Global Journal of Geological Sciences https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gjgs <p><em>Global Journal of Geological Sciences</em> is aimed at promoting research in all areas of Geological Sciences including geochemistry, geophysics, engineering geology, hydrogeology, petrology, mineralogy, geochronology, tectonics, mining, structural geology, marine geology, space science etc. </p><p>Visit the Global Journal Series website here: <a title="http://www.globaljournalseries.com/" href="http://www.globaljournalseries.com/" target="_blank">http://www.globaljournalseries.com/</a></p><p> </p> Bachudo Science Co, Ltd. en-US Global Journal of Geological Sciences 1596-6798 <span>©</span> 2018. This work is licensed under the creative commons Attribution 4.0 International license. Geophysical investigation of the Orle River fracture system in Igarra Township, southwestern Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gjgs/article/view/210554 <p>The subsurface structure and propagation geometry of the fracture system controlling the Orle River Channel in the Igarra Township, Southwestern Nigeria, have been investigated via a multi-method geophysical survey. The goal was to delineate the nature, distribution, and spatial propagation geometry of the fracture system and evaluate its potential to serve as storage and distribution features for groundwater within adjoining areas. 2D electrical resistivity, total field magnetic, and co-planar loop conductivity measurements were collected along four traverses using an ABEM1000 Terrameter unit, a GEMS Magnetometer, and an EM34 Co-planar loop electromagnetic system. Traverses were established to run across and parallel to the river channel. The observed electrical resistivity field data were inverted for subsurface 2D resistivity structure using a commercially available 2.5D finite element modelling inversion software. Magnetic field intensity data and ground conductivity data were presented against station positions. Three subsurface layers were delineated at the survey site; (1) surficial humus-rich and wet top-soil, (2) a thin poorly developed weathering layer, and (3) the fresh bedrock which occurs as relatively shallow levels and often outcrops. The River channel is controlled by multiple fractures usually located at or near the contracts between contrasting rock types. Fracture dip is usually in the northerly direction but conjugates, dipping southwards also occur in the most northerly extremes of the imaged fracture system. Upstream the fracture path is wider and along with the imaged overburden, is<br>juxtaposed northwards of the channel axis suggesting a much broader river channel in the geologic past. Low aperture fractures imaged tangential to channel axis likely serve to funnel surface and groundwater from the channels to the surrounding areas. Where such low aperture fractures can be delineated, they offer the best chances of groundwater abstraction within adjoining areas, particularly during the dry season.<br><br></p> Muslim B. Aminu Copyright (c) 2021-07-13 2021-07-13 19 1 1 14 10.4314/gjgs.v19i1.1 Recurrent landslides of Lagam escarpment, Kaben Location, Marakwet East, Kenya https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gjgs/article/view/210555 <p>The landslides of the Lagam escarpment, Kaben Location, Marakwet, Elgeyo Marakwet County, are not only recurrent but are highly cataclysmic; causing mayhem whenever they occur. The first known landslides on the Lagam escarpment of Kaben location -Marakwet, happened during the 1961 El-Nino, when a major rainstorm hit the area (Kiptungu). These landslides re-fashioned Embosumer River and left huge boulders scattered over many farmlands. In 2010, a catastrophic landslide hit Kaben location and again, Embosumer River was the perpetrator, having broken its banks due to excessive water inflow. Many lives were lost and lots of property was destroyed. In 2020, heavy rains pounded the area causing massive mudslides that involved many rivers and streams; such as Embosumer, Emboreberwo and Karengor. As a result, twenty-six (26) lives were lost, homes, schools and farmlands were washed away and to date, there are several bodies believed to be trapped in the mudslide material. This study is geared towards investigating the causes of the recurrent landslides and proposing possible mitigation measures. Data was collected through secondary data analysis and has been presented in the form of ground photographs, satellite images and discussions made thereon. It is hoped that this preliminary study of the Lagam escarpment landslides will create awareness pertaining to the recurrent landslides and draw positive action from the area residents and all concerned.<br><br></p> Kipkiror Jepkemboi Loice Kipsang Bernard Rop Wycliffe Habel Namwiba Copyright (c) 2021-07-13 2021-07-13 19 1 15 28 10.4314/gjgs.v19i1.2 Geochemistry evolution of Schists of northwest Obudu area southeastern Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gjgs/article/view/210556 <p>Geochemistry of schists of Obudu area was carried out using ICP-MS and ICP-ES techniques in order to determine the geochemical evolution of the area. 40 samples were analyzed for their major, trace and REE composition. Field mapping revealed that gneisses, amphibolites and schists comprising migmatitic schists (MS), quartz-mica schists (QMS), garnet-mica schists (GMS), and hornblende biotite schists (HBS), intruded by granites, granodiorites, quartzofeldspathic rocks and dolerites occur in the area. Structural studies revealed that the schists trend approximately NE–SW (5 – 30<sup>o </sup>) indicating the Pan-African event. Modal analysis revealed that the schists have average concentration of quartz (15vol.%), plagioclase (An<sub>45</sub>-19 vol.%), biotite (15vol.%), garnet (9.0vol.%) and muscovite (6vol.%), the remaining consists of accessory minerals. Geochemistry showed that all the schists have molecular Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> &gt; CaO+K<sub>2</sub>O+Na<sub>2</sub>O, indicating they are peraluminous metasedimentary pelites. Trace and REE element results show that all the analyzed schist samples are depleted in Hg, Ag, Be, Bi, and Sb below &lt; 1.0ppm, but relatively enriched in Ba, Sr and Zr with average concentration of 996, 675.73, 243.13 ppm respective. The HREE are depleted with ΣHREE &lt; 10.2, but the LREE are relatively enriched with ΣLREE &gt; 289.54. The ΣLREE/ΣHREE ratio ranges from 9.17 to 33.4, with a large positive delta V at Eu. These findings indicate that the schists of Northwest Obudu area are highly fractionated and had attained at least the uppermost amphibolite metamorphic grade. The schists had contributed to the development of the Pan-African continent.</p> Young Ezenwa Obioha Copyright (c) 2021-07-13 2021-07-13 19 1 29 39 10.4314/gjgs.v19i1.3 Geochemical composition, mineralogy, geotechnical characteristics of some clay deposits in parts of the southern Niger Delta, Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gjgs/article/view/210557 <p>Clay soil samples from the Afo-Okpella and Okpekpe in parts of the southern Niger Delta were analyzed for their geochemical composition, mineralogical and geotechnical characteristics. X-ray fluorescence analysis, x-ray diffraction analysis and index property tests were carried out to determine elemental composition, mineralogical nature and geotechnical attributes of the clay. The XRF reveals that SiO<sub>2</sub> and Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> are the predominant oxides. The XRD analysis shows that kaolinite is the predominant clay mineral with varying amount of quartz also traces of illite, smectite. The geotechnical index test shows that the clay soil samples studied also contains considerable amounts of silt-size particles (18%-70%) which makes them unsuitable in their raw state for use as fillers, raw materials in the paint industries. The clays were generally of medium to high plasticity and medium to high compressibility, however the classification of degree of expansion as regard to percentage linear shrinkage places the entire clay bodies studied in the critical degree of expansion. The study reveals that they are good for the production of quality bricks, ceramics and other industrial usage such as rubber, paper and paint industries.</p> Aliu Okpo Jeminatu Itiowe Kiamuke Avwenagha Enivwenaye Oghenero Copyright (c) 2021-07-13 2021-07-13 19 1 41 51 10.4314/gjgs.v19i1.4 Sedimentary facies and environments of the sedimentary fill of Southern Bida Basin, Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gjgs/article/view/210558 <p>Six lithofacies were identified in the Lokoja Formation, Southern Bida Basin: fanglomerate/ conglomerate lithofacies (Gmc), fine to coarse-grained ferruginized weakly cross-bedded, pebbly sandstone lithofacies (Scx), fine to coarsegrained sandstone lithofacies (Sfc), silty claystone lithofacies (Csm), siltstone lithofacies (Slt) and lateritic ironstone lithofacies (Ilt). These were grouped into three lithofacies associations viz: alluvial fan, braided river channel, floodplain lithofacies association. Nine lithofacies were identified in the Ahoko Formation. These are: black-dark grey carbonaceous shale lithofacies (Shc), bioturbated ripple-laminated siltstone lithofacies (Sbr), poorly cross-laminated claystone lithofacies (Cxl), concretionary/nodular ironstone lithofacies (Icn), medium to coarse-grained sandstone lithofacies (Smc) fine grained, well-sorted, friable bioturbated herringbone cross-bedded sandstone lithofacies (Sxf), massive brownish claystone lithofacies (Clm), massive claystone with lateritic ironstone lithofacies (Cli) and lateritic ironstones lithofacies (Ilt). These have been grouped into three lithofacies associations viz: shallow marine lithofacies<br>association, tidal-intertidal flat lithofacies association and floodplain lithofacies association. Similarly, three lithofacies were identified in the Agbaja Formation and have been grouped into two lithofacies association. These are: fine to medium-grained sandstone ironstone interbedded lithofacies (Sti), oolitic–pisolitic ironstone lithofacies (Iop) and concretionary ironstone lithofacies (Icr). The lithofacies associations are: tidal-intertidal flat lithofacies association and shallow marine lithofacies association. Result of lithofacies analysis helped in interpreting the depositional environments. The Lokoja Formation is a product of a fluvial dominated alluvial system from debris/gravity flow in alluvial fan. This developed further into braided river channels and later meandering river during the closing stages. Sediments of the Ahoko Formation were deposited in tidal/intertidal flats and shallow marine environments while sediments of the Agbaja Formation were produced by a shallow marine system with a high tidal influence.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> George Uchebike Ozulu Anthony Uwaoma Okoro Evangeline Njideka Onuigbo Copyright (c) 2021-07-13 2021-07-13 19 1 53 74 10.4314/gjgs.v19i1.5 Physicochemical evaluation of groundwater near Ikot Effanga dumpsite, Calabar, South eastern Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gjgs/article/view/210559 <p>The Ikot Effanga area of Calabar, Southeastern Nigeria, is located close to a municipal waste dump. The area is defined by latitudes 05<sup>0</sup>00<sup>1</sup>N and 05<sup>0</sup>25<sup>1</sup>N and longitudes 008<sup>0</sup>20<sup>1</sup> E and 008<sup>0</sup>25<sup>1</sup> E. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of the waste dump on the groundwater resources of the area. Groundwater samples were obtained from 10 boreholes located around the dump site. The samples were collected during the peak dry season and peak rainy season for comparison. Physicochemical parameters were analyzed. Static water level and surface elevation of the boreholes were used to determine the groundwater flow direction. Results obtained were compared with the NSDWQ and WHO standards. From the result, it was observed that groundwater in the area is acidic as the mean pH values were 4.03 and 3.57 for dry and wet season respectively. Other physicochemical parameters analyzed showed that there were no significant variations between the dry and wet season. Also, groundwater from the area was classified as fresh and suitable for domestic and agricultural purposes. The general flow direction of groundwater in the study area is NW-SE. While the present study showed that the dumpsite does not have significant impact on the groundwater resources either due to geology or natural attenuation<br><br></p> Anthony N. Ugbaja Uduak A. Ugbaja Stanley U. Nwosu Victor E. Nyong Copyright (c) 2021-07-13 2021-07-13 19 1 75 84 10.4314/gjgs.v19i1.6 Physicochemical properties of groundwater in parts of Irun Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gjgs/article/view/210560 <p>Ten groundwater samples from hand dug wells were collected at Irun Akoko within the basement complex of part of southwestern Nigeria. The aim of the study was to determine the groundwater suitability for both drinking and irrigation purposes. The groundwater samples were analysed for some physical and chemical constituents including pH, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), turbidity, Na, Ca, Mg, K, Cl, SO<sub>4</sub>, PO<sub>4</sub> and NO<sub>3</sub>. The pH (7.0 – 7.9) and TDS (12.26 – 19.35 mg/l) of the groundwater indicate that the water is neutral to slightly alkaline and fresh respectively. The order of relative abundance for concentration of cations in the groundwater is K&gt;Ca&gt;Na&gt;Mg, while that of anions is Cl&gt;SO<sub>4</sub>&gt;NO<sub>3</sub>&gt;PO<sub>4</sub>. The concentrations of potassium in about 90% and chloride in about 40 % of the samples were above the World Health Organization (WHO) standard for drinking water. Other hydro-geochemical parameters Ca, Mg, Na, SO<sub>4</sub>, PO<sub>4</sub> and NO<sub>3</sub> falls within the WHO standards. Values of Sodium Absorption Ratio (SAR) classified the water as excellent for irrigation purposes. The Soluble Sodium Percentage (SSP) values classified eighty percent of the water to be of good quality and the remaining samples as fair for irrigation purposes. However, using the Magnesium Adsorption Ratio (55.0 – 68.9 %) the samples may have hazardous effects on the soil. Generally, groundwater in the study area is suitable for both domestic and irrigation uses.<br><br></p> Kehinde Ibrahim Adebayo Victor Etim Nyong Oluwaseye Peter Amah Copyright (c) 2021-07-14 2021-07-14 19 1 85 91 10.4314/gjgs.v19i1.7 Evaluation of groundwater potential using aquifer characteristics on parts of Boki Area, South- Eastern Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gjgs/article/view/210561 <p>Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) and pumping test (constant discharge and recovery test) was carried out in parts of Boki Local Government Area to evaluate the groundwater potential, using aquifer characteristics of the study area. Sixteen (16) VES point was employed for this study using the Schlumberger array, with a maximum spread of 400- 600m. The stimulated result from the field data shows 3-5 layers resistivity model with the following curve types A, AK, KH, KHA, QH, QHA and QHK. The geoelectric properties include resistivity of the various layers ranging from 33.58 - 2.29 x 105Ώm, thickness from 0.2 - 50.2m, depth to basement varies from 2.99 - 74.60m across the study area. The litho logs show a top layer comprising of laterite, gravel/gravelly sand and intercalations of siltstones, the layers underneath are made-up of clay, weathered basement containing migmatites and gneisses, fractured and unfractured basement are made up of granitic and metamorphic rocks. The weathered and fractured layers constitute the aquiferous layers in the study area. Hydraulic parameters show transmissivity (T) range of 4.1x 10-5 - 1.92 x 10-1 m 2/day, specific capacity (SC) ranges from 2.09-21.42m2 /day, hydraulic conductivity (K) varies from 2.6 x 10-5 - 3.0 x10-3m/day and mean static water level (SWL) of 7.39m. Iso resistivity map of saprolite, fractured basement map, isopach map and the transmissivity map show that the studied area falls within the low-moderate groundwater potential zone.<br><br></p> Anthony A. Ugbaja God'swill A. William Uduak A. Ugbaja Copyright (c) 2021-07-14 2021-07-14 19 1 93 104 10.4314/gjgs.v19i1.8 Bio-electrosequence interpretation of late cretaceous sediments of the Southern Bornu Basin, Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gjgs/article/view/215290 <p style="margin-bottom: 0in;"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, Arial, sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">Integrated analysis that involves physical sedimentological, standard palynological and electrofacies analyses on ditch cuttings and suite of wireline logs from Gaibu–1 Well, southern Bornu were examined to identify critical sequence elements and construct a bio-sequence stratigraphical framework. Four (4) palynozones consisting of </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, Arial, sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><em>Triorites africaensis, Cretacaeiporites scabratus - Odontochitina costata, Droseridites senonicus </em></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, Arial, sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="font-style: normal;">and </span></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, Arial, sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><em>Syncolporites/Milfordia </em></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, Arial, sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="font-style: normal;">spp Assemblage Zones construed to be Late Cretaceous – younger successions. Nine (9) depositional sequences each with candidate maximum flooding surfaces (375, 900, 1875, 2250, 2600, 3050, 3400, 3800, 4300 m) marked by marker shales with high abundance and diversity of palynomorphs. Thus, equate with the local lithostratigraphy and global large-scale depositional cycles with candidate sequence boundaries (50, 725, 1625, 2175, 2490, 2850, 3300, 3610, 3960, 4470 m) ranging about 96.28 to 70.07 Ma. The delineated transgressive surfaces along the built sequences mark the subjected onset of marine flooding characterised with interchange of progradational to retrogradational facies. Delineated sequence elements generally show up-hole from progradational to retrogradational and aggradational that represents Lowstand Systems Tracts (LSTs), Transgressive Systems Tracts (TSTs) and Highstand Systems Tracts (HSTs) respectively. The LSTs are seen in form of prograding complex and slope fans, suggestive of good reservoirs. The TSTs consist of channel sand units and shales that depict retrogradational marine units, which could serve as both seals and source rocks for the sand units. The HSTs are made up of interplay of aggradational to progradational sediment packages that could serve as a potential source rock. The palaeoenvironmental indices depict the successions are deposited within continental to open marine settings. </span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-bottom: 0in; font-style: normal;">&nbsp;</p> Samuel Oretade Bamidele Copyright (c) 2021 2021-09-29 2021-09-29 19 1 105 121 10.4314/gjgs.v19i1.9 Optical (visual) Kerogen assessment of Enugu Shale, Anambra Basin, Southeastern Nigeria: Implications for source rock potential and thermal maturation https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gjgs/article/view/215185 <p>Palynological analysis was carried out on Ten (10) samples from outcrops of the Campanian Enugu Formation, a component&nbsp; lithostratigraphic unit of the Anambra Basin, using the acid maceration techniques for recovering acidinsoluble organic-walled microfossils. Two main lithological units were encountered, which include: carbonaceous shale and siltstone. Result from kerogen&nbsp; laboratory examination reveals two (2) main groups of palynofacies association namely; palynofacies (A and B), based on the change in particulate organic matter constituents of organic residue extract. Palynofacies A is characterized by abundant opaques debris with common terrestrial phytoclasts, which occupy the southwestern and northwestern parts of the studied area, whereas palynofacies B&nbsp; dominates in the northeastern part, characterised by abundant phytoclasts followed by frequent opaques debris. Kerogen type III with gas-prone material is suggested for both palynofacies. The examined exine of spore/ pollen grain are pale yellow – yellow, with Thermal Alteration Index TAI of 1+ to 2- and Vitrinite Reflectane (R o) (0.3 % - 0.4 %) in palynofacies A, and yellow – yellow brown, with Thermal Alteration Index TAI of 2- to 2, and Vitrinite Reflectane (R o) of 0.3% - 0.5% in palynofacies B. These revealed source rock that is thermally immature to slightly mature but has potential to generate mainly gas. The kerogen data generated using transmitted light microscopy correlated well with geochemical data obtained using rock-eval pyrolysis method, and this shows the method a reliable tool for assessing&nbsp; petroleum potential in any given sedimentary basins.</p> Osita Igwebuike Chiaghanam Okechukwu Nicodemus Ikegwuonu Chikodi Jennifer Ekwegbalu Emmanuel Ude Aniwetalu Kingsley Chukwuebuka Chiadikobi Copyright (c) 2021-09-28 2021-09-28 19 1 123 132 10.4314/gjgs.v19i1.10 Occurrence of some campanian-maastrichtian organic-walled microfossils from Enugu Shale, Anambra Basin, Southeastern nigeria: Implications for age and paleoenvironments https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gjgs/article/view/215187 <p>Detailed geological field mapping and sampling of the Enugu Formation in the Anambra Basin has been carried out in order to re-examine the age of sediments and reconstruct their paleoenvironments of deposition. A total of ten (10) outcrop samples of shale were subjected&nbsp; to palynological laboratory examination, using conventional method of acid demineralization and maceration techniques for recovering acid-insoluble organic-walled microfossils from sediments. Two main lithological units were distinguished: - carbonaceous fissile shale and siltstone. A late Campanian - Earliest Maastrichtian age was assigned based on index palynomorphs marker taxa <em>Longapertites&nbsp;&nbsp; marginatus</em> (overwhelming abundance),<em> Monocolpites marginatus, Zlivisporis blanensis</em>, and <em>Echitriporites trianguliformis</em>. The age designation was strengthened by the occurrence of a well-known stratigraphic age-diagnostic organic-walled microplankton <em>Coronifera tubulosa, Senegalinium spp</em>. and<em> Andalusiella polymorpha.</em> Palynomorphs of environmental value include Cyathidites minor, (a tree fern of wet, forested, tropical to temperate regions, usually most developed in mountainous / highland terrains under moist and equable climate); <em>Spinizonocolpites baculatus/echinatus, Longapertites marginatus, Mauritidites crassibaculatus</em> and M<em>oncolpites marginatus,</em> which are palm pollen that inhabit similar brackish water as the mangrove. A non-marine to marginal marine depositional setting has therefore been proposed for the Enugu Formation.</p> Okechukwu Nicodemus Ikegwuonu Osita Igwebuike Chiaghanam Nnamdi Enock Nwakoby Emmanuel Ude Aniwetalu Kingsley Chukwuebuka Chiadikobi Copyright (c) 2021-09-28 2021-09-28 19 1 133 143 10.4314/gjgs.v19i1.11 Petrography, geochemistry and industrial quality of the Etono limestone in Ugep Southwest, Southeastern Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gjgs/article/view/215293 <p style="margin-bottom: 0in;"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, Arial, sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">Petrographic and geochemical analyses were carried out on limestones occurring in Etono, Southwest Ugep, Southeastern Nigeria to determine their chemical composition, industrial uses and classification. Samples of limestone in the area were subjected to petrographic study and analyzed geochemically using Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES) and X</span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, Arial, sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><strong>-</strong></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, Arial, sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="font-weight: normal;">Ray Fluorescence (XRF) techniques. The petrographic analysis reveals that the Etono limestone contains high percentage of carbonate materials with scanty organic remains and patches of iron. The bulk- rock composition of the limestone shows that the average SiO</span></span></span></span><sub><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, Arial, sans-serif;"><span style="font-weight: normal;">2 </span></span></span></sub><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, Arial, sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="font-weight: normal;">= 9.02%, Al</span></span></span></span><sub><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, Arial, sans-serif;"><span style="font-weight: normal;">2</span></span></span></sub><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, Arial, sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="font-weight: normal;">O</span></span></span></span><sub><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, Arial, sans-serif;"><span style="font-weight: normal;">3 </span></span></span></sub><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, Arial, sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="font-weight: normal;">= 1.95%, Fe</span></span></span></span><sub><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, Arial, sans-serif;"><span style="font-weight: normal;">2</span></span></span></sub><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, Arial, sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="font-weight: normal;">O</span></span></span></span><sub><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, Arial, sans-serif;"><span style="font-weight: normal;">3 </span></span></span></sub><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, Arial, sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="font-weight: normal;">= 2.08%, MgO = 0.39%, K</span></span></span></span><sub><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, Arial, sans-serif;"><span style="font-weight: normal;">2</span></span></span></sub><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, Arial, sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="font-weight: normal;">O = 0.47%, Na</span></span></span></span><sub><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, Arial, sans-serif;"><span style="font-weight: normal;">2</span></span></span></sub><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, Arial, sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="font-weight: normal;">O = 0.00%, CaO = 47.92%, SO</span></span></span></span><sub><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, Arial, sans-serif;"><span style="font-weight: normal;">2 </span></span></span></sub><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, Arial, sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="font-weight: normal;">= 0.24% and LOl = 37.37%. The limestone is classified based on their moderately high CaO, SiO</span></span></span></span><sub><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, Arial, sans-serif;"><span style="font-weight: normal;">2 </span></span></span></sub><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, Arial, sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="font-weight: normal;">and LOl and very low MgO. The mean CaO (47.92%) of Etono Limestone is high relative to the mean CaO of Agoi Ibami Limestone (43.83%) but low relative to the Mfamosing Limestone (55.30%) and the mean SiO</span></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, Arial, sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-weight: normal;">2 </span></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, Arial, sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="font-weight: normal;">values of 9.02% is high relative to Mfamosing Limestone (0.38%) but low relative to Agoi Ibami Limestone (13.93%). Results of the geochemical investigation reveal a shallow marine environment of deposition (EOD) for Etono Limestone. The higher values of CaO and LOl and lower values of SiO</span></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, Arial, sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-weight: normal;">2 </span></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, Arial, sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="font-weight: normal;">of the limestone suggest that it can be used for cement production, building stone, filler and agricultural purposes. </span></span></span></span></p> J.U. Odey A.C. Ugwu B.N. Ekwueme Copyright (c) 2021 2021-09-29 2021-09-29 19 1 145 153 10.4314/gjgs.v19i1.12