Ghana Journal of Geography <p>The<em> Ghana Journal of Geography</em> publishes the best of original research and scholarship in physical and human geography as well as research from other disciplines working on ideas of relevance to the Developing world.</p> Department of Geography and Resource Development en-US Ghana Journal of Geography 0855-9414 <span>The copyright belongs to the Department of Geography and Resource Development, and the Ghana Geographical Association.</span> Gendered Strategies among Northern Migrants in Ghana: The Role of Social Networks <p>The migration trends from Northern to Southern Ghana is not a new phenomenon and it is rooted in historical antecedents.&nbsp; Migration scholars in Ghana have attributed these migration trends from an economic lens, arguing that migration has become a household strategy to diversify incomes. However, little research has focused on social networks serving as migration channels for migrants in the informal sector. In view of this, this paper explores the gendered strategies and social networks that the northern migrants use to gain access to the labour market. This study used a qualitative approach. Primary data was collected using the in-depth interview tool. A sampled population of 58 (37 women and 21 men) migrants from Northern Ghana to the Greater Accra Region (Madina), constituted the respondents. Findings indicate that integration and assimilation of migrants into their new community is a function of ethnicity. Strong and weak social ties facilitate migration differently. Whereas the former facilitates migration, the latter offers an enduring support for new migrants in searching for jobs and accommodation on arrival. The study concludes that knowledge of how social networks organize gender strategies within the migration continuum is important for policy intervention to close the poverty gap between North and South.</p> Mariama Zaami Copyright (c) 2020-12-17 2020-12-17 12 2 1 24 10.4314/gjg.v12i2.1 Window design selection and energy consumption implications for residential buildings in Ghana: A behavior-change analysis of Ga East and Awutu Senya East Municipalities <p>The challenge of reducing carbon emissions for the purpose of climate change mitigation requires both supply-side and demand-side energy efficiency measures. On the demand side, buildings worldwide account for about 30-40% of the total energy demand, thereby forming the largest sectoral consumer of electricity. Hence, the building sector offers a great opportunity for energy conservation and efficiency drives if certain behavioural patterns were to change. An important element of the building, which often influences energy consumption, is the design of the window. This paper investigates the economic, energy efficiency and sociological dimensions of the shift from traditional window designs to alternative ones in Ghana. Through quantitative and qualitative analyses of the data gathered for the 2014 Energy Surveys in the Ga East and Awutu Senya East Municipalities in Ghana, most homeowners use new window designs predominantly for aesthetic reasons. While more wooden and louvre blades windows users depend heavily on natural ventilation systems, glazed windows users depend mostly on fans and air conditioners. Consequently, glazed windows users spend more money on electricity compared to users of other window types. These findings manifest the energy inefficiency of most recent architectural designs in Ghana and, therefore call for appropriate policy interventions.</p> Simon Bawakyillenuo Innocent Sefadzi Komla Agbelie Copyright (c) 2020-12-17 2020-12-17 12 2 25 61 10.4314/gjg.v12i2.2 The Perception of Rural Households on Climate Change Effect on Rural Livelihoods in Lake Victoria Basin <p>While the science of climate change is well investigated across most disciplines, people’s perception of climate change effects has not been well addressed. This paper sought to address the question of climate change perception and the effect of climate change on rural household livelihoods within the Lake Victoria Basin of Kenya. The study relied on households’ perception on the effect of climate change on the areas of agriculture, and food security, water, and energy supply. Multistage sampling was applied to select 539 households from four eco-ecological zones.&nbsp; The study revealed that most households presented localized explanations of climate change, which included: frequent and prolonged droughts, variations in rainfall onset and cessation, increased temperatures, an increased strong wind episode. Some households perceived climate changes effects resulted into a decrease in crop yield, resulting in increased household food insecurity, while some perceived water stress at household level, but mainly for those who relied on surface water, well water, borehole, and the natural spring. In addition, some of the households perceived shortage in energy sources, particularly hydroelectric power was said to be sensitive to the changes in climate. These perceptions were based on households’ experiences, and partially the results were found to be consistent with physical science of climate change. The paper therefore recommends the need to harmonise household perception with the climate change policy in order to address emerging challenges of climate change at the local level, create more climate change awareness supported through a comprehensive climate change action plan on country’s preparedness of extreme climate events at household level.</p> Evans Odhiambo Wabwire Stellah Mukhovi Isaiah Ang’iro Nyandega Copyright (c) 2020-12-17 2020-12-17 12 2 62 83 10.4314/gjg.v12i2.3 Patterns of Land Use Activities in Ghana’s Secondary Cities <p>Ghana is rapidly urbanizing. This urbanization has resulted in villages growing into towns and towns into urbanized areas. Theories and models have been employed to explain the internal structure of urban areas, especially, with respect to land use variations. These models started with the classical urban land use models in America. Urban scholars in Africa have struggled to fit the development of the African cities into these classical models. They have therefore called for African scholars to develop models for urban land use in Africa. This paper sought to identify the common patterns of land use activities which shape the internal structure of Ghana’s secondary cities. The study employed Geographic Information System (GIS) as a major tool of analysis in explaining the patterns in urban areas. This is augmented with in-depth ground observations of the study areas. The findings of the study showed the absence of homogeneity in most of the sectors and undefined industrial zones as contradictions to the classical models. The study further revealed that residential zones were not fully occupied by either lower income, middle income, or higher income residence. The income groups may only dominate in a given sector. Based on the findings, a common pattern is proposed to represent the land uses within the selected secondary cities in Ghana.</p> Bismark Mensah Isaac Obeng Darkwa Esther Yamoaba Bonful Moses Bangfunourteru Tuu Mohammed Sanda Esther Yeboah Danso-Wiredu Copyright (c) 2020-12-17 2020-12-17 12 2 84 107 10.4314/gjg.v12i2.4 Rural Road Infrastructural Challenges: An Impediment to Agricultural Development in Idanre Local Government Area of Ondo State, Nigeria <p>Accessibility to the rural area by road is a key factor in achieving Sustainable Development Goals in pursuance of optimal survival these areas. Various rural development policies instituted in Nigeria to alleviate the condition of rural dwellers and to sustain agricultural development, yet the smooth accessibility desires of several rural areas impaired by poor rural road infrastructure. The resultant effect of this is low agricultural productivity in rural areas and food insecurity. Rural communities in developing countries are mostly disconnected from the major roads and public transport services that should provide them access to the economic and social opportunities in cities. To this end, the research examined how road infrastructural challenges have impeded the development of agriculture in Idanre Local Government Council Areas, Ondo State, Nigeria. A structured questionnaire was purposively and randomly administered to collect data from a total of 200 farmers across 20 villages in the study area. Analysis of data for the information retrieved from the respondents were carried out with aid of descriptive statistics while stepwise regression examination was done to test the hypothesis. Findings revealed a high cost of transportation and irregular transport services as a result of the poor state of the roads in the study area have hindered effective agricultural development. Results also indicated that motorcycles were the dominant means of transportation in the LGA. This among others resulted in an increasing rate of post-harvest loss because of the restrictive capacity of motorcycle and high cost of transportation. The study recommended the construction and rehabilitation of dilapidated roads infrastructure to enhance agricultural development in the study area.</p> Samuel Oluwaseyi Olorunfemi Copyright (c) 2020-12-17 2020-12-17 12 2 108 124 10.4314/gjg.v12i2.5 Assessing Green Policies for the Rehabilitation and Sustainable Restoration of Mine Sites in Cameroon: Case of the Mayo-Darlé Mine Site, Adamawa Region <p>Mining is not without negative consequences for the environment. It is appropriate for each concerned state, particularly Cameroon, to adopt and implement mining laws and regulations to reduce environmental risks. The former Mayo-Darlé mine site in the Adamawa region that has been abandoned for several decades is a striking example of the limitations and lapses of national environmental protection policies.&nbsp; Hence, this study outlines an inventory of features in the concerned mine site while analyzing green policies related to the mining sector in Cameroon. The study attempts to modelize the socio-economic and environmental impacts in the sustainable management of the Mayo-Darlé mine site. The study proposes the prescription of a green network to encourage artisanal sustainable practices within mining fields. This “eco-sustainable" strategy shall be specific to mine site development. The implementation of measures outlined in the proposed policy shall considerably improve environmental conditions around the mine site. This involves the establishment of a rehabilitation plan and realistic restoration of the Mayo Darlé site for good preservation of the environment.&nbsp;</p> Daniel Essapo Marcel Ekedi Copyright (c) 2020-12-17 2020-12-17 12 2 125 146 10.4314/gjg.v12i2.6 Exploring the Spatial Variation of the Relationship between Land Use and Water Quality in a Drainage Basin Using Geographically Weighted Regression <p>The focus of this study is to determine the relationship between land use and water quality in the River Mu drainage basin for effective water quality management. Various land uses in the study area were identified and mapped using Landsat 8 OLI of 2016. Water samples were also collected from 112 sample sites using Stratified Random Sampling methods. The samples were analysed in terms of physicochemical parameters using standard methods. The results of land use and water quality parameters were regressed using Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) to determine whether there exist spatially varying relationships. The results revealed that the local R<sup>2</sup> values varied between 0.0 and 0.5, indicating a weak relationship between land use and water pollution, except for mixed forest and pH which recorded local R<sup>2</sup> values of 0.7 towards the western region of the study area. This shows that the relationship between the two variables varied spatially across the drainage basin. The one-sample Kolmogorov Smirmov test-p&lt;0.05 revealed that there were significant differences in pH (0.00), EC (0.00), turbidity (0.001), TDS (0.048), DO (0.003), NH<sub>4</sub><sup>+</sup> (0.002), Ca<sup>2+</sup> (0.00), Cl<sup>-</sup> (0.036), Fe<sup>3+</sup> (0.00) and Cr<sup>2+</sup> (0.039) across the different sample points, whereas K<sup>+</sup> (0.134), PO<sub>4</sub><sup>3-</sup> (0.715) and NO<sub>3</sub><sup>-</sup> (0.501) were not significantly different across the different sample points. The study recommended that the procedure for water management be localized to sub-catchment and basin levels, to provide adequate attention to each sub-catchment depending on the level and nature of pollution identified.</p> Samuel Azua Taiye Oluwafemi Adewuyi Lazarus Mustapha Ojigi Omafuvwe Joseph Mudiare Copyright (c) 2020-12-17 2020-12-17 12 2 147 168 10.4314/gjg.v12i2.7 Exploring Sustainability Features and Determinants of Agricultural Insurance Programmes in Low-income Countries <p>Agriculture is the main occupation and source of livelihood for the majority of the inhabitants in low-income countries<strong>. </strong>However, agricultural activities in these countries are confronted with a plethora of challenges, including production and marketing risks. Some of the farmers in low-income countries have been employing autonomous and planned adaptation strategies, including agricultural insurance contracts to cope with the agricultural risks. Agricultural insurance has been acclaimed to possess enormous potential for managing agricultural risks in low-income countries. This study employed the literature review approach to identify the features and determinants of sustainable agricultural insurance programmes in low-income countries. The study found that the appropriate institutional arrangements, socio-economic and ecological pillars could interact to make agricultural insurance programmes in low-income countries sustainable. Since most low-income countries are still piloting and up scaling their agricultural insurance programmes, I recommend incorporating the institutional, socio-economic and ecological dimensions into the design and implementation of their agricultural insurance schemes.</p> John Bosco Baguri Sumani Copyright (c) 2020-12-17 2020-12-17 12 2 169 200 10.4314/gjg.v12i2.8