.110, p&lt;0.001), monthly income (χ2=275.682, p&lt;0.001), location<br>of household (χ2=46.112, p&lt;0.001) but not household size (χ2=18.642, p=0.42), age (χ2=10.229, p=0.113)<br>and religion (χ2=10.361, p=0.110) of the household head. The multinomial logistic regression estimates that<br>household heads with no formal education compared to household heads with master degree are .055<br>(p&lt;.001) times less likely to live in a detached/semi-detached house compared to compound house. The study<br>reiterates the importance of having an informed policy on neighbourhood design and development,<br>particularly when designing houses for people of particular socio-economic and cultural backgrounds.</p> Simon Boateng Divine Odame Appiah Daniel Buor Copyright (c) 2022-08-11 2022-08-11 14 2 167 202 10.4314/gjg.v14i2.7 Chinese Migration to Ghana: Challenging the Orthodoxy on Characterizing Migrants and Reasons for Migration <p>While there is evidence that Chinese migration to Africa has increased in recent years, there is a general paucity of data on the total number of Chinese migrants living in African countries and their socio-demographic characteristics. The reasons for this situation include challenges associated with capturing immigrants in Africa censuses, lack of robust sampling frames to draw representative samples from immigrant populations, high level of irregular migration, and weak migrants tracking systems. Relying on qualitative data and quantitative survey, based on an innovative sampling technique, this paper examines the migration of Chinese migrants to Ghana. The findings challenge simplistic narratives that present the Chinese migrants as a homogenous group. Despite the general perception that Chinese migrants in Ghana are undocumented and lack higher education qualifications, our findings reveal that most Chinese migrants are highly educated persons with legal documentation. While the existing literature focuses on economic push and pull factors of migration to Ghana, the paper demonstrates the importance of social networks, economic potentials and peaceful environment in driving migration to Ghana. Based on these findings, we strongly recommend the need for an informed narrative on Chinese migration to Africa by governments, media, and academics to deal with the misconceptions and generalizations.</p> Joseph Kofi Teye Leander Kandilige Mary Setrana Joseph Yaro Copyright (c) 2022 2022-08-12 2022-08-12 14 2 203 234 Community Perceptions on the Ramifications of Mono-use Plastic Shopping Bags and Bottles Consumption on the Environment in Morogoro Municipality, Tanzania <p>Tanzania, as it is the case for many countries in the world, is suffering from increased mono-use plastic<br>shopping bags and bottles besieged into the environment. This article explores the social perceptions of monouse<br>plastic shopping bags and bottles consumptions and the potential that those perceptions offer in mitigating<br>the negative environmental impacts associated with their use. The article is a result of a mixed method<br>research design that mainly relied on interviews, focus group discussion and household survey with<br>Morogoro inhabitants. The fundamental argument of this article is that local communities in Morogoro<br>Municipal Council perceive excessive use of mono-use plastic shopping bags and bottles negatively due to<br>their dilapidating environmental impacts. As such, they recommend environmentally friendly choices like<br>greater use of multi-use plastic shopping bags and bottles to substitute excessive use of mono-use plastic<br>shopping bags and bottles for curbing the environmental impacts. Equally, restrictions on usage of mono-use<br>plastic shopping bags coupled with voluntary actions aimed at reducing the same were deemed vital for<br>sustaining negative effects of said plastic materials in and on the environment.</p> Mrisho Mbegu Malipula Theobald Frank Theodory Copyright (c) 2022-08-11 2022-08-11 14 2 235 264 10.4314/gjg.v14i2.9