Ghana Journal of Geography <p>The<em> Ghana Journal of Geography</em> publishes the best of original research and scholarship in physical and human geography as well as research from other disciplines working on ideas of relevance to the Developing world.</p> Department of Geography and Resource Development en-US Ghana Journal of Geography 0855-9414 <span>The copyright belongs to the Department of Geography and Resource Development, and the Ghana Geographical Association.</span> Commodity-Based Trading Associations at the Agbogbloshie Market in Accra, Ghana <p>The decentralisation policy in Ghana ensures urban governance is controlled at the local levels. Rules set by state institutions in many cases lack the ability to penetrate into the locality for lack of trust and proper enforcement measures. It is common to find non-state organisations teaming up with the state or independently governing their localities. Such governance extends to market places. The uniqueness of what pertains at the market is the pronounced role women play in it. Agbogbloshie market is one of the largest markets in Ghana. Commodity-trading associations at the market act as governors at the market. The market associations function effectively because they have political power from the state to operate at the local level. The research is based on a qualitative research involving interviews, observation and participant’s observation. The paper discusses the role non-state organisations play at the local level in ensuring sustainable governance, focusing on Agbogbloshie. It stresses on how women possess power in the informal governance systems in Ghanaian markets. It argues that governance system is more effective and well understood at the local level than the state instituted system, and thus concludes on the need for collaboration between the two systems.</p> Esther Yeboah Danso-Wiredu Enoch Frederick Sam Copyright (c) 11 2 1 26 10.4314/gjg.v11i2. Possible Environmental and Socio-economic Ramifications of Sand and Gravel Winning in Danko, Upper West Region of Ghana <p>Sand and gravel winning have been going on in the Danko community since the 1990s and recently escalated arguably triggered by urbanization, population pressure, and proliferation of educational institutions. Other causes include increased demand for housing, improved roads, and other development infrastructure. Even though some studies claimed that sand/gravel mining<br />promotes the socio-economic well-being of stakeholders, others argued that it generates negative environmental and socio-economic impacts on society. These opposing views were tested in the Danko community. In this qualitative dominant mixed-methods study, 15 key informants and 48 survey respondents were consulted to understand the reasons for the proliferation of sand/gravel<br />winning in Danko and its environs and the associated ramifications. The study found that sand/gravel mining has some benefits, including support of the building and road construction sectors, provision of livelihood opportunities, and creation of dugouts for domestic use. Some adverse impacts of sand/gravel winning activities reported were land/environmental degradation, loss of farmlands and marginalization of women. The study concludes that sand/gravel winning<br />has both beneficial and harmful impacts with sustainability challenges. Therefore, all stakeholders must work in an environmentally sustainable and safe manner for the industry to continue to benefit all stakeholders along the sand/gravel winning value chain.</p> John Bosco Baguri Sumani Copyright (c) 11 2 27 51 10.4314/gjg.v11i2. Working Conditions and Exposure to Work Related Injuries and Accidents at Kokompe-Accra Ghana <p>The occupational environment in which artisans work may expose them to work-related injuries, chronic illness, stress and, disability. In order to understand the issue of workplace safety among artisans in the informal small-scale enterprises, there is the need to explore their general level of safety. Consequently, it will be possible to suggest possible ways of improving their health conditions and safety in the work place. This paper examined the general level of safety of automobile artisans at the Kokompe Artisanal Centre in Accra as well as assessing their level of<br />awareness about occupational accidents and injuries they are exposed to and the preventive measures in place. The qualitative in-depth interview and observational methods were used to examine incidences of work-related injuries and accidents among the artisans. In all 58 artisans including auto-mechanics, auto-electricians, auto-welders, auto sprayers and auto-spare parts dealers were selected through convenience and snowballing sampling techniques. The working conditions of the artisans were poor due to haphazard siting of temporary workshops by squatter<br />artisans resulting in multiple exposures to different hazards: physical, psychosocial and ergonomic hazards leading various forms of work-related physical injuries well as musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and work-related illnesses. The contributing factors of accidents and injuries were: human, environmental and mechanical factors. The physical environment and the nature of work are both hazardous since the work entails improper sitting posture, lifting of heavy objects and generally working without any safety measures. The artisans were mostly aware of the many dangers associated their work which is largely unregulated. For policy implication, city authorities must consider a re-engineering of the entire workplace of the<br />artisans by planning and demarcating the structure in accordance with standard practice to enable work to be done in a safe and healthy environment.</p> Samson Obed Appiah Copyright (c) 11 2 52 76 10.4314/gjg.v11i2. Assessing the Impact of Climate Change and Variability on Wetland Maize Production and the Implication on Food Security in the Highlands and Central Plateaus of Rwanda <p>This paper explores the impact of climate change and variability on wetland maize production in the highlands and central plateaus of Rwanda and its connection to the problem of food insecurity. Data were obtained using different methods and techniques including literature review, analyses of meteorological and maize yield data, field observation, household questionnaire and semistructured interviews. Research findings revealed abnormal changes in temperature with a mean temperature increase of 0.85 ºC in Bahimba wetland located in the northern highlands and 1.1 ºC in Bishenyi wetland located in the central plateau for the past 30 years. The study revealed also changes in rainfall patterns with a decrease of 114.9 mm and 42.3 mm in Bahimba and Bishenyi respectively. Consequently, due to prolonged droughts in Bishenyi, maize yield per ha was reduced by 41% in 2013 and by 51% in 2014. Likewise, in Bahimba, maize yield was reduced by 17% in 2015. This situation led to food insecurity among maize farmers and other communities in the study areas. It is recommended that improved adaptation measures including watersheds management, new drought resistant and early maturing maize seed varieties, community food reserves, savings and credits groups, improved irrigation infrastructures, diversified income sources and improved maize value chain should be taken to ensure increased maize yields and sustainable food security.</p> Gaspard Rwanyiziri Anatole Uwiragiye Joseph Tuyishimire Maurice Mugabowindekwe Aline Mutabazi Sylvere Hategekimana John Mugisha Copyright (c) 11 2 77 102 10.4314/gjg.v11i2. Livelihood and Food Security of Vulnerable People with Limited or no Land in Northern Rwanda: A Land Use Consolidation Programme analysis <p>The aim of this paper was to investigate the effects of the Land Use Consolidation (LUC) programme on livelihood and food security of vulnerable local communities with limited or no land. It analyzed the experiences of vulnerable local communities and food security during implementation. It investigated the role of farming cooperatives with a focus on agricultural production and price fluctuation, access to credit, land rental market and social integration. The study identified two categories of vulnerable local people in the LUC programme. First, there are local communities with limited land who were in the LUC programme as their land was selected as suitable sites for the LUC programme. Secondly, there are people with no land who farm for other farmers or who have joined farming associations or cooperatives. The study also identified two different geographical areas, the low and high land. In the LUC programme, vulnerable local communities with limited land faced food insecurity in case all land is within the LUC programme. In contrary, those whose land is not in the selected sites for the LUC programme may have the opportunity to farm other than non-selected crops and feed their families.</p> Emmanuel Muyombano Copyright (c) 11 2 103 126 10.4314/gjg.v11i2. Recent Changes in the Temperature and Rainfall Conditions Over Kaduna State, Nigeria <p>This study examines the evidence of climate change in Kaduna State, Nigeria, from the analysis of temperature and rainfall data (1971-2016) of three meteorological stations along a geographic transect in the State. Linear regression, second order polynomial, standard deviation and Cramer’s test were used to determine the changes in both the temperature and rainfall series. The result of the linear trend lines and second order polynomial revealed an increasing trend of temperature in recent years. The linear trend line revealed a mean increase in average temperature of 1.03oC for the State. The plotted standard deviation for the temperature anomalies generally showed that years of temperatures above the mean standard deviation in the last 16 years (2001-2016) were more than those below it. The Cramer’s test generally revealed an increasing temperature trend in the last two decades. The linear trend line of the annual rainfall revealed a mean increase of 303.32 mm for the State. Findings also revealed that the second order<br />polynomial generally showed a decreasing trend from 1971 to the late 1990s and an increasing trend afterwards up to 2016. The plotted standard deviation showed an increase in rainfall in recent years. The decadal analysis of rainfall in all the stations generally showed an increasing trend in the last two decades. The study recommends that awareness programs on recent changes in temperature and rainfall should be enhanced; greenhouse gases emission in the atmosphere<br />that have warming effect should be reduced; and, government policies related to agriculture, water resources, and other related sectors should take into account the increasing nature of temperature and rainfall amount in recent years.</p> Iliya Bitrus Abaje Emmanuel Olukayode Oladipo Copyright (c) 11 2 127 157 10.4314/gjg.v11i2. Inequalities in Access to Water and Sanitation in Rural Settlements in Parts of Southwest Nigeria <p>Access to water, sanitation, and hygiene is a major human right necessary for achieving Sustainable Development Goals. The study examined inequalities in access to water and sanitation in rural settlements covering Apa, Ikoga, Ibeshe, Itori, Eruwa, and Lanlate in parts of Southwest Nigeria. Purposive and random sampling techniques were employed to select six settlements and administered 400 questionnaires to households respectively. Descriptive statistics, chi-square, and<br />factor analysis were employed for data analysis. The result shows that the majority of the households interviewed are adults with secondary school certificate. The major available water supply and sanitation facilities in the study area are boreholes and an open pit latrine. About 50.8% and 48.1% of the households gained access to improved water and sanitation respectively in the study area. Badagry and Ewekoro recorded the highest access for improved water and sanitation respectively. Only 8% of the households gained access to safe water supply in the study area. The sanitary condition in the study area is poor. The chi-square shows a significant relationship between the dependent variables (water sources/types of toilet facilities) and independent variable (marital status, age, and income) at p&lt;0.01. Factor analysis explained 68.86% of the total variance<br />and extracted five components. The five factors revealed three major factors namely; demographic, environmental and water source as the main factors affecting household access to water and sanitation. The study is significant because it contributes to knowledge in the areas of WaSH and environmental sustainability. The study concluded that access to improved water and sanitation in Eruwa and Lanlate is poor. Sustainable rural water supply and sanitation policies that will<br />guarantee effective environmental sanitation, monitoring and provision of safe water supply and decent sanitation facilities were recommended. The study suggests that priority is given to Eruwa and Lanlate for intervention due to its weakest water and sanitation access.<br /><br /></p> Isaiah Sewanu Akoteyon Copyright (c) 11 2 158 184 10.4314/gjg.v11i2. Measurement of signal losses on optical fibre cable due to vibrations using optical time domain reflectometer <p>The last couple of decades have witnessed a steep rise in extensive research on fiber optical communication fields. Researches have been done for past few decades on distributed sensor and also fabricating the fibre optic to make sensor to detect vibration. The purpose of this paper is to present a fiber optic sensor based on the monitoring of vibrations and signal losses in a single mode optical fiber. In this study, a single mode optical fiber was subjected to vibrations from these<br />sources, Flask shaker (Gallenkamp model), gasoline generator (Elepaq-EC6500 5.5KVA), the university heavy duty truck (Mercedes-Benz Zetros), and the medical complex power plant. The vibrations were generated on the optical fibre cable line along the road that leads to capitol at the university medical complex of the optical fibre network. The signal losses due to vibrations on the optical fiber to determine the vibration sensitivity were investigated using a commercial optical<br />time domain reflectometer (Anritsu MT9083AI Access Master). Three scenarios were observed, a signal loss of 2.62dB was measured in the first scenario, 2.70dB in the second scenario and a signal loss of 2.76 was measured in the third scenario.</p> Muhammedsani Mustafa Etudaye Samuel Ogochukwu Azi Copyright (c) 11 2 185 198 10.4314/gjg.v11i2. Driving Behaviour of Taxi Drivers towards Sustainable Public Road Transport in Ogun State, Nigeria <p>Driving is a psychomotor activity that requires combination of mental concentration and good visual functions. Regrettably, incessant deviant driving behaviour of commercial taxi drivers is worrisome. This study examines the driving behaviour of taxi drivers towards sustainable public road transport in Ogun State, Nigeria. Seven hundred and fifty (750) copies of questionnaire were distributed using multistage and random sampling techniques. Multiple Regression and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) were used to test postulated hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. More males (94%) are involved in commercial taxi driving than female (6%); and 91% had driving experience of more than two years. Factors influencing deviant driving behaviour of taxi drivers are intake of alcohol (72%); intake of drugs and other local substances before and while driving (65%); attitudes of traffic officers (96%); traffic situation (90%); demand for services (96%) and vehicle condition (88%). There is statistically significant relationship between years of driving experience and driving behaviour of taxi drivers (F<sup>14</sup><sub>735</sub> 17.118= P&lt;0.05). Meanwhile, nine (9) out of the fourteen (14) predictors best predict driving behaviour of commercial drivers. This study recommends adherence to road safety driving rules and enforcement measures.</p> Bashir Olufemi Odufuwa Umar Obafemi Salisu Simeon Oluwagbenga Fasina Nathaniel Oluwaseun Ogunseye Sunday Samuel Omoniyi Copyright (c) 11 2 199 226 10.4314/gjg.v11i2. Assessment of Soil Fertility Status under Continuous Irrigation Farming in Nigerian Savanna <p>This study assesses soil fertility status under continuous irrigation farming in Nigerian Savanna. Soil samples were collected from eight irrigated farm plots in Zaria while adjacent uncultivated soil was used as the control. Soil samples were collected from 0-20cm (topsoil) and 20-50cm (subsoil). 108 soil samples were collected and analyzes using standard laboratory methods. Soils were analyzed for texture, bulk density, porosity, moisture content, Soil pH, Organic matter, total<br />nitrogen, available phosphorus, exchangeable bases (Ca, Mg, K, Na), exchangeable acidity (H+Al), exchangeable cation exchange capacity (ECEC) and base saturation. Descriptive statistic was used to compare the results while Pearson Correlation Coefficient was used to test the elements at 0.01 and 0.05 alpha levels. From the result, the textural grades are loamy. The mean values obtained for each elements at the irrigated plots are: sand (50.38%), silt (39.63%), clay (10%), bulk density (1.38), porosity (47.75%), moisture content (0.26cm3), pH in water (5.44) and<br />in CaCl2 (5.7). organic matter 1.74%, total N 0.12%, available phosphorus (58.36cmol/kg-1), cations (Ca (7.76cmol/kg-1), Mg (1.48cmol/kg-1), K (0.36cmol/kg-1), and Na (0.61cmol/kg-1), H+Al (0.59cmol/kg-1), ECEC (10.62cmol/kg-1) and base saturation (93%). The control plot showed better improvement in terms of both soil physical and chemical properties. It is recommended that soil testing should be carried out from time to time to monitor the rate of soil deterioration under continuous irrigation.</p> Samuel Yakubu Ishaku IbrahimYare Mallo Copyright (c) 11 2 227 242 10.4314/gjg.v11i2. Assessment of Soil Degradation under Agricultural Land Use Sites: Emerging Evidence from the Savanna Region of North Eastern Nigeria <p>Soil degradation remains a global environmental phenomenon that is interpreted differently in different environments, despite its global dimension in terms of loss of soil fertility from crop fields in most of the major agricultural regions of the word. This study reports the results of a quantitative index (indices) developed to assess soil degradation associated with agricultural land uses for two contrasting topographies. The study also, identifies the basic underlying pattern of the interrelationship between the soil properties in a part of the Northern Guinea Savanna belt of Nigeria. Using thirteen soil properties, three indices are developed namely: organic nutrients, cation exchange capacity, and soil texture. The indices range from 34.3 % for Ca and 33.7 % for CEC for fallow land to 68.8 % for Na and 57.8 % for OC for continuously cultivated farms on hillslope and flatland sites, respectively. The organic nutrients index was the most degraded index in both sites. The results of the analysis of factor scores for the three land Use types on both sites show two to three basic underlying relationships among the soil properties analyzed, with continuously cultivated farms being the worst degraded then fallow plots with forest fields being the least degraded. The study recommends that the agricultural quality of the soil be evaluated by monitoring only these few soil properties in the study region.</p> Mohammed Bakoji Yusuf Umar Jauro Abba Mohammed Salim Isa Copyright (c) 11 2 243 263 10.4314/gjg.v11i2.