Ghana Journal of Geography <p>The<em> Ghana Journal of Geography</em> publishes the best of original research and scholarship in physical and human geography as well as research from other disciplines working on ideas of relevance to the Developing world.</p> en-US <span>The copyright belongs to the Department of Geography and Resource Development, and the Ghana Geographical Association.</span> (Joseph A. Yaro) (Prof. Samuel Agyei-Mensah) Wed, 19 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Forest Dependence among Rural Households in Southern Ghana: Implications for Conservation and Poverty Reduction <p>While it is widely acknowledged that an understanding of the determinants of rural households’ forest extraction and dependence on forest resources is important for policies on forest conservation and rural development, the factors that determine Ghanaian households’ dependence on forests are neither adequately explored nor well-understood.&nbsp; Against this background, this paper examines the extraction and dependence on forest resources among rural households in the forest communities of Southern Ghana. Data were collected through a household livelihood survey and in-depth interviews in two forest communities. Regression models were then used to investigate key factors that condition the households' dependence on forests in the study communities. The findings indicate that almost all households are engaged in forest extraction. The average overall contribution of forests to household income in the study communities was 21 percent and constituted the third largest contributor to household income following crop income and non-farm income. The findings also indicate that forests also play an essential safety net role in the face of unforeseen income shortfalls and ultimately, in poverty alleviation. The results further reveal that the rural household's extraction of forest resources and consequently its dependence on forests (livelihood strategy) are a function of its access to other livelihood assets, its vulnerability context as well as other context variables. Recommended policy interventions for forest conservation and sustainable rural development include securing the natural resource base, broadening poor people's livelihood options and improving access to education in rural communities.</p> Philip Prince Kwasi Mantey, Joseph Kofi Teye Copyright (c) 2021 Ghana Journal of Geography Wed, 19 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Understanding the demographic dividend in Ghana, Sierra Leone and The Gambia: Prospects or missed opportunities? <p>This study provides a comparative investigation of the onset of the Demographic Dividend (DD) in Ghana, Sierra Leone and The Gambia. The paper examines the onset of the window of opportunity for harnessing the first DD in the three countries to inform relevant policy actions to reap its benefits. The study uses the National Transfer Accounts Approach, which measures at the aggregate level how individuals at each age acquire and use economic resources by examining the demographic transition alongside economic development in each country. The goal is to determine the commencement of the DD and its implications for policy action. While the window of opportunity of harnessing the labour DD of Ghana started in 1980s and expected to end in 2025, that of The Gambia and Sierra Leone began in 2000 and 2003 respectively, estimated to end by 2050. Sierra Leone and The Gambia have thirty years to make good use of this window of opportunity. Ghana on the other hand according to the data used has barely six years to harness this window of opportunity. This calls for strategic investments in productive sectors to position the countries to reap the benefits of the DD.&nbsp; The analysis suggests that the window of opportunity of harnessing the DD could be a prospect or missed opportunity, which will vary across the three countries with Ghana’s opportunity fast running out.</p> Stephen Owusu Kwankye, Faustina Frempong-Ainguah, Eric Arthur, Eugenia Amporfu Copyright (c) 2021 Ghana Journal of Geography Wed, 19 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Rural-Urban Integration and Spatial Planning in Edo State, Nigeria <p class="NoSpacing1" style="margin-left: 0in;"><span lang="EN-GB">Settlement planning is becoming an important reality in developing countries as economic, social and environmental sustainability are dependent on it. As they urbanize, there is the need for these settlements to be linked in an integrated manner so that there will be both sector and spatial development. The investigation is on rural-urban integration and spatial planning in Edo State, Nigeria. The paper reviews literature on environment, economy, and society in both the developed and less developed countries. The reviewed literature formed the basis for evaluating the context of Edo State’s rural-urban integration and spatial planning. It concluded that there is no proper spatial integration among rural and urban settlements in Edo State. It recommends spatial cohesion, rural master planning and the linking of rural and urban economies together for sustainable settlement spatial planning.</span></p> Daniel Nosakhare Onaiwu Copyright (c) 2021 Ghana Journal of Geography Wed, 19 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Recent Temperature and Rainfall Characteristics in Dodoma Region, Central Tanzania (1961 – 2013) <p>This paper presents the recent temperature and rainfall characteristics in Dodoma region, central Tanzania. The study used archival temperature and rainfall data for the past 53 years (1961 – 2013). Simple linear trend analysis and Mann-Kendall test were used to establish and test for rainfall and temperature trends through Microsoft Excel (2010) and Statistical Package for Social Sciences (version 20). Results for both minimum and maximum temperature indicate a significant increased trend (p=0.000, p=0.001) respectively at 0.05 significance level. Conversely, non-significant decreasing and increasing rainfall trends were noted for Bahi, Mpwapwa and Dodoma (p=0.532, p=0.473, p=0.629) respectively, at 0.05 significance level. Results further indicate that rainfall variability in the study area is influenced by local, regional and global variations. From the results, it is noted that temperature and rainfall have both significant and insignificant changes. It is recommended that the observed increased temperature and declined rainfall requires more adaptation strategies than usual to reduce adverse effects as climate variability is expected to further increase in the near future.</p> Helena Elias Myeya Copyright (c) 2021 Ghana Journal of Geography Wed, 19 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of Infrastructure in Ibadan Metropolis, Nigeria <p>The study examined the quantity and quality of infrastructure in Ibadan, Nigeria with a view to using the information to provide policy guidelines for sustainable infrastructural development. Using stratified sampling technique, a total of fifteen wards from the five local government areas in Ibadan metropolis were selected for study. The selection of all the local government areas is based on the fact that all of them cut across all the residential zones in the metropolis and they all topologically converge at the center of the city. Primary data for the study were sourced through the questionnaire administered on 1,035 respondents (2% of household heads in all the residential buildings in the metropolis), using systematic sampling technique. Descriptive and inferential statistics were employed to analyze the data earned. Findings established that 93.14%, 92.27%, 75.07%, 68.99% and 68.02% of the residents had access to nursery/primary school, market, secondary school and mosque respectively. Moreover, while maternity center was accessed by 66.57%, communication facility was used by 58.16%. Although, library was available and accessed by residents, its usage was the least (5.22%) in the study area. The five facilities that residents were very dissatisfied with were waste disposal facilities, nursery/primary school, security/police post, recreational facilities and transport network. The study revealed that facilities such as water supply, restaurant, dispensary, drainage, electricity supply, waste disposal, and fire station, were insufficiently available in the study area. Thus, the study concluded that infrastructure facilities in Ibadan metropolis were poor.</p> Solomon Olatunji, Adewale Yoade, Sesan Adeyemi Copyright (c) 2021 Ghana Journal of Geography Wed, 19 May 2021 20:14:29 +0000 Dynamics of Drought-Related Migration among five villages in the Savannah of Ghana <p>For many households in rural sub-Saharan Africa, drought is an important environmental shock because it undermines livelihoods and wellbeing. There is a growing concern that droughts in the context of a changing climate could magnify migration out of rural areas. Using an exploratory mixed method approach, this paper explores the relationship between drought and migration in five villages in the northern savannah of Ghana. The results suggest that drought-related migration in the savannah is much about rural to rural migration as it is about rural to urban migration. This observation contrasts with the concentration of the literature on the possibilities and outcomes of climate-induced rural to urban migration. The study further highlights the mediating role of a range of idiosyncratic factors in the migration responses to drought. A multivariate analysis showed that selected individual, household, and village variables explain about 21.5% of drought-related migration. The qualitative results revealed additional mediating factors notably; individual aspirations, the effect of pull factors and networks. Thus, drought-related migration is not always about vulnerability and responses as commonly viewed, but intricately intertwined with the socio-economic and political dynamics of people. The multiplicity of factors and the complexity of their interaction clearly show the need to shift away from simplistic and deterministic notions of the climate-migration nexus.</p> Francis Xavier Jarawura Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 20 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Design and deployment of relational geodatabase on mobile GIS platform for real-time COVID-19 contact tracing in Ghana <p>This study reviewed the design and deployment of relational geodatabase on mobile GIS application, using collector for ArcGIS and survey 123 for ArcGIS platforms for COVID-19 contact tracing in Ghana during the lockdown. The study assessed whether cases spread by physical neighborhood contacts, defined by a 2km buffer of initial known 60 cases location. The application was deployed on the android tablet, which was used by field workers. Application Post-deployment review shows that from 30<sup>th</sup> March to 4<sup>th</sup> April 2020, 828 samples were collected with 34 confirmed cases, of which 61% occurred outside the 2km buffer. From 1-30 April 2020, 8,748 individuals with 16,087 contacts were tested within the physical neighbourhoods, 2.4% turned positive. Similarly, 7,501 individuals with 17,071 contacts were tested outside the physical neighbourhoods with 4.3% positives.&nbsp; Results suggest that more infections occurred outside the case’s physical neighbourhoods possibly due to; (1) existence of unknown cases prior to lockdown; (2) cases were moving outside their physical neighborhood and infecting others; (3) panic movements of cases within the 3 days window between announcement and enforcement of lockdown; (4) movement of cases into the country through unapproved routes.&nbsp; New cases were identified outside the lockdown areas, which could not be explained. This study raises questions about (1) the understanding of the mode of spread of the virus (2) the implementation of the lockdown, including the geographic coverage and timing. It is recommended that future decisions on contact tracing and lockdown should be guided by an understanding of the disease geography.&nbsp;</p> Seth Kwaku Afagbedzi, Alex Barimah Owusu, Isaac Newton Kissiedu, Mary Amoako-Coleman, Delia Akosua Bandoh, Charles Lwanga Noora, Ben Emunah Aikins, Richmond Takyi Hinneh, Benedict Calys-Tagoe, Keziah Laurencia Malm, Ernest Kenu Copyright (c) 2021 Ghana Journal of Geography Wed, 19 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of the Impacts of Climate Change on Some Hydrological Processes of The Densu River Basin, Ghana <p>Water resources are among the most sensitive sectors to climate change due to their direct relationship with climate variables. The current study used projected climate datasets under two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs), 4.5 and 8.5, from the Coupled Model Intercompersion Project Phase 5 (CMIP5), remote sensing and Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to estimate the effect of projected climate change on some hydrological processes. We focus on rainfall, water yield, soil water storage and evapotranspiration in the Densu Rvier Basin (<u>DRB)</u> for the 2050s. After calibration and validation of the SWAT model, there was a strong correlation between the simulated and the observed stream discharge coefficient of determination (R<sup>2</sup>) of 0.84 and 0.77, and a Nash Sutcliffe Efficiency of 0.76 and 0.70 for calibration and validation, respectively. The results showed an annual mean increase of 2 ºC in temperature, 61% in evapotranspiration and 20.1 mm in rainfall amount by the 2050s compared to their baseline values. Even though the mean annual soil water storage increases by about 80 mm, water yield declines by about 23 mm by 2050s. This appears to be due to the disproportionate increase in evapotranspiration compared to increase in rainfall. In conclusion, the DRB is projected to experience an overall reduction in water yield.</p> Justice Ankomah-Baffoe , David Oscar Yawson , Daniel Okae-Anti Copyright (c) 2021 Ghana Journal of Geography Wed, 19 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Soil Moisture Storage In Nigeria Using Climatic Water Budgeting Approach <p>The estimation of soil moisture storage is fundamental to crop production, hydrological and biological processes. This study assessed soil moisture storage in Nigeria using the Climatic Water Budgeting Approach. Mean monthly air temperature and monthly rainfall data were collected from the archives of the Nigerian Meteorological Agency from 27 weather stations in Nigeria. The data were subjected to Climatic Water Budgeting Approach to compute the monthly soil moisture storage at different locations in Nigeria over two years with contrasting moisture conditions (1983 and 2003). The mean monthly air temperature data were used to estimate the monthly potential evapotranspiration (PE) while the PE in conjunction with the mean monthly rainfall and the soil water holding capacity of 250mm were used to calculate the monthly soil moisture storage. The results showed that most locations north of latitude 9°N recorded low soil moisture storage below 10 mm from April to July especially in 1983. The soil moisture storage was high in all the places in January and February due to low potential evapotranspiration and accumulated potential water loss (APWL). Most Places South of latitude 9°N recorded higher soil moisture storage between 20 mm and 100 mm from January to May compared to their counterparts north of latitude 9°N in both 1983 and 2003. The soil moisture storage attained 250 mm (100%) from July-October across Nigeria. This study concluded that the soil moisture varies spatially and temporally in Nigeria decreasing from South to North. A paired sample test revealed a significant difference between the soil moisture storage of 2003 and 1983 in Nigeria (p=.000).</p> Musa Oladejo Kehinde, Aliyu Tambuwal Umar Copyright (c) 2021 Ghana Journal of Geography Wed, 19 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Geospatial Techniques Based Analysis on the Impact of Resettlement on Land Use and Land Cover Change in Esira District, Dawuro Zone, Ethiopia <p>Resettlement program is considered as a response to tackle the problems of food insecurity, unproductive agriculture, and the ill-being of resettled community. However, large implementation of the program gives rise to socio-economic and environmental related issues particularly natural resource degradation, which causes land use and land cover (LULC) change in the study area. This study was carried out to analyze implication of resettlement on LULC change in Esira district by applying geospatial techniques. Accordingly, to achieve the intended objectives, three sets of Landsat images with different study period were used. Thus, five major LULC classes were identified using maximum likelihood supervised classification techniques. Post classification change detection technique was also used to identify land transformation from one LULC class to other classes. The finding of the study shows that, from 1990 to 2019, there was increment in settlement and cropland with respective values of 11.9% to 32%, and 21.7% to 28%. In expense of this, grassland, forest and bare land were decreased from 29.2% to 14.7%, 26.2% to 16.6% and 12.8% to 8.33%, respectively. Fragmented and unplanned resettlement program would result in natural resource depletion particularly deforestation. So, based on the findings, well-planned resettlement program and sensible land use system is recommended.</p> Markos Mamude, Girma Alemu Melka, Wondafrash Genet Copyright (c) 2021 Ghana Journal of Geography Wed, 19 May 2021 20:39:09 +0000 Morphological Changes along the shoreline of the arcuate Niger Delta from Parts of Delta State to Akwa Ibom State between 1986 and 2016 <p>This study analyzes the morphological changes occurring at the arcuate Niger Delta shoreline by identifying factors that contribute to erosion-induced shoreline changes and the rate of shoreline change from Forcados (Delta State) to Ibeno (Akwa Ibom State). Shoreline changes were compared from 1986 to 2016 as well as among western, central and eastern sections of the arcuate Niger Delta using Landsat satellite imagery within Geographic Information System (GIS) environment. In the assessment of the entire shoreline, accretion was 5,477.814Ha (1.2%) in 1986 and 19181.53Ha (4.1%) in 2016. For erosion, it was 48,400.03 (10.3%) in 1986 and 68398.84Ha (14.5%) in 2016. This indicates that accretion increased by 2.91% and erosion also increased by 4.25% in 30 years. The major accretion was detected within Brass (Bayelsa State), Bonny (River State), Andoni (River State) and Ibeno (Akwa Ibom State). Forcados South Point (Delta State), Sombreiro River mouths and eastern Obolo recorded the highest level of shoreline erosion. For land use/land cover (LULC), vegetation was 27.4% in 1986 but reduced to 22.9% in 2016; a change I attributed to massive conversion of vegetative cover for anthropogenic activities in the area. The study concluded that major erosion cases are due to the changing climate and the velocity of flow of major estuaries into the ocean. The activities that contribute to the shoreline change aside the challenging natural factors are sand mining, hard and engineered structures on the shore and other commercial and social activities. The occurrences of shoreline erosion have contributed to the degradation of these coastal ecosystems, loss of human settlements and livelihood. It is therefore essential to implement precautionary measures to mitigate the risk of shoreline erosion within this sensitive zone</p> Gordon Tami Amangabara, Obinna Michael Onyewuchi Copyright (c) 2021 Ghana Journal of Geography Wed, 19 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The dynamics of households’ adoption behaviour of solar home systems (SHSS) in Ashongman Estate in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana <p>Ghana heavily relies on hydrogenated and thermal electricity. For the past thirteen years, the dynamics of climate change and increasing fuel prices have engendered an electricity crisis since the supply of electricity cannot match the ever-burgeoning demand from households and industries. While this is so, the uptake of renewable energy sources has been abysmal in Ghana. This study thus seeks to assess the adoption behaviour of solar home systems, an environmentally friendly and convenient alternative electricity source by households in Ashongman Estate, a suburb of Accra, Ghana. Using a mixed research approach including binary logistic regression analysis, the study found that education, income levels, the performance expectation and housing tenure arrangements were crucial factors that determine the willingness of households to adopt the solar energy sources. We recommend that to encourage the uptake of Solar Home Systems (SHSs) which are environmentally sustainable, it is expedient that government collaborates with relevant stakeholders to provide solar home systems (SHSs)for households with the necessary technical capacity while putting financial policy measures in place to ensure their affordability regardless of socio-economic status. In addition, we recommend further studies to explore the role of incentives in solar home systems adoption to inform policies that will encourage their uptake.</p> Gloria Mensah, Wilson Kodwo McWilson Copyright (c) 2021 Ghana Journal of Geography Wed, 19 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000