Ghana Journal of Linguistics 2022-12-31T22:48:22+00:00 Dr. Ọbádélé Kambon Open Journal Systems <p>The <em>Ghana Journal of Linguistics</em> is a peer-reviewed scholarly journal appearing twice a year, published by the Linguistics Association of Ghana. Beginning with Volume 2 (2013) it is published in electronic format only, open access, at However print-on-demand copies can be made available on application to Digibooks Ghana Ltd.:</p><p>The Editors welcome papers on all aspects of linguistics. Articles submitted should not have been previously published.</p><p>The Editors welcome reports on research in progress and brief notices of research findings, as well as news of general interest to linguists.</p><p>The Editors also welcome books from authors and publishers for review in the <em>Ghana Journal of Linguistics</em>. They may be sent to Dr. Obadele Kambon, Editor-in-Chief, Ghana Journal of Linguistics, University of Ghana, P. O. Box LG73, Accra, Ghana. Anyone who wishes to review a particular book is invited to contact the editor.</p><p>Submissions should be submitted electronically to the Editor-in-Chief, at <a title="Ghana Journal of Linguistics" href=""></a>. They should be accompanied by a brief biographical note giving the author’s name in the form it should appear in print, plus current academic or professional position and field of research interest. Please see the Author guidelines for detailed instructions.</p><p>The <em>Ghana Journal of Linguistics</em> is published by the Linguistics Association of Ghana, P. O. Box LG61, Legon, Accra, Ghana.<br />Email: Website: <a title="" href="" target="_blank"></a></p> Inside Front Cover 2022-12-31T21:21:15+00:00 Ọbádélé Kambon <p><strong><em>The Ghana Journal of Linguistics</em></strong> is a double-blind peer-reviewed scholarly journal appearing twice a year (not including special issues), published by the Linguistics Association of Ghana. Beginning with Volume 2 (2013) it is published as an open access journal in electronic format only, at <a href=""></a> and <a href=""></a>. However, print-on-demand copies can be made available on application to Mr. Fred Labi of Digibooks Ghana Ltd.: <a href=""></a> or +233246493842.</p> <p>The Editors welcome papers on all aspects of linguistics. Articles submitted should be original and should not have been published previously elsewhere.</p> <p>The Editors welcome reports on research in progress and brief notices of research findings, as well as news of general interest to linguists.</p> <p>The Editors also welcome books from authors and publishers for review in the <em>Ghana Journal of Linguistics.</em> They may be sent to Ɔbenfo (Professor) Ọbádélé Kambon, Editor-in-Chief, Ghana Journal of Linguistics, University of Ghana, P.O. Box LG 1149, Legon, Accra, Ghana. These will be used in editorial book critiques. Anyone who wishes to review a particular book is invited to contact the Editor-in-Chief. These will be considered for publication after internal review.</p> <p>As of January of 2016, GJL switched from an email-based article submission process to the use of website-based Open Journal Systems (OJS) software, which allows tracking of submissions, double-blind reviews, copyediting, production, and publication. We encourage linguists and scholars interested in linguistics to visit GJL’s website <a href=""></a> to peruse past issues and to submit their articles.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>To submit an article, the author must create an account at GJL’s website. Upon account creation, the author should complete all required information including the author’s full name in the form it should appear in print, plus his/her current academic or professional position, his/her field of research interest(s) and a short bio statement. Please see the inside back cover of this issue for detailed article submission guidelines.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>GJL complies with Creative Commons Attribution BY&nbsp;&nbsp;license. This copyright license lets others distribute, remix, tweak, and build upon your work, even commercially, as long as they credit you for the original creation.<strong>&nbsp;</strong>More information on&nbsp;copyright and licensing information can be found&nbsp;<a href="">here</a>.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The Ghana Journal of Linguistics is published by the Linguistics Association of Ghana, P.O. Box LG 61, Legon, Accra, Ghana.</p> <p>GJL Email: <a href=""></a> | GJL Website: <a href=""></a></p> <p>LAG Email: <a href=""></a> | LAG Website: <a href=""></a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>© Linguistics Association of Ghana and individual authors, 2022.</p> <p>ISSN 2026-6596</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Table of Contents 2022-12-31T21:24:59+00:00 Ọbádélé Kambon <h1>TABLE OF CONTENTS</h1> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Victoria Owusu-Ansah and Yvonne Agbetsoamedo</strong></p> <p><em>Adjectives in Esahie: A Morphosyntactic Study &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </em></p> <p><em>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;</em></p> <p><strong>Nkechi Ukaegbu, Bestman Odeh, Ifeanyi Nwosu</strong></p> <p><em>Phonological Outcomes of Yoruba and English Contact on Urhobo Loan words&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Gladys Nyarko Ansah and Elizabeth K Orfson-Offei</strong></p> <p><em>Multilingualism and Language Barriers in Health Delivery system in Ghana</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>John Habwe and Mary N. Ndung’u</strong></p> <p><em>WAR Metaphor Strategies in Expressing COVID-19 Messages in Presidential Speeches in Kenya in 2020&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</em></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Contributors to this Issue&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </strong><strong>&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Preferred Format for References</strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Owusu Ansah et al Adjectives in Esahie 2022-12-31T22:48:22+00:00 Victoria Owusu Ansah Yvonne Agbetsoamedo <p>Adjectives have been studied in many languages (Adjei 2012; Akrofi-Ansah 2013; Caesar 2019; Danti 2007; Dorvlo 2008; Naden 2007; Osam 2003; Pokua et al. 2007). This affirms Dixon’s (2004,2010) assertion that all languages should have a distinguishable class of adjectives if they have a distinguishable class of nouns and verbs. This study describes the nature of adjectives in Esahie, a Kwa language spoken by the people of Sehwi in the Western North region of Ghana. Using data collected from 20 participants --10 males and 10 females between the ages of ten and sixty-five, the paper shows that, like other Kwa languages, Esahie has a class of words called adjectives, which may be underived or derived. In the derived form, the words used as adjectives undergo morphological changes such as reduplication as they alter to function in the adjectival category. It further shows that syntactically, adjectives in Esahie function in a relative construction using a relative marker<strong> bɔ</strong>, while they predicatively occur with a copular verb <strong>te</strong> or<strong> yɛ</strong>. The adjectives also display degrees of comparison using the exceed markers <strong>tra </strong>or <strong>paa</strong>. This study enhances the knowledge and understanding of adjectives in Esahie, and on the typology of adjectives in general, especially, in Kwa languages.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Phonological Outcomes of Yoruba and English Contact on Urhobo 2022-12-31T22:33:08+00:00 Nkechi Ukaegbu Bestman Odeh Ifeanyi Nwosu <p>The multi-lingual nature of Nigeria has made it typical that speakers of two or more languages have to interact with each other, and this natural phenomenon results in various degrees of linguistic, cultural, and social influences which are dependent on the dominance of the languages in contact. This study looks at one of the linguistic outcomes that result in such contact situations amongst Yoruba, English, and Urhobo in the Urhobo speech communities of Delta State. It also examines the possible implications of these adaptations for language change. Since phonological change is a universal characteristic of languages that may have far-reaching influences, when words are borrowed in the morphology as well as the syntax of languages, this study delimits its scope to examining specifically the phonological outcomes of English and Yoruba on Urhobo using some selected loan words. Data is elicited from interviewing six language consultants, who were also made to produce established loan words to evaluate how they are adapted into the structure of Urhobo. Findings show that phonological features like insertion (prosthesis and paragoge), syllable structure change, phonological substitution, free variation, and deletion are observed as these English loan words are adapted to suit the phonological structure of Urhobo. In contrast, the loan words from Yoruba are assimilated with little change into Urhobo.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Multilingualism and Language Barriers in Health Delivery system in Ghana 2022-12-31T22:19:59+00:00 Gladys Nyarko Ansah Elizabeth Orfson-Offei <p>In this paper, we explore language differences among health givers and seekers as a potential barrier to quality healthcare delivery among the urban ethnolinguistically diverse population in Accra, Ghana. 134 patients and 42 health workers from five health facilities were selected as respondents to fill questionnaires and be engaged in semi-structured interviews which aimed at investigating the general language situation in healthcare delivery and determine whether language differences cause barriers to quality healthcare delivery. Using descriptive statistics and the thematic analysis of findings, the data revealed that both patient and health worker participants have varying ethnolinguistic backgrounds (speaking many different L1s). In addition, 65% of the patient population and 70% of health worker population in urban Ghana access and provide healthcare respectively in a second language, mainly English and Akan. For a highly linguistically diverse population, these findings have a potential to cause language barrier and raise miscommunication in the healthcare delivery process in urban Ghana - 64% and 81% of patient and health worker populations respectively admitted to experiencing communication barrier (occasioned by language differences) in the health care system. The findings of this paper corroborate earlier findings in the literature, e.g., Adams and Fleck (2015), Belaskri (2012), Chachu 2022 and Schyve (2007). The paper, therefore, concludes that health authorities in highly multilingual contexts need to pay (more) attention to the language needs of ethnolinguistically diverse populations to ensure quality and safe healthcare delivery.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) WAR Metaphor Strategies in Expressing COVID-19 Messages in Presidential Speeches in Kenya in 2020 2022-12-31T22:48:22+00:00 John Habwe Mary Ndung’u <p>Presidential addresses are commonly used by leaders across the globe in addressing issues pertinent to society. Such addresses were given during the wake and spread of the COVID-19 pandemic in Kenya. Since the first case of COVID-19 was confirmed, the then President of the Republic of Kenya, Uhuru Kenyatta addressed the nation on a regular basis regarding the spread of COVID-19 and the containment measures meant to slow down its spread. In Kenyatta’s speeches, there were many metaphors used while addressing the nation on COVID-19. The war metaphors were however found to be preponderant. This paper therefore investigates some of the WAR metaphors that were used in the presidential speeches in Kenya with a view to establishing what they were, why they were dominant, and how they were used in order to achieve communicative effect. The paper also makes an investigation of the conceptual nature of the WAR metaphors used in selected presidential addresses in Kenya. The paper further sought to interrogate the metaphorical implications of their usage in information management among Kenyans given that metaphorical constructions are efficient tools in helping citizens understand the complex information about COVID-19 pandemic. To achieve this, data for this study were collected from presidential speeches that were delivered to the Kenyan nation. The speeches were purposively selected from among eight (8) presidential speeches given between March and October 2020. This was the period within when Covid-19 pandemic was at its peak in Kenya. The data were transcribed and analysed qualitatively. The study was guided by the Conceptual Metaphor Theory (CMT) proposed by Lakoff and Johnson (1980). This theory sees metaphor as a means by which language users cognitively think by way of transferring attributes from the concrete domain to the abstract domain thus making the abstract domain clearer, more simple, more understood and presented with some emphasis and even more foregrounded. The study found out that WAR metaphors were used essentially to warn, caution, inform, encourage, rally, and reassure the Kenyan people that the Kenyan government was taking charge of the entire situation. Most importantly, the metaphors were used in the oversimplification of information that was relayed to the people of Kenya in the management of COVID -19. The metaphors used were largely drawn from the Kenyan socio-cultural environment thus expected to make Kenyan people understand the complexity and nature and the effects of COVID-19.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Contributors to this Issue 2022-12-31T22:35:54+00:00 Ọbádélé Kambon <p>Contributors to this Issue</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Preferred Format for References 2022-12-31T22:44:24+00:00 Ọbádélé Kambon <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>PREFERRED FORMAT FOR REFERENCES</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>References made in the notes or in the text should, for the most part, conform to the American Sociological Association (ASA) Style Guide, 5th edition, including the author’s last name, the date of publication and the relevant page number(s), e.g. (Bodomo 2004:18-9).</p> <p>There should be a separate list of references at the end of the paper, but before any appendices, in which <u>all and only</u> items referred to in the text and the notes are listed in alphabetical order according to the <u>surname of the first author</u>.&nbsp; When the item is a book by a single author or a collection of articles with a single editor, give full bibliographical details in this order: name of author or editor, date of publication, title of the work, place of publication and publisher. Be absolutely sure that <u>all names and titles are spelled correctly</u>. Examples:</p> <p>Obeng, Samuel Gyasi. 2001. <em>African Anthroponymy: An Ethnopragmatic and Morphophonological Study of Personal Names in Akan and Some African Societies</em>. München: Lincom Europa.</p> <p>Ameka, Felix K., and Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu, eds. 2008. <em>Aspect and Modality in Kwa Languages, Studies in Language Comparison Series</em>. Amsterdam &amp; Philadelphia: John Benjamins.</p> <p>If the book has more than one author or editor, they should all be given, the first appearing as above, the others with their first name or initial placed before the surname:</p> <p>Heine, Bernd and Derek Nurse, eds. 2000. <em>African Languages, an Introduction</em>. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.</p> <p>An article appearing in an edited book should be referenced under the author’s name, with the editor(s) and full details of the book and page numbers of the particular article. For example:</p> <p>Osam, E. Kweku. 1997. "Serial Verbs and Grammatical Relations in Akan." In<em> Grammatical Relations: A Functionalist Perspective</em>, edited by T Givón, 253-280. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>However, if you cite several articles from the same book, you can give the full details just once, in a reference under the editor’s name, as the one for the book edited by Heine and Nurse above, and abbreviate the reference details for the specific article, as below:</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Bender, Lionel M. 2000. "Nilo-Saharan." Pp. 43–73 in <em>African Languages: An Introduction</em>, edited by B. Heine and D. Nurse. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>A journal article should be cited similarly to an article in an edited book. Note that the words ‘volume’, ‘number’ and ‘pages’ can be omitted, provided the correct punctuation is observed, as in the following:</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Amfo, Nana Aba Appiah. 2010. “Noun Phrase Conjunction in Akan: The Grammaticalization Path.”&nbsp; <em>Pragmatics</em> 20 (1):27-41.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>If the page numbering is continuous through all issues of the volume the ‘number’ itself can also be omitted:</p> <p>Bresnan, Joan and Sam A. Mchombo. 1987. “Topic, pronoun and agreement in Chichewa.” <em>Language</em> 13:741-82.</p> <p>Items in newspapers can be cited in the same way as journal articles. Unpublished papers will not have a place of publication or a publisher: simply add ‘ms’ (for ‘manuscript’), or the name and place of the meeting at which it was presented.</p> <p>The editors will be grateful if you do NOT format your paragraphs including hanging and indented paragraphs by using the Return or Enter key and indents and spaces – please use the paragraph formatting menu!</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Inside Back Cover Guidelines 2022-12-31T22:46:37+00:00 Ọbádélé Kambon <h3>GUIDELINES FOR CONTRIBUTORS</h3> <p><strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </strong></p> <p>PLEASE follow these guidelines closely when preparing your paper for submission. The editors reserve the right to reject inadequately prepared papers. All areas of linguistics are invited – the journal is not limited to articles on languages of or in Ghana or Africa.</p> <p>ALL CONTRIBUTIONS must be submitted in English (except for special issues reserved for African languages), in electronic format to the current Editor-in-Chief, via our website at <a href=""></a>. Authors should be sure to keep hard and soft copies for their own future reference. Articles should not exceed 10,000 words in length. They should be written in a text format or a recent version of Word (.docx format is preferred). <u>PDF format is not acceptable</u>.<strong> If using Microsoft Word, authors should anonymize their papers using the Inspect Document function to remove document properties and personal information prior to submitting to the journal.</strong></p> <p>TITLE PAGE: The article – anonymised in Word or similar word-processing program – should have a separate title page including the title and the author’s name in the form it should appear in print, with full contact information including mailing address, phone numbers and email address.&nbsp; This page should also include a brief biographical note giving current academic or professional position and field of research interest.</p> <p>THE FIRST PAGE of the article should contain the title but not the author’s name. It should begin with an ABSTRACT of the paper, in English. A French version of the abstract in addition is very welcome.</p> <p>LANGUAGE EXAMPLES: All examples <strong>must</strong> be in a Unicode font and <strong>Bold</strong>. Times New Roman that comes with Word 2010 (but not earlier versions) is Unicode and may be used for occasional words cited in the text, if diacritics are few. More extensive examples with glossing and translation should be in <strong>Doulos SIL</strong>, although <strong>Charis SIL</strong> is acceptable. <strong>Doulos SIL</strong> and <strong>Charis SIL</strong> can be downloaded from <a href=""></a>. All such examples should be indented and numbered. Glossing should follow the Leipzig Glossing Rules <a href=""></a></p> <p>Note that glossing alignment should be done by the use of the TAB key rather than the space bar.</p> <p>Translations of examples should be in single quotation marks.</p> <p>QUOTATIONS from other authors should be used sparingly. Any quotation less than two lines long should be within double quotation marks (“…”) and not separated from the text. Quotations within quotations should be within single quotation marks (‘…’). Longer quotations may be set out as a paragraph, indented .5” on both sides.&nbsp; The source reference should come immediately after the quotation or in the sentence immediately before it. Paragraphs should be spaced at Exactly 14 pt and the first line of paragraphs should be indented .5”.</p> <p>FIGURES, TABLES AND DIAGRAMS should be created in such a way that they will fit legibly into a print space of 7.5” by 5.9”, and the same for PHOTOGRAPHS. Margins of the paper should be 1” from Top, 3” from Bottom, and 1.25” on the left and right.</p> <p>FOOTNOTES (not endnotes) should be numbered consecutively throughout the paper.&nbsp; They should <u>not</u> contain full references.</p> <p>CITATIONS of references in the notes or in the text (citations within the text are preferred) should include author’s last name, the date of publication and the relevant page numbers, e.g. (Chomsky 1972: &nbsp;63-5). There should be a separate list of References, in which all items cited in text and notes are listed in alphabetical order according to the <u>surname of the first author</u>.&nbsp; For further information on format please see the Preferred Format for References.</p> <p>HEADERS should be organized in the following manner:</p> <ol> <li><strong> Introduction</strong></li> </ol> <p>1.1. Methodology</p> <p><em>1.1.1. Background</em></p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c)