Ghana Journal of Geography <p>The<em> Ghana Journal of Geography</em> publishes the best of original research and scholarship in physical and human geography as well as research from other disciplines working on ideas of relevance to the Developing world.</p> Department of Geography and Resource Development en-US Ghana Journal of Geography 0855-9414 <span>The copyright belongs to the Department of Geography and Resource Development, and the Ghana Geographical Association.</span> Factors influencing households’ vulnerability to desertification in rural communities of Northern Katsina, Nigeria <p>Rural livelihood and economic development in northern Nigeria has been characterised by the devastating effects of desertification. This paper provides an avenue to examine the peculiar factors influencing vulnerability to desertification among farm households of rural communities in desertification prone areas of Katsina State.&nbsp; Data was collected from both primary and secondary sources. A systematic random sampling technique was employed to select 633 respondents in 18 rural communities from the six local government areas chosen for the study. The research instruments used were questionnaire, key informant interview and focus group discussion. Findings revealed that 93% of the respondents were from male-headed farm households, 71% were above 45 years of age and 80% have no basic primary education. Millet was the most important crop grown and 73% were full time farmers. The main perceived causes of desertification are climate change, deforestation, acts of God and environmental mismanagement. Effects of desertification were manifested in declining crop yields, loss of farmlands as well as the extinction of flora and fauna species. The factors influencing vulnerability of farm households to desertification were the ages of household heads, farming status, size of the households, access to non-farm income, migration and improved seed varieties (p &lt; 0.05). The study, therefore, recommended the need to promote adult education, increase access to improved seed varieties and farm input, encourage livelihood diversification, intensified efforts towards effective management of environmental resources, and the involvement of vulnerable groups in the formulation and implementation of policies aimed at combating desertification.</p> Olanrewaju Yusuf Yahaya Nurudeen Adesola Malik Copyright (c) 2021 Ghana Journal of Geography 2021-12-21 2021-12-21 13 3 10.4314/gjg.v13i3.1 Land Use Effect on Quality of Plateau Soils: A Case Study of Ososo in Northern Edo State, Nigeria <p>The study examined land use effect on quality of plateau soils, using Ososo in Northern Edo State, Nigeria as a case study. The objectives were to examine the status of soils under the different land uses and evaluate variation in the physicochemical properties of soils among the investigated sites. A total of thirty-six soil samples were collected from secondary forest, cocoa plantation and quarry site at 0 - 15 and 15 - 30 cm depths. Soil quality indicators were analyzed in the laboratory, while data were examined by descriptive and inferential statistics. Due to the effect of mining activities, quarry site had lower mean values of soil organic matter, total organic carbon, total nitrogen, available phosphorous, effective cation exchange capacity, potassium, copper and manganese while iron, zinc and calcium were lower in secondary forest. However, Na and ECEC were higher in cocoa plantation. The study further revealed that though the examined land uses had varied effects on the soil properties; quarry site impacted the soil quality parameters more negatively compared to the secondary forest and cocoa plantation land use types. Significant variation (p &lt; 0.05) in sand, clay and available phosphorous was detected in the topsoil of the different land uses. The research concluded that the status of the soil nutrients was low. To improve the quality of the plateau soils, liming and the use of animal droppings, town refuse ash and plant remains is recommended.</p> Paul Orobosa Orobator Emmanuel Ekpenkhio Copyright (c) 2021 Ghana Journal of Geography 2021-12-21 2021-12-21 13 3 10.4314/gjg.v13i3.2 Dimensions of human security and socio-economic development in Ilorin metropolis, Kwara State, Nigeria <p class="Abstract">Insecurity has become an important challenge to global human development. While wars among countries have reduced in the 21<sup>st</sup> century compared to previous centuries, civil wars and other forms of internal violence and conflicts have continued to have devastating effects on human populations. This paper aims to examine the relationship between aspect of human security and socio-economic development in Ilorin metropolis. Primary data were sourced through structured questionnaire coupled with personal interviews to elicit responses to work on. Secondary data were sourced from published documents of the National Population Commission and the State Bureau of Statistics, journals, and other relevant literatures. Data collected were analysed using the Z-score, Lorenz curve, and Regression analyses. The study reveals that the present adaptive and institutional strategies aimed at mitigating human insecurity in the study area are rather insufficient. Using the widest bow of the Lorenz curve, the level of disparity is 18%, depicting a disparity in the pattern of socio-economic development. The conclusion from the study is that many of the sampled respondents still find it hard to satisfy their basic needs from the environment in socially acceptable standards. Given this, the following recommendations are made to improve the quality of human life in Ilorin. Policy makers should be committed to the task of advancing the socio-economic well-being of urban dwellers. Government should help by implementing policies addressing basic human security especially through the provision of infrastructural facilities, and employment opportunities thereby helping to shape the quality of life and income diversification.</p> Orire Ismaila Oloyede Ogunfolaji Dare Copyright (c) 2021 Ghana Journal of Geography 2021-12-21 2021-12-21 13 3 10.4314/gjg.v13i3.3 Monitoring spatio-temporal compliance of urban development plans using GIS and remote sensing in Nairobi City County, Kenya <p>Development control aims to provide an urban environment with quality service delivery, optimal use of available resources, conservation, and reduction of haphazard urban growth. At the core of development control is the compliance assessment process, which ensures adherence to regulatory policies. The City of Nairobi compliance assessment process lacks considerable enforcement capacity and this has led to uncontrolled development. This study uses GIS and remote sensing to assess the spatio-temporal compliance of development plan(s) in Nairobi City County. Land use/cover of Nairobi City County from 1976 to 2019 were obtained from classified Landsat images at a nearly 10-year interval of six epochs (1976, 1984, 1993, 2002, 2010 and 2019). The zoning plan maps were digitised and superimposed on the classified images to determine compliance, taking subsequent reviews of spatial development plans into account. The non-compliance rates for residential, commercial, and industrial activities varied at 57~84%, 63~81% and 65~92%, respectively, during the study period (1976–2019). A comparison between the planned and non-compliant areas showed that residential, commercial, and industrial activities occurred mostly outside planned areas from 1976 to 2019. The analysis showed a considerably less increase in non-compliance on commercial land use. This is so because of the review done on the zoning plan for Nairobi City in 2005. The industrial land use non-compliance was constantly increasing over the study period, an indicator of the ever-rising rate of urbanisation in the Nairobi metropolitan area. This study illustrates the power of rapid spatial mapping in monitoring compliance of urban development plans for informed decision making.&nbsp;</p> Owen Karanja Mwaura Patroba Achola Odera Copyright (c) 2021 Ghana Journal of Geography 2021-12-21 2021-12-21 13 3 10.4314/gjg.v13i3.4 Livelihood implications of artisanal gold mining in farming communities: insight from the Wa East District, Ghana <p class="Abstract">The impact of artisanal mining on livelihoods in developing countries is a contentious issue. As a contribution to this subject, the study assessed the implications of artisanal gold mining activities on smallholder agriculture in the Wa East District of Ghana. A descriptive survey design with a mixed methods research approach was used. Primary data were sourced from respondents through interviews, questionnaire administration, and field observation. Five artisanal mining communities were selected based on the intensity of mining activities in them. The study respondents consisted of 290 household heads drawn randomly from 1,050 households. Also, key informants consisting of 5 assembly members and 15 lead artisanal miners were interviewed. The study found artisanal mining to be a dominant livelihood strategy in the district, employing about 76.2% of respondents at various levels. Artisanal mining contribution to household income was higher than food crop farming. Proceeds from mining are used to finance smallholder agriculture. However, the activities of the miners have resulted in the degradation of farmlands. We argued that artisanal mining activities should be aligned with other livelihood options such as agriculture in local communities. The study called for the engagement of local miners and traditional rulers in mineral resource decision-making.</p> Issah Baddianaah Gordon N-yelkabo Tuu Bernard Nuoleyeng Baatuuwie Copyright (c) 2021 Ghana Journal of Geography 2021-12-21 2021-12-21 13 3 10.4314/gjg.v13i3.5 Exploring Female Students’ Quest for Leadership and their Experiential Realities in the University of Education, Winneba <p>The study explored female students’ quest for leadership and experiential leadership realities in higher educational institutions in Ghana. In Ghana, female enrolment in higher educational institutions has increased due to population increases and campaign for girl-child education. However, despite the opportunities and access to higher education, female students’ quest for leadership positions in their educational institutions is often thwarted and largely insignificant compared to their male counterparts. However, there is evidence in Ghana that national leadership, especially in politics, is usually linked to leadership at tertiary institutions, especially, in the universities.&nbsp; Using female students’ leadership in governance at the University of Education (UEW) as a study focus, and employing the liberal feminist theory, we hypothesised that female students’ desire for leadership positions in higher education would not differ significantly from reality due to some systemic cultural challenges. The study revealed that certain leadership positions are preserved of males, and females who vie for such positions generally encounter some cultural setbacks . The study concludes that female students are motivated to take leadership positions due to their desire to lead and serve the people, but society uses gender to set limit for women when they vie for leadership positions. The study recommends that teachers and parents should encourage both males and females to take up equal leadership roles early in life to arouse in them the drive for future leadership positions.</p> Lucy Effeh Attom Anitha Oforiwah Adu-Boahen Esther Yeboah Danso-Wiredu Copyright (c) 2021-12-19 2021-12-19 13 3 10.4314/gjg.v13i3.6 Assessment of commuters’ perception of water transportation safety and patronage in Lagos Metropolis, Nigeria <p><em>Water transport being among the oldest mode of transport is crucial to the development of any nation. It provides means of transportation for both rural and urban dwellers, particularly along the coastal areas and inland waterways. It is a known fact that water transportation has been neglected for a long period by both the government and the private sector, particularly in the area of safety of passengers on Lagos waters. This paper examines the perception of safety and the use of water transportation among passengers within Lagos metropolis. The jetties were purposively determined. Using a random sampling technique, a structured questionnaire focusing on socio-economic characteristics of passengers, use of water transport, reasons for the use of water transport, perception on safety and frequency of water transportation usage were administered to 1050 passengers across the selected four jetties (Liverpool, Falomo, Bayeku, and Ijegun Egba) within the metropolis with a response rate of 86.3%. The step-wise multiple regression results show that passengers’ perception of poor safety of water transportation predicted a significant 78.1% of reluctance to travel by water within Lagos metropolis (F = 27990.685, p&lt;0.05). This study, therefore, recommends that the state government should provide adequate safety measures that could repose confidence in passengers in order to increase patronage of water transportation. This singular act could help to reduce the incessant traffic congestions on Lagos roads. </em></p> Femi Ola Aiyegbajeje Clement Ebizimor Deinne Copyright (c) 2021 Ghana Journal of Geography 2021-12-20 2021-12-20 13 3 10.4314/gjg.v13i3.7 Seasonal Patterns of Facility-Based Deliveries in Vital Registration System: Evidence from Kogi State, North-central Nigeria <p>Despite the massive investment in maternal care over the last three decades, Nigeria still has the highest home deliveries in sub-Saharan Africa. This study utilized live birth and socio-economic data compiled in 2018 by the National Population Commission (NPC), Nigeria to understand seasonal patterns of births in Lokoja, North-central Nigeria. The monthly reported health data was collected from 12,589 reproductive aged women in 13 health facilities for five years (2014 - 2018). Analysis of Variance was employed to examine significant variations in birth seasonality, while student’s t-test was used to compare birth rate in urban and rural areas. The results showed that a total of 38,696 live births was recorded from 2014 – 2018. Majority (90.75%) of the reproductive aged women was 20-39years, 70 percent of whom were educated with at least primary education, and 84.2 percent gave birth in the hospital. There was no significant statistical difference in male and female births (t = 0.271, p&gt;0.05).&nbsp; The highest births were recorded in December, July, and August (47.48%), while the lowest births occurred in March and February (9.67%). Conception was higher in April (22.5%) and lower in July (4.66%). Urban areas recorded more deliveries in the hospitals. There was a significant upward pattern in live births from 2014 to 2018, with 29.6 percent increase. It is recommended that sexual and reproductive health related interventions should focus more on the influence of socio-economic and seasonal barriers. This is to enable reproductive women better able to plan their pregnancies to control fertility rate.</p> Uguru Wisdom Ibor Pelumi Jaiyeoba Copyright (c) 2021-12-19 2021-12-19 13 3 10.4314/gjg.v13i3. Local actors in the co-management of mole national park and the impacts associated with it <p class="Abstract">Effective management of the National Parks largely depends on a participatory approach. Hitherto, fringe communities of Mole National Park were sidelined in its management. In recent times, the participation of communities in the management of forest resources in the Mole National Park is encouraged. This study examines how actors such as chiefs, land priests, clan heads, diviners, women leaders and youth groups support conservation using resource and habitat taboos, totemic system, traditional fire belt, sacred tree species and traditional awareness creation as strategies and their impacts thereof. The study employed a concurrent triangulation mixed methods approach in data collection, analysis, and presentation. Besides questionnaire administration as a quantitative method of data collection, the study made use of Key Informant Interviews, and Focus Group Discussions as qualitative methods of data collection. Apart from the use of descriptive statistics as a component of SPSS for the analysis of quantitative data, content analysis was used for the analysis of qualitative data. The study revealed that the fringe communities endorse the chiefs and the land priests (kasawule wura) as most effective actors in the management of forest flora and fauna and the totemic system as the most effective management strategy. The study concluded that, there exists local management actors, and strategies in resource management, and fringe communities and the park are impacted positively because of community participation in park management. It is recommended that, benefit-sharing schemes should be considered and developed by park management and fringe communities since this can engender commitment to participation.</p> Abdul-Kadri Yahaya Ashraf Zakaria Bismark Yeboah Boasu Copyright (c) 2021-12-19 2021-12-19 13 3 10.4314/gjg.v13i3.9 Public road transport system and the spread of communicable diseases: Perspectives of operators and passengers in Accra, Ghana <p class="Abstract">In spite of its role in the development of nations, transport has also been identified as a means of spreading some communicable diseases. However, few studies have been conducted to assess the spread of diseases on road transport. This study sought to explore the views of operators and passengers about the spread of communicable diseases on the public road transport system in Accra, Ghana. Adapting the Disease Transmission Cycle as the conceptual framework, and following a qualitative research method, data for the study were collected through in-depth interviews and observations and were analysed manually based on the emerging themes. Though various diseases were identified to spread on the public road transport system, there were divergent views on the risk of being infected. Meanwhile, respondents indicated they would feel uncomfortable putting up with people suspected to be infected with communicable diseases. The study emphasises strict adherence to internationally acceptable standards on road transport in order to minimize the spread of communicable diseases on public transport in Ghana.</p> Akoto Otupiri Darko Simon Mariwah Albert Machistey Abane Regina Obilie Amoako-Sakyi Kingsley Asare Pereko Copyright (c) 2021 2021-12-19 2021-12-19 13 3 10.4314/gjg.v13i3.10 Awareness of the causes, impact and solutions to global warming among undergraduate students from different schools in the University of The Gambia <p class="Abstract">Climate Change is unequivocal and occurring at an alarming pace. Increasing greenhouse gas emissions, their concentration in the atmosphere and increased energy absorption have resulted in in changes in climate. This study was a cross sectional study conducted from April 12th to May 12th, 2021. The survey was conducted online using Google form that was circulated via "WhatsApp" groups and emails received from the University admissions office. This study comprises of students in their; first year 26.5%, second year 22.8%, third year 17.9% and fourth-year students 32.8%. Students from the school of Medicine and allied health science showed a satisfactory knowledge of 67% towards the causes of global warming. Students from the school of Engineering also demonstrated a satisfactory knowledge towards the impact of global warming 61% and its solution 69%. In conclusion, students at the University of The Gambia demonstrated a satisfactory understanding of the causes of global warming (63%) and a fair awareness of the consequences (52%) and remedies to global warming (54%). We recommend that, climate change awareness course should be incorporated into the curriculum of the University of The Gambia and should be made mandatory for every student.</p> Matty Kah Alpha Kargbo Pierre A. Mendy Edrisa Jawo Edward Mendy Copyright (c) 2021 2021-12-19 2021-12-19 13 3 10.4314/gjg.v13i3.12 Regionalism, ethnicity, and politics in Ghana <p class="Abstract">One basic feature that characterises all African countries is cultural diversity. Like most African countries, one way to measure diversity among the people of Ghana is ethnicity. There are several researches on the direct relationship between language, place and politics. Spoken language, directly linked to ethnicity in Ghana is political and geographical in nature. It is, therefore, clear that ethnic identity and languages spoken are the symbols and values that form a focal point for group cohesiveness, and this may vary through time. This study, therefore, examines ethnicity in Ghana through time in space using GIS to map the variations from the known spatial divisions and political lens then uses voting patterns to understand politics of affection among various ethnic groups in the country. The paper concludes that, although the geographical concentrations of ethnicity can be mapped to specific places, migration has diffused greatly the sole concentration of one ethnic group in a specified place. It also questions the hypothesis that voting in Africa is largely based on ethnic considerations, place and language based other than development. It does this considering the recent trend of voting patterns in the country.</p> Esther Yeboah Danso-Wiredu Isaac Brako Copyright (c) 2021-12-19 2021-12-19 13 3