Ghana Journal of Linguistics <p>The <em>Ghana Journal of Linguistics</em> is a peer-reviewed scholarly journal appearing twice a year, published by the Linguistics Association of Ghana. Beginning with Volume 2 (2013) it is published in electronic format only, open access, at However print-on-demand copies can be made available on application to Digibooks Ghana Ltd.:</p><p>The Editors welcome papers on all aspects of linguistics. Articles submitted should not have been previously published.</p><p>The Editors welcome reports on research in progress and brief notices of research findings, as well as news of general interest to linguists.</p><p>The Editors also welcome books from authors and publishers for review in the <em>Ghana Journal of Linguistics</em>. They may be sent to Dr. Obadele Kambon, Editor-in-Chief, Ghana Journal of Linguistics, University of Ghana, P. O. Box LG73, Accra, Ghana. Anyone who wishes to review a particular book is invited to contact the editor.</p><p>Submissions should be submitted electronically to the Editor-in-Chief, at <a title="Ghana Journal of Linguistics" href=""></a>. They should be accompanied by a brief biographical note giving the author’s name in the form it should appear in print, plus current academic or professional position and field of research interest. Please see the Author guidelines for detailed instructions.</p><p>The <em>Ghana Journal of Linguistics</em> is published by the Linguistics Association of Ghana, P. O. Box LG61, Legon, Accra, Ghana.<br />Email: Website: <a title="" href="" target="_blank"></a></p> Linguistics Association of Ghana en-US Ghana Journal of Linguistics 2026-6596 © Linguistics Association of Ghana Front matter <p>N/A</p> Editor-in-Chief Copyright (c) 2021-08-03 2021-08-03 10 1 Table of Contents <p>N/A</p> Editor-in-Chief Copyright (c) 2021-08-03 2021-08-03 10 1 i iii Preface <p><strong>Preface to this issue</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong>This Special Issue of Ghana Journal of Linguistics is a collection of papers presented at the 1<sup>st</sup> African Pragmatics Conference hosted by the School of Languages, University of Ghana, Legon on February 6-7, 2020. The conference brought together a wide range of scholars, researchers, and students from around the globe who discussed scientific research touching on political and health discourse, pragmatics and literature, pragmatics in gender and religion, computer-mediated communication from the perspective of African languages.</p> <p>This Special Issue presents fourteen (14) papers which address specific pragmatic themes. In one of the two plenaries, <strong>Kofi Agyekum </strong>discusses crucial elements of pragmatic theory and how the study of pragmatics of African languages may be harnessed to foster appreciation for indigenous systems of communication and help accelerate national development across Africa. In the second plenary, <strong>Akin Odebunmi </strong>analyses discursive practices in Doctor-Patient interactions and how repetition is used to negotiate healthcare delivery.</p> <p>The following four papers address the themes of stereo-types, humour and body part expressions in West African languages. <strong>Eric Anchimbe </strong>presents an analysis of interlocutors’ use of verbal and non-verbal communication to mark in-group membership on one hand, while excluding out-group members on the other across Cameroun. <strong>Victoria Ofori, Grace Diabah, Kofi Agyekum, Nana Anima Wiafe Akenten, and Nicholas Agyekum </strong>provide ethno- pragmatic approach to the use of humour in Akan language radio show Kokurokoo and draught (<em>dame</em>) games by arguing that humour is artfully used to diffuse tension and to preempt potential conflict. In the next paper, <strong>Ọbádélé Kambon </strong>and <strong>Lwanga Songsore </strong>advance the idea that the use of body-part expressions to encode emotional and psychological states in Akan, Yoruba, Kiswahili and Kemet represents a shared fundamental African worldview.</p> <p>The following five (5) papers all address aspects of political discourse. <strong>Akin Tella </strong>examines how language is used in Nigerian primary elections to put across different points of view among politicians. <strong>Maxwell Mpotsiah, Charles Marfo, Isaac Forson, and Emmanuel Fordjour </strong>provide a critical discourse analysis of the use of invectives in Ghanaian political discourse to lower an opponent’s chances in an election. Next, Ayo Osisanwo analyses the language of election campaign songs and how they may contribute to election related violence in Nigeria. <strong>Adetutu Aragbuwa’s </strong>contribution brings to the fore the discourse of resistance in domestic violence narratives in Stella Dimoko Korkus’ domestic violence blog. <strong>Sopuruchi Aboh and Bestman Odeh </strong>analyse the syntactic structure and construction of hate speech among political actors across Nigeria.</p> <p>Two (2) papers discuss the pragmatics of discourse markers in Kiswahili (Tanzania) and Toposa (South Sudan). <strong>Sarah Marjie and Felix Sosoo </strong>discuss the use of the conjunction <em>yaani </em>in non-canonical positions in social media conversations on WhatsApp. <strong>Helga Schroeder </strong>considers how different information status is marked in clause chaining in Toposa and their interpretation.</p> <p>In the final contribution, <strong>David Olorunsogo </strong>shows politeness strategies as reflections of hierarchy in doctor-patient discourse in Akure (Nigeria).</p> <p>We are confident that this Special Issue will highlight the rich pragmatic stake in African languages and provide excellent resource to future explorations. We would like to thank the organisers of the conference, participants, and reviewers for making this publication a reality.</p> <p>Helga Schroeder, Guest Editor</p> <p>Reginald Akuoko Duah, Co-Editor, GJL</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Helga Schroeder Reginald Duah Copyright (c) 2021-08-03 2021-08-03 10 1 iv iv The Role of Pragmatics in Social Cohesion and Nation Building in Africa <p>This paper navigates into some areas covered under pragmatics as one of the newest areas in linguistic studies in African universities. We will first have a survey of the theories and practices paying attention to speech acts, pragmatic acts, impoliteness/politeness and face, and socio-pragmatics. The other areas to be covered include lexical pragmatics, discourse markers. The next section will cover the application of the theories and discuss pragmatics and politics, looking at political discourse, pragmatics and the media, pragmatics and pedagogy, and pragmatics and culture with emphasis on ethnopragmatics. The final section will pay attention to pragmatics and literature, intercultural communication, health, agriculture, trade, religion, performing arts, pragmatics, and all forms of speeches and interactional contexts. The method for investigation is purely based on secondary data from works by African pragmaticists. We have suggested some recommendations for the expansion of teaching, research, and publication of pragmatics in Africa.</p> Kofi Agyekum Copyright (c) 2021-08-03 2021-08-03 10 1 1 26 Discursive Repetitions and Voices in Nigerian Clinical Meetings <p>Previous studies on discursive repetitions have acknowledged other- repetitions/reformulations in consultative meetings but have neither focused on the occurrences of a combination of self and other repetitions nor connected them to the polyphonic dimensions of the interactions. Arguing that discursive repetitions sometimes work to demonstrate multiple voices on diagnoses and health state assessments in Nigerian hospital meetings, and that they consequently exert an influence on the negotiation of clinical outcomes, the paper analyses 100 repetitions in 30 doctor-patient interactions in Out- Patient Department clinics in South-western Nigerian hospitals. The analysis shows that doctors repeat (non)-contiguous constituents of their turns in a way that superposes the conjectural voice of the doctor, the medical institutional voice, the voice of medical science and the voice of culture (parenting). Repetitive turns and voices are negotiated with consultative parties’ common ground of medical procedures, previous joint/separate clinical encounters and patients’ preferences, eventuating in three clinical outcomes: verdicts on patients’ health state, commitment to adherence and admittance of non- compliance with regimens.</p> Akin Odebunmi Copyright (c) 2021-08-03 2021-08-03 10 1 27 72 Socio-Ethnic Stereotypes and The Refusal of Offers <p>The aim of this paper is to establish the impact of stereotypes directed at social and ethnic groups in interpersonal interaction in collectivist postcolonial societies. Focus is on the refusal of offers whose acceptance is otherwise supposed to be default. I illustrate using interviews conducted in two Cameroonian towns, Bamenda and Yaounde in 2009, that knowledge of socio-ethnic stereotypes plays a significant role in speakers’ decision to accept, or refuse offers from people of certain ethnic backgrounds or origins. From a postcolonial pragmatics theoretical standpoint, the analysis shows that the desire to enhance in- group cohesion, adhere to societal norms and defend in-group collectivist face while attacking out-group collectivist face is salient in interlocutors’ verbal and physical behaviour.</p> Eric A. Anchimbe Copyright (c) 2021-08-03 2021-08-03 10 1 73 92 Humour in ‘Kookurokoo Morning Show’ <p>Humour is central to language use and form, as well as human communication generally; and yet there is a dearth of linguistic research in Ghana on this important facet of human communication. This paper, therefore, contributes to filling the gap by providing a pragmatic analysis of humour in an Akan radio programme - the <em>Kookurokoo Morning Show </em>on Peace FM (a popular Akan radio station in Ghana). Attention is paid to the types of humour employed, their functions, and the (para)linguistic strategies used. Data was sourced from newspaper review and the general discussion sections of the programme and analysed with reference to the incongruity theory. Findings indicate that the show is mainly characterized by teasing (jocular mockery in particular), with a few retorts. It was also observed that humour signals solidarity, playful mitigation of threatening propositional meaning and an indication of ‘moral transgression’. Due to the sensitive nature of some of the issues discussed, humour is used as a form of indirection strategy, which manifests itself through devices such as innuendoes, idiomatic and apologetic expressions, proverbs, and wordplay. The paper concludes that invoking a humorous/play frame in this context reduces tension and creates a cordial atmosphere for solidarity building, while at the same time conveying <em>serious meaning</em>.</p> Victoria Ofori Grace Diabah Nana Anima Wiafe Akenten Nicholas Obeng Agyekum Copyright (c) 2021-08-03 2021-08-03 10 1 93 122 An Ethno-Pragmatic Analysis of Humour in Akan Draughts Games <p>Humour is an important aspect of human behaviour and communication. However, it is one of the least studied phenomena in Akan linguistics. This paper, therefore, offers an ethno-pragmatic analysis of humour in the Akan draughts game called <em>Dame. </em>It focuses on the types of humour, the linguistic strategies used in creating humour and the functions of humour in the game. Data were gathered through non-participant observations of the game and semi-structured interviews. The paper shows that participants of the game generally resort to teasing in the form of jocular mockery and jocular abuse. This is done through the use of stylistic devices like metaphor, allusion, sarcasm and simile, as well as other linguistic strategies like rhetorical questions and songs. Contextual cues such as laughter and giggles are employed to signal the evocation of a humorous frame, and as such, insults and ridicule should be perceived as ‘this is play’. Through the application of the Superiority Theory, we argue that participants often use insults and ridicule, which generate humour, to demoralize and spread fear in a losing contestant while boosting the confidence, competence and importance of the winning contestant. Rather than generating tension and conflict, this language use engenders bonding and strengthens group cohesion.</p> Victoria Ofori Grace Diabah Kofi Agyekum Copyright (c) 2021-08-03 2021-08-03 10 1 123 149 A Cross-Linguistic Study of Body Part Expressions in Classical and Contemporary Afrikan Languages <p>This study aims to discuss body part expressions in Akan (a Ghanaian language), Yorùbá (a Nigerian language), Kiswahili (a Tanzanian language) and r n Kmt ‘lit. the language of the Black Nation’. The paper addresses the common worldview whereby the concept and its articulation maintain a close connection to the literal real-world referent (the body part in question). The data is taken from collections of previously attested oral and written texts. The study demonstrates that there is a shared worldview continuum from ancient to contemporary Afrikan languages as manifested in body part expressions and that degree of proximity and similarity can be charted along a fundamental interrelation/fundamental alienation continuum.</p> Ọbádélé Kambon Lwanga Songsore Copyright (c) 2021-08-03 2021-08-03 10 1 150 176 Ideological Points of View and Transitivity Selections in A Nigerian Primary Election Memoir <p>Studies on Nigerian primary elections have examined the interface between primaries, intra-party conflicts and general election irregularities. Not many studies have exteriorised the ideological points of view determining the engagements of political actors in primary elections with reference to the narratives of political actors. Hence, this study did discourse analysis of a Nigerian election memoir- Love Does not Win Elections- to determine the ideological points of view that political actors index through selections from the transitivity system. 127 samples were analysed using theoretical insights from van Dijk’s socio-cognitive model of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA), Stuart’s model of point of view and aspects of Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL). Political actors in Nigerian primary elections hold conflictual, patronage, pecuniary, ethnic, patriarchal, religious and welfarist points of view. Electoral consumerism, clientelism, ethnicism, patriarchy, theological determinism and welfare state variously serve as ideological backgrounds for the points of view. The points of view are linguistically indexed through material, mental, relational and verbal clauses. There is the need for a re-orientation of political actors in Nigerian primary elections to ensure the emergence of a genuinely democratic culture.</p> Akin Tella Copyright (c) 2021-08-03 2021-08-03 10 1 177 201 A Discourse Pragma-Stylistic Analysis of Invective Expressions in Ghanaian Politics <p>Decent use of language has been a common trademark in communication. It is such an aspect of human development that has been an important part in our societies since time immemorial. In recent times, this practice has contemptuously gone amiss due to our demanding need for democratic development. Recent development in politics in Ghana has witnessed a total change in the use of decent language to achieve the intended purposes in political communication. It is in this regard that the present study sought to examine the use of invectives in political communications in Ghana. The study adopted Fairclough’s (1995) Critical Discourse Analysis theory to analyse the data gathered, which spanned from 2011 to 2016 and were taken from statements made by politicians that had been covered as major news items in the print media and online networks. In all, one hundred and fifty (150) bulletins of such invectives were identified and further categorised into descriptive, attributive and symbolic forms. Our findings showed that many of the noted politicians in Ghana made frequent use of invectives to seek political recognition that will prepare them for better political fortunes should the party they represent come to power in the future. It was further identified that all of these invectives were meant to cause emotional and psychological pains and also to lower the social status of the affected individuals so as to make them politically ‘dirty’ and irrelevant.</p> Maxwell Mpotsiah Charles Marfo Isaac Adjei Forson Emmanuel Antwi Fordjour Copyright (c) 2021-08-03 2021-08-03 10 1 202 227 Self-Praise, Other-Assault <p>Politicians in Nigeria and across the world use political campaign songs to create awareness about their personalities, intentions, and programme in order to convince the electorate to fully support their candidacy. Existing scholarly works on politics and political issues have examined aspects of political speeches, electoral discourses, media reportage of elections, electoral violence in Nigeria, among others. There is, however, a dearth of work on the use of campaign songs to Self-praise and Other-assault among political rivals. This study, therefore, examines political campaign songs in southwestern Nigeria with a view to identifying the representations in the campaign songs. For data, the YouTube Channel was visited in order to retrieve the transcript of political campaign jingles used during the 2011, 2015 and 2019 general elections in Nigeria. The selected period witnessed numerous assaulting campaign jingles in the political history of Nigeria. The data were subjected to discourse analysis, guided by the van Dijk’s ideological square model of critical discourse analysis. The identified representations are both positive and negative – Self as messiah, anointed, superior, symbol of success; and Other as invalid, criminal-minded, poverty- destined, symbol of hunger, prodigal, and enemy. The representations confirm our argument that Nigerian politicians, and others like them, go to any extent to praise themselves and denigrate their political opponents to the electorate because they are mindful of doing whatever it takes to get to power at all costs. The identified structure of verbal assault in political campaign jingles creates awareness on the intention of politicians in denigrating their political rivals and applauding Self. Current kind of political campaign jingles contributes to electoral violence in Nigeria.</p> Ayo Osisanwo Copyright (c) 2021-08-03 2021-08-03 10 1 228 250 A Critical Discourse Analysis of Victims’ Narratives in Stella Dimoko Korkus’ Domestic Violence Diary <p>This paper explores victims’ narratives in Stella Dimoko Korkus’ <em>Domestic Violence Diary 1-4 </em>by means of critical discourse analysis. The study specifically explores the discursive strategies deployed in the victims’ narratives and analyses their ideological functions as resistant discourse against domestic violence (henceforth, DV). The data comprise fifteen (15) purposively selected narratives relayed by victims of DV in Stella Dimoko Korkus’ weblog. The weblog was purposively selected because of its thematic global collection of narratives from victims of DV. The work employs van Dijk’s ideological square approach to critical discourse analysis as theoretical framework. Findings from the analysis reveal that the victims, by means of diverse discursive strategies, advertently create polarisation structures and cognitions that represent themselves (the victims) as the dominated group, and their abusers as the dominant group. The study, therefore, foregrounds the role of Stella Dimoko Korkus’ Domestic Violence Diary weblog in the instantiation of victims’ resistance against DV. The significance of Stella Dimoko Korkus’ Domestic Violence Diary as discourse of resistance against DV and of solidarity with women- victims of DV is thus illustrated.</p> Adetutu Aragbuwa Copyright (c) 2021-08-03 2021-08-03 10 1 251 275 Discursive Strategies and Resistance Ideologies in Victims’ Narratives in Stella Dimoko Korkus’ Domestic Violence Diary <p>By adopting the semantic and syntactic-related structures of van Dijk’s (1997) political discourse analysis, this research paper examines twenty-one (21) hate discourses by selected political actors in Nigeria. The hate discourses were obtained from the Nigerian online newspapers as well as from the Twitter handle of political actors. The first set of analyses examines the semantic- related structures of hate discourses and discovers that they contain implicit and explicit structures where hate speakers make propositions with positive predicates about the hate speakers’ own group rather explicit than implicit. The finding also reveals that the selected hate discourses manifest the semantic structure of local discourse coherence where the negative actions of in-group members are treated as an exception whereas those of out-group are overgeneralised. The findings obtained from the syntactic-related structures of hate discourses reveal that hate speakers use pronouns to emphasise <em>their </em>bad deeds and emphasise <em>our </em>good deeds. The research also discovers that in hate discourses, stereotypical words are topicalised as a way of showing emphasis. These findings suggest that hate discourses in Nigeria conform to the syntactic and semantic aspects of discourse structures as enunciated in van Dijk’s (1997) political discourse analysis. The study also discovers that hate speech hinders Nigeria’s national development because of inter-ethnic tensions caused by doubt, lack of trust and suspicion. Together, these findings provide important insights in the way political actors use hateful tags on each other in order to secure political power.</p> Sopuruchi Aboh Bestman Odeh Copyright (c) 2021-08-03 2021-08-03 10 1 276 304 The Communicative Functions of Yaani on Tanzania Whatsapp Platforms <p>The word <strong><em>yaani </em></strong>is one of the conjunctions used in Kiswahili. <strong><em>Yaani </em></strong>by its common and dictionary meaning is used to give further explanations to thoughts or ideas and it means ‘that is’. In recent years, the word has obtained an interesting usage in the language both in the spoken and written communication thereby extending its meaning and usage from the dictionary meaning. This paper therefore seeks to widen the discussion on Kiswahili conjunctions with emphasis on <strong>yaani </strong>both in terms of providing a characterization of the word as well as placing its discourse usages in the appropriate social context. We try to explore the various discourse usages of <strong>yaani </strong>on Tanzania WhatsApp platforms. The data collection took into considerations one on one chats and communications on group pages among Tanzanians. From our analysis, we observed that <strong>yaani </strong>is used to express emotions, regret, surprise, emphasis and can be used as an interrogative word among others. In other contexts, it is observed that <strong>yaani </strong>is used in sentence initial and final positions as opposed to the usual usage as explained in the dictionary. We recommend in this paper that <strong>yaani </strong>be given a critical look at its current stage of development in the language.</p> Sarah Marjie Felix Kwame Sosoo Copyright (c) 2021-08-03 2021-08-03 10 1 305 328 A Pragmatic View on Clause Linkages in Toposa, An Eastern Nilotic Language of South Sudan <p>Toposa, an Eastern Nilotic language of South Sudan, has been identified as a clause-chaining language (Schröder 2013, Schröder 2020), because it does not allow two independent clauses following each other, but the fundamental sentence structure is that an independent clause is followed by a chained clause. The current paper claims that this clause-chaining constraint creates new syntactic and semantic functions of independent and subordinative clauses, whereby one syntactic function is clause-skipping that caters for adverbial clauses in the model. The structure of independent clause and chained clause yields semantically a distinction of foreground and background information. The foreground information is carried by the finite and the background information by the non-finite clauses. The interpretation of the foreground and background information is explained as cognitive pragmatic routines that guide the hearer to understand the foreground information as main events and the background information as explanations to the foreground information. The background information captured in the adverbial clauses provide explanations for time, reason- result, means-result, purpose, conditions and contrast. The pragmatic analysis is based on the insights of Relevance theory (Sperber and Wilson 1995).</p> Helga Schroeder Copyright (c) 2021-08-03 2021-08-03 10 1 329 352 Politeness Strategies and Pragmatic Functions in Selected Doctor-Patient Interaction in Private Hospital in Akure <p>This study examined how politeness strategies are constructed and their functions in doctor-patient interactions in Private hospitals in Akure. Although, polite behaviours have been investigated in the field of medical discourse with an emphasis on doctor-patient interaction, this study focuses on private hospitals, with an attempt to magnify the interplay of hierarchy between doctors and patients in private medical practice. Akio Yabuuchi's hierarchy politeness and Jacob Mey's pragmatic act theory were adopted to analyse the data for this study. Audio-taped recordings of doctor-patient interactions in private hospitals in Akure were selected for this study. Five strategies used by doctors are diagnostic elicitation, familiarisation elicitation, emotive pain-alleviation, consultation focusing, and lexical- substitution explanation. The patient-motivated strategy is complaint focusing. The pragmatic functions performed through these strategies are investigating, consoling, focusing, complaining, and inquiring. The negotiation of polite behaviours within social distance and power is evident in the data. Hierarchy in the interactions is relative depending on the type of existing relationship between doctor and patient. This relationship, in turn, determines the type of politeness used. Desires and their gratifications are also negotiated through the politeness strategies identified in the study.</p> David Olorunsogo Copyright (c) 2021-08-03 2021-08-03 10 1 353 371 Contributors Editor-in-Chief Copyright (c) 2021-08-03 2021-08-03 10 1 372 384 Guidelines for Contributors <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>GHANA JOURNAL OF LINGUISTICS (GJL) GUIDELINES FOR CONTRIBUTORS<br>PLEASE follow these guidelines closely when preparing your paper for submission. The editors reserve the right to reject inadequately prepared papers. All areas of linguistics are invited – the journal is not limited to articles on languages of or in Ghana or Africa.</p> <p>ALL CONTRIBUTIONS must be submitted in English (except for special issues reserved for African languages), in electronic format to the current Editor-in-Chief, via our website at Authors should be sure to keep hard and soft copies for their own future reference. Articles should not exceed 10,000 words in length. They should be written in a text format or a recent version of Word (.docx format is preferred). You may submit<br>a PDF copy along with a word version if your article contains special fonts or diagrams. If using Microsoft Word, authors should anonymize their papers using the Inspect Document function to remove document properties and personal information prior to submitting to the journal.</p> <p>TITLE PAGE: Authors should submit a separate document with the title of the paper, the author’s name in the form it should appear in print, with full contact information including mailing address, phone numbers and email address. This document should also include a brief biographical note giving current academic or professional position and field of research interest.</p> <p>THE FIRST PAGE of the article should contain the title but not the author’s name. It should begin with an ABSTRACT of the paper, in English. A French version of the abstract in addition is very welcome.</p> <p>LANGUAGE EXAMPLES: All examples must be in a Unicode font and Bold. Times New Roman that comes with Word 2010 (but not earlier versions) is Unicode and may be used for occasional words cited in the text, if diacritics are few. More extensive examples with glossing and translation should be in Doulos SIL, although Charis SIL is acceptable. Doulos SIL and Charis SIL can be downloaded from All such examples should be indented and numbered. Glossing should follow the Leipzig Glossing<br>Rules<br><br>Note that glossing alignment should be done by the use of the TAB key rather than the space bar.</p> <p>Translations of examples should be in single quotation marks.</p> <p>QUOTATIONS from other authors should be used sparingly. Any quotation less than two lines long should be within double quotation marks (“…”) and not separated from the text. Quotations within quotations should be within single quotation marks (‘…’). Longer quotations may be set out as a paragraph, indented .5” on both sides. The source reference should come immediately after the quotation or in the sentence immediately before it.<br>Paragraphs should be spaced at Exactly 14 pt and the first line of paragraphs should be indented .5”.</p> <p>FIGURES, TABLES AND DIAGRAMS should be created in such a way that they will fit legibly into a print space of 7.5” by 5.9”, and the same for PHOTOGRAPHS. Margins of the paper should be 1” from Top, 3” from Bottom, and 1.25” on the left and right.</p> <p>FOOTNOTES (not endnotes) should be numbered consecutively throughout the paper. They should not be used for citing full references.</p> <p>CITATIONS of references in the notes or in the text (citations within the text are preferred) should include author’s last name, the date of publication and the relevant page numbers, e.g. (Chomsky 1972: 63-5). There should be a list of References at the end of the article, in which all items cited in text and notes are listed in alphabetical order according to<br>the surname of the first author. For further information on format please see the Preferred Format for References.</p> <p>HEADERS should be organized in the following manner:</p> <p>1. Introduction</p> <p>1.1 Methodology</p> <p>1.1.1. Background</p> Editor-in-Chief Copyright (c) 2021-08-03 2021-08-03 10 1 Back Cover Back Cover