Ghana Journal of Geography <p>The<em> Ghana Journal of Geography</em> publishes the best of original research and scholarship in physical and human geography as well as research from other disciplines working on ideas of relevance to the Developing world.</p> en-US <span>The copyright belongs to the Department of Geography and Resource Development, and the Ghana Geographical Association.</span> (Joseph A. Yaro) (Rosemary Ayelazuno Achentisa) Mon, 23 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Profile of Victims of Neighbourhood Crimes in Ghanaian Cities <p>Generally, urban crime research in Ghana is non-ambiguous on the socio-cultural, political economy and environmental ramifications of neighbourhood crimes in emerging cities, but the personal and neighbourhood level characteristics of the most likely victims of neighbourhood crime in Ghanaian cities remain meagre. This paper fills the gap in knowledge by answering the question ‘who/where is the most likely victim of crime in urban Ghana?’ This study employed a sequential mixed methods approach to collect data through the administration of a household survey, as well as focus group discussion (FDG) sessions. The survey data were analysed using binary logistic regression while the qualitative data were analysed using thematic analysis. The study found that socio-demographic characteristics, which are associated with a higher likelihood of victimisation, include young unemployed persons, residents of a detached or ‘self-contained’ apartment, household of increasing household size, residents of neighbourhoods with less police visibility and residents of unsafe neighbourhoods. Cognisance of the limited capacity of the Ghana Police Service, this study recommends the need for the Ghana Police Service to consider neighbourhood demographic characteristics in their efforts to enhance distributive justice in the provision of internal security.</p> Ernest Bagson, Adobea Owusu, George Owusu, Charlotte Wrigley-Asante, Martin Oteng-Ababio Copyright (c) 2021 Ghana Journal of Geography Sun, 22 Aug 2021 17:21:08 +0000 Assessment of the impact of ungoverned spaces on insurgency in Borno State, Nigeria <p>This study examines the relationship between ungoverned spaces and insurgency in the Borno State, Nigeria. The aim is to understand the influence of geographical variables on the activities of insurgence. The study used satellite data, population data and data on insurgency attack in the study area. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, percentage rise in slope analysis and reclassification were used for the satellite data processing.&nbsp; Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) models was employed for data analysis. The findings revealed that LGAs in the central and the southern parts of the state recorded the highest number of insurgency attacks. The central and far northern part of the state has more vegetal cover, which has influenced the high incidence of insurgency attack observed. In addition, the very high incidence of insurgency attack (145) observed in Gwoza LGA, is largely attributed to the presence of the Gwoza Mountain, which is one of the main strong holds of the insurgents in Borno State. The GWR analysis reveals that the performance of the model with the population density was much better than the other variables with a corrected Akaike Information Criterion (AICc) value of 273.15, R-Squared values of 0.0323, 0.0224, 0.0203 and 0.8901 for the undulating terrain, vegetation, combination of vegetation and undulating terrain, and population density respectively. Thus, the study concludes that vegetal cover and population density have more influence on insurgency attack in the study area. Hence, the need for policy makers and security establishments to properly monitor the forested areas.</p> Sylvanus Helda Bernard , Mwanret Gideon Daful Copyright (c) 2021 Ghana Journal of Geography Sun, 22 Aug 2021 17:20:47 +0000 A Geographic Theorization of Zongos in Urban Ghana: A Complex Systems Approach <p>While Zongos have become a permanent abode for many people, especially migrants in urban Ghana, the dynamics of these communities are quite poorly understood. This paper provides a geographic analysis of the formation of Zongos, drawing heavily on a complex systems approach to explore how various variables, including space, ethnicity, class, citizenship, migration and environmental processes intersect to form and sustain Zongos in Ghana. Essentially, the paper throws more light on the key factors that contribute to the spatial concentration of the urban poor in Zongos and concludes with the consequences of having the urban poor living in highly segregated and economically depressed neighbourhoods in Ghanaian cities. The paper argues that the formation of Zongos is not solely attributable to the fondness of migrants from northern Ghana to live among people of like background while in southern cities, but also because of the exclusionary machinations of the majority and their housing gatekeepers.</p> Joseph Mensah, Joseph Kofi Teye Copyright (c) 2021 Ghana Journal of Geography Sun, 22 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of status and distribution of available micronutrients in soils under different land uses of savannah North Central Region of Nigeria <p>This study examines the availability of micronutrients under different land uses: natural vegetation, tree plantations (orange and cashew) and arable crops (maize and guinea corn). Available zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) were analysed in one hundred and fifty (150) randomly selected soil samples. Iron at the topsoil and subsoil under tree plantations and natural vegetation was rated marginal, under arable crops it was marginal at topsoil and deficient at subsoil. Available&nbsp; Mn and Zn at the topsoil and subsoil was&nbsp; adequate under all the land uses, with the exception of maize which&nbsp; fell under &nbsp;marginal&nbsp; ranking at topsoil. Copper was rated deficient under arable crops and orange, marginal under cashew, while natural vegetation was marginal at subsoil and adequate at topsoil. The results revealed that arable crops unlike tree plantations statistically differed on all occasions when their mean scores were compared with those of the natural vegetation. Copper-enriched inorganic fertilizers should be used by farmers. Monitoring of soil nutrients should be carried out regularly, in order to improve upon sustainable farming.</p> Abigail Abenu , Funmilayo Alfa Yusufu Copyright (c) 2021 Ghana Journal of Geography Sun, 22 Aug 2021 17:19:51 +0000 The relevance of indigenous knowledge in conserving natural forests in the face of modernisation: The case of Makete District, Southern Highlands of Tanzania <p>In pre-colonial Africa, Indigenous Knowledge (IK) was very effective in conserving natural forests because it was free from the current challenges. Therefore, this paper assesses effectiveness and sustainability of IK in conserving natural forests. It also examines the impact of modernisation on IK. The study employed mixed research methods to triangulate information. Thus, the data were collected through in-depth interview, Focus Group Discussions (FGDs), field observation and household survey. The study composed of 242 respondents, of whom 88 respondents participated in in-depth interview and FGDs, whereas 154 respondents participated in a household survey. The study found that IK lost its power hence affecting its effectiveness in conserving natural forests. Modernisation and missionary religion played a central role in weakening the power of IK. It was further found that the relevance and sustainability of IK was questionable because IK faces many challenges, which threaten its existence. Therefore, the study recommends that to ensure the sustainability of IK, there is a need for elders to transfer IK to young generation based on the local environment. It is also imperative for the government to take part in conserving forests owned by clans. This is because IK has lost the power, which contributed in conserving natural forests.</p> Faraja Sanga Copyright (c) 2021 Ghana Journal of Geography Sun, 22 Aug 2021 17:19:20 +0000 Spatial distribution of inselbergs in Igbajo district of Western Nigeria <p>Inselbergs’ spatial distribution is the primary focus of this study carried out in Igbajo District of Western Nigeria. Additionally, a common hypothesis that spatial distribution of inselbergs is informed by the differing modes of evolution of the landforms was also examined. Inselbergs are defined as points on the topographic sheet and satellite terrain elevation data and are thereafter subjected to point pattern analysis. Two point pattern analyses: Poisson Probability Distribution (PPD) and Nearest Neighbour Analysis (NNA) are employed to determine the pattern of inselberg distribution over space. Additional analysis focused on the relationship between regional river drainage and inselbergs’ spatial distribution. Findings from the study confirmed that inselberg form a clustered distribution. The PPD results suggest that the observed distribution of inselbergs has a statistically significant difference from the expected pattern generated by the random process (c<sup>2</sup> test statistic = 49.82 &gt; &nbsp;=12.59 (α= 0.05) and 16.81 (α= 0.01). Similarly, the NNA with a R &lt; 1 (Nearest Neighbour Ratio, R = 0.92) and p-value = -2.52, also indicated a clustered distribution. Analysis of river drainage pattern similarly revealed a cluster of high rising landforms situated in the centre of the regional watershed. It is concluded that inselberg distribution in the study area is clustered although the observed pattern does not necessarily validate or invalidate the alternative evolutionary theories.</p> Matthew Afolabi , Olayinka Ogunkoya Copyright (c) 2021 Ghana Journal of Geography Sun, 22 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Migration, Farmer-Herder Conflict and the Challenges of Peacebuilding in the Agogo Traditional Area, Ghana <p>Recently, communities in Agogo Traditional Area (ATA) have witnessed an increasing spate of violence leading to loss of lives, loss of livelihoods, insecurity and severe injury among others. This article explores the “local” in peacebuilding by addressing the following research questions: first, how do Agogo indigenes in the diaspora contribute to peacebuilding in Agogo Traditional Area? Second, in which ways do the engagement of Fulani herders and indigenous farmers influence the process of peacebuilding in Agogo Traditional Area? The article employed in-depth interviews, participant observation, key informant interviews and focus group discussions in the data collection process. From an interdisciplinary perspective, the research has introduced the activities of transnational migrants into the discourse of peacebuilding as it positions Ghanaians in the diaspora as local actors engaged in the farmer-herder conflict in ATA. This study has shown that in the case of ATA, despite the potential benefits of the local peacebuilding including the contribution of the diaspora, it is bedeviled with challenges such as mistrust and inadequate resources. The article recommends that local peacebuilding be detached from adjudication in the court of law because the local actors perceive the court as external and ambivalent to the cultural context of local conflicts.</p> Mary Boatemaa Setrana, Justice Richard Kwabena Owusu Kyei Copyright (c) 2021 Ghana Journal of Geography Mon, 23 Aug 2021 20:57:31 +0000 Local Perspectives on the Causes of Climate Change in Rural Ghana: Implications for Development Planning <p>This paper explores local knowledge of the Sisaala on the causes of climate change and variability in rural north-western Ghana and the implications for development planning. While debates arising from western scientific research on the causes of climate change are clearer at the global and regional scales, knowledge of localized perspectives is often lacking to bring completeness to the diversity of understandings imperative for informing development planning at local levels, especially in Africa. This paper contributes to filling this gap and draws on data collected from in-depth interviews and focus group discussions from a cross section of people in the Sissala East District. From local perspectives, climate change is caused by multiple factors, including the felling of trees, bush burning, over grazing, use of modern agriculture machinery and agro-chemicals, breakdown in spirituality, traditional religion, and values for bio-diversity conservation. The paper argues that local knowledge on the causes of climate variability largely corroborates the anthropogenic view of the causes of climate change; and that perspectives on the spiritual cause of climate change is attributable to a holistic worldview of the indigenous Sissala. The paper underscores the relevance of Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Planning (CCMAP) in the context of decentralization and local governance. It emphasizes the importance of Endogenous Development (ED) and Behavioral Change Communication approaches to district development planning for maximizing local knowledge and resources for achieving sustainability.</p> Dramani Juah M-Buu File, Maximillian Kolbe Domapielle, Emmanuel Kanchebe Derbile Copyright (c) 2021 Ghana Journal of Geography Wed, 25 Aug 2021 08:52:56 +0000 Evaluation of the implementation of water resource management in western part of Kano River Irrigation Project (KRIP 1), Kano State, Nigeria <p>The aim of the research was to evaluate the implementation in Kano River Irrigation Project 1(KRIP 1). Cluster, Probability proportionate, availability and purposive sampling techniques were used for the selection of sectors, farmers, respondents and Hadejia Jama’are River Basin Development Authority (HJRBDA) staff respectively. Data were obtained through self-administered questionnaire, interview and field observation. The analysis was done &nbsp;using descriptive statistics. Results of the study showed that the proposed aerial extent of KRIP 1 was 22,000 ha but only 77.27% was implemented. Result also revealed that the amount of water released to the project site from Ruwankanya Reservoir (3.2m) and upstream water head (0.20m) were higher than the design and was attributed to siltation in the dam. Canal design implementation was achieved to about 94%. Result further indicated that although wheat, vegetable, tomato and guinea corn were identified as the project crops specified in the design, currently, farmers cultivate rice, maize, tomato and onion in order of importance. It is recommended that water monitoring, evaluation and legal unit should be established by the HJRBDA to checkmate farmers’ deviation from the specified design of the project and vandalisation of canals and waterways.</p> Sabo Malami, Tasi’u Yalwa Rilwanu, Adamu Idris Tanko, Garba K/Na’isa Adamu Copyright (c) 2021 Ghana Journal of Geography Thu, 26 Aug 2021 17:37:34 +0000 The effects of residential environmental factors on residents’ housing satisfaction in Ogun State, Nigeria <p>The study highlights the effects of residential environments on residents’ housing satisfaction in Ogun State. The research site consists of residential areas of the selected Local Government headquarters of Ogun state, Nigeria, with 20 Local Government Areas (LGAs). The paper adopted mixed research approach. Data were collected through structured questionnaire. Using an average household size of five as established by National Bureau of Statistics final report of (2007), and the number of buildings in each of the selected communities, a total of five thousand, two hundred and seventeen (5217) copies of questionnaires were derived. However, four thousand six hundred and ninety-one (4691) were retrieved for analysis. Descriptive and inferential statistical tools were used for the analysis. The study reveals that all environmental variables used in predicting respondents housing satisfaction in the study area were significant with P≤0.05. It was further&nbsp; revealed that the most important environmental variable explaining housing satisfaction in the study area is the perception of respondents about the feeling of their neighbourhood (COP) explaining 37.3% of variance in the dependent variable. The implication of the findings is that the neighbourhood social environment and community services aspects of residential environments were positively related to housing satisfaction.&nbsp; The results of this study supported the importance of community involvement at the neighbourhood level. The study recommends that in housing development, the social and physical environmental attributes must be considered when providing housing for the people, be it public or real estate investors.</p> Victor Onifade Copyright (c) 2021 Ghana Journal of Geography Thu, 26 Aug 2021 17:38:00 +0000 Inequalities in access to infrastructural amenities and sustainable development in Delta State, Nigeria <p>This paper examines inequalities in the access to infrastructure and its implications for sustainable development of the Delta State. A sample size of 2,521 was statistically determined from a population frame of 5,663,362. Using the level of confidence approach, a structured questionnaire was systematically administered to every fifth house along the major road based on random selection. Result of the analysis of variance (ANOVA) based on further analysis of the extracted components in the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) used as predictor or criterion variables shows that there is a significant variation in access to infrastructure across the three senatorial districts of the state at (F=527.305, p=&lt; 0.001). Spatial variation in access to infrastructure resulted in spatial disparities in living standards within and between coastal communities. Deprivation in access to infrastructure is experienced more in the coastal communities of the Delta South compared to the Delta Central and Delta North. Some of these variations were caused by difference in distance to safe water, lack of accessible road network, poor housing and poor sanitation facilities because of multiple deprivations, poor terrain and lack of infrastructural development. Adequate infrastructure is a necessary condition not just for economic development but also sustainable development of the coastal communities. Therefore, an understanding of inequality in the access to infrastructure is vital to sustainable development of the coastal communities of Delta State, Nigeria.</p> Clement Ebizimor Deinne Copyright (c) 2021 Ghana Journal of Geography Thu, 26 Aug 2021 17:38:29 +0000 Assessment of Some Soil Health Indicators and Their Distribution Along Salanta River, Kano- Nigeria <p>Soil health is essential for the integrity of terrestrial ecosystems to remain intact and recover from disturbances. The paper aimed at assessing the spatial distribution and the relationship of some soil health indicators. Two square kilometer of irrigated land was delineated within which ten soil samples were collected using point composite sampling from 0 – 15cm depth. The soil samples collected were analyzed for pH, soil enzymes, chromium and lead. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics using Micro soft excel. The results show that all the soil health indicators: SOC, pH, enzymes, Cr and Pb were found to be higher in all the point near the river. The high values of SOC and soil enzymes nearby the river bank is attributed to pH (7.7) values, which reduce the effect of Cr and Pb on soil enzmes activities. The relationship among the soil health indicators revealed that pH is negatively (r = -0.36) correlated with dehydrogenase and significantly correlated with urease (r = 0.57) and phosphatase (r = 0.43) at 𝛂 value of 0.05 probability level. The determination of pH, OC and enzymes activities reflect the microbial activities in the soil of the area and thes variables are sensitive biological indicators of heavy metals contamination in soil and could be considered as soil health indicators. Minimum tillage and application of organic fertilizer improves the structural stability of the soil, thereby reducing the solubility and availability of heavy metals in soil and also improve soil quality.</p> Mansur Abdul Mohammed, Maharazu Alhaji Yusuf Copyright (c) 2021 Ghana Journal of Geography Sat, 28 Aug 2021 12:17:07 +0000 Comparing Weighting Approaches in Scalogram Analysis in the Wa Municipality in the Upper West Region of Ghana <p>This study examined and compared the objectively-weighted, expert-based-weighted and stakeholder-based weighted Scalogram approaches based on their centrality indices and factors considered in assigning weights to the functions. A mixed-method approach, comprising both quantitative and qualitative techniques were employed to gather primary and secondary data for the study. All the three Scalograms with different weighting techniques were analyzed in Microsoft Excel, focusing on centrality and weighted centrality indices and simple linear regression models. The study discovered that the grand total centrality index of the objective Scalogram is 4,105.60, the expert-based Scalogram is 10,294.2 while the stakeholder-based one is 10,429.80. The co-efficients of determination for the three are 0.9892, 0.9757 and 0.9812 respectively, giving explanatory powers of 98.92%, 97.57% and 98.12% respectively. It is recommended that due to resource constraints, planners should rely more on the objective-based approach, followed by the stakeholder-based approach and then the expert-based approach, since the latter approach has rather reduced the explanatory power of population by increasing values of the centrality indices. Again, bottlenecks to the development of Area Council headquarters (intermediate settlements between Wa and lower-level settlements) should be tackled for efficient spatial distribution of functions. The contribution of this article to the spatial and development planning literature is its juxtaposition of the three techniques in Scalogram analysis.</p> Fauster Agbenyo, Isaac Nevis Fianoo Fianoo, Alfred Dongzagla Copyright (c) 2021 Ghana Journal of Geography Sun, 29 Aug 2021 14:47:36 +0000