Global Journal of Medical Sciences <p>The <em>Global Journal of Medical Sciences</em> is aimed at promoting research in all areas of Medical endeavour and health care from Basic Science to Evidence Based Clinical Management.</p><p>This Journal is also available online here: <a title="" href="" target="_blank"></a></p><p> </p> Global Journal Series en-US Global Journal of Medical Sciences 1596-2911 © 2018. This work is licensed under the creative commons Attribution 4.0 International license. A Comparative Analysis of Nursing Education and Other Forms of Education in Nigeria: Implications for Global Standards to Promote International Collaboration and Advanced Entry Level Competency of Nurses The purpose of this paper was to highlight points that are necessary to bridge the gaps, where they exist, in relation to the structures, process and outcome of nursing education when compared with those of other professions. As a profession, nursing is broad in scope, and nurse practitioners are expected to possess a body of knowledge and skills for dependent, independent and inter-dependent practice. In many professions, preparation usually takes place in Colleges or University settings and educational preparation is usually prolonged to include instructions in the specialized body of knowledge and techniques of the profession. However, nursing education globally is highly variable, taking place in a myriad of programmes at the hospitals, technical institutes and institutions of higher learning with no uniformity. Furthermore, regarding educational outcome, many nurses in recent years are unable to meet the entry level competencies for registered nurses/midwives prior to employment into full practice. In other Medical Professions, including Medical Doctors, Medical Laboratory Scientists and Radiologists, a period of internship is provided for mastering of skills to enhance efficient and effective practice. This should also assist newly qualified nurses to improve on their entry level competencies to promote efficiency in their practical performance. It is therefore recommended that the regulating bodies should set standards of nursing education that are globally uniform and enforce compliance with such standards including admission criteria, contents/components; teachers&#8217; qualification/certification and teaching facilities including materials and equipments. Furthermore, the recent plans to integrate Internship Programme into the training plan of graduate nurses is a step in the right direction and should be implemented without further delay to take nursing education and practice to greater heights. <br /> II Akpabio Copyright (c) 10 1-2 1 8 10.4314/gjms.v10i1-2.1 Pattern of Ultrasound Scanning in Owerri South Eastern Nigeria BACKGROUND: The gynaecologist is called upon daily to diagnose pelvic pathologies. Ultrasound is a useful, safe and widely used method of investigation of such problems.<br />OBJECTIVE: To determine the indications and findings of pelvic ultrasound in Owerri, South Eastern Nigeria.<br />METHOD: Two hundred and fifty consecutive women referred for pelvic ultrasound in Owerri South Eastern Nigeria were examined by abdominal and transvaginal ultrasound.<br />RESULTS: Most 148(59.2%) of the patients were nulliparous and majority 108(43.2%) were in the 30-39year age group. Doctors referred most 164(64%) of the patients, while 74(29.6%) were self referred. The most common indication was &#8216;to check the womb&#8217; in 89(35.6%) of cases followed by threatened abortion in 30(12%) of patients. The most common post ultrasound diagnosis was &#8216;normal uterus&#8217; in 111(44.4%) while fibromyoma was second with 41(16.4%) of patients. On the whole abnormalities were picked up in 36.4% of patients.<br />CONCLUSION: We conclude that pelvic ultrasound even when not originating from the doctor should be encouraged because of the significant number of abnormalities detected. These could then be treated with greater success while they are still small. BU Ezem C Okeudo YO Aderibigbe Copyright (c) 10 1-2 9 12 10.4314/gjms.v10i1-2.2 Refractive Errors among Secondary School Students in Isuikwuato Local Government Area of Abia State, Nigeria A study to determine the prevalence and types of refractive errors among secondary school students in Isuikwuato Local Government Area, Abia State, Nigeria was conducted. Pre-tested questionnaires were administered by two trained interviewers. Penlight examination, Hisirschberg's test, cover test, funduscopy with a direct ophthalmoscope, without and when necessary, with dilatation were performed by one optometrist. The design of this study was a cross sectional survey involving a one-time screening of 22 secondary school students in the LGA aged 11 "and 19 grouped in four yearly intervals for common refractive errors. Vision screening was conducted and those respondents found to have refractive errors were referred for further examination using the Modified Clinical Technique (MCT) criteria for referral. Furthermore, the randomness of refractive error among secondary student was tested with comparison independent sample and T-Test. When all cases of ametropia were considered, a total of 69.6% was found. Myopia predominated (36.2%), followed by hyperopia (18.0%) astigmatism (8.5%) and anisometropia (6.9%). Hence it is onus on us especially those in the medical profession to see that the menace of this refractive problem is checked. <br /> NC Osuchukwu EC Osuchukwu Copyright (c) 10 1-2 13 17 10.4314/gjms.v10i1-2.3 Clinical Nursing Research: A Tool for Professional Development This paper aimed at highlighting the importance of Clinical Nursing Research (CNR) in the professional development of Nursing. CNR often involve patient-oriented research, epidemiologic and behavioural studies, outcomes and health services research. These are all essential in today&#8217;s political and societal health care environment with growing shifts and disconnects in patients&#8217; care, and the need for availability of human, material and financial resources required in meeting the health care needs. These and many more require the best available evidence, which could be acquired through CNR. However to achieve the benefits of CNR for professional development, Challenges including low quality research by new and inexperienced researchers; non-availability of research findings to nurses in the practice sectors; inability to identify and work on priority areas needed to improve practice; poor collaboration among researchers and inability to integrate research into practice should be addressed. The key to building and sustaining successful programmes in CNR and evidence-based practice could involve the ground work of establishing forums and structures such as research units in health institutions where discussions and activities about the processes for research and evidence-based practice could be promoted. <br /> II Akpabio Copyright (c) 10 1-2 19 27 10.4314/gjms.v10i1-2.4 Prevalance of Alcohol Abuse in Calabar South Local Government Areas Cross River State This study examined the prevalence of alcohol abuse in Calabar South, Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria. Unlike earlier studies of alcohol use in Nigeria, the study focused on a segment of the population that is difficult to reach and probably at high risk of alcohol and drug abuse. In addition, the focus of this study was on both western and the traditional alcohol beverages. The sample consisted of 400 respondents aged 10-50 years resident in Calabar South. Life time consumption of alcohol was reported by 98.5% of the respondents. Beer was the most often consume alcoholic drinks in the study population by the male while wine was for female, 64% of males took beer while 36% of females took wine. the odds of taking alcoholic drink increased with age. The consumption of alcohol was described as very harmful to health by 48% of the sample Analysis of the data showed that the factors that mostly influenced alcohol drinking were its availability which stood at 52.75%, peer groups influenced 27.25%, mass media advent 7.5%, home 9.5% and school 3.0%. The study also showed that alcohol consumption had effect on the social behaviour of the people of Calabar South. Decreased work performance 77.25%, increase in violence and crime 77%, poverty 50.75%, wife and childbearing 73.75%, increase in accident rate 80.5%, children inability to continue schooling 83.5% Nigerian culture, it appears that there is a culture of alcohol implicitly institutionalized that one could easily brand it as a norm to drink alcohol across the whole social spectrum with the student population constituting a significant proportion of the risk group (Ifeagwazi,2007). <br /> NC Osuchukwu EC Osuchukwu Copyright (c) 10 1-2 29 36 10.4314/gjms.v10i1-2.5 Gastric Acid Secretion, Mucus Concentration and Ulceration Following Orogastic Feeding of Cannabis Sativa to Albino Wistar Rats This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of consumption (ingestion) of<em> Cannabis sativa</em> on the gastrointestinal tract using mucus concentration, acid secretion and ulceration in animal (rats) model as indices. Three groups of six (6) rats each were used. The control group were fed on rat chow only while another group were fed on low dose of <em>Cannabis sativa</em> 0.5gm/100g body weight and another group were fed on high dose of <em>Cannibis sativa</em> 0.8mg/100g body weight for 28 days respectively and allowed free access to food and water. At the end of 28 days, the results showed that the acid secretion in the high dose group was significantly (P&lt;0.001) higher than in low dose group while the mucus concentration in low dose and high dose group respectively were significantly lower (P&lt;0.01) than control. The mucus concentration in high dose was significantly lower (P&lt;0.001) than low dose group when the test groups were compared. Similarly the ulcer scores were higher in low dose group (P&lt;0.05) and in high dose group (P&lt;0.001) respectively when compared with control group. The ulceration in high dose group was significantly higher (P&lt;0.001) than the low dose group. In conclusion, ingestion of <em>Cannabis sativa</em> causes decrease in adherent gastric mucus, increase acid secretion and increase in gastric ulceration in a dose dependent fashion. The liberal use of Cannabis sativa should therefore be discouraged. <br /> AO Obembe AO Aya OO Okwari Copyright (c) 10 1-2 37 42 10.4314/gjms.v10i1-2.6