Chemical profile of the endocarp and exocarp of yellow monkey cola (Cola lepidota)
The chemical profile of the Endocarp and Exocarp of yellow monkey cola (Cola lepidota) were investigated using chemical analysis. The results of proximate analysis showed that the endocarp has the following compositions: moisture (20.00+0.10%W/W), ash (4.00+0.11%DM), crude fibre (36.00+0.12%DM), crude fat (16.00+0.11%DM), crude protein (22.84+0.12%DM), available carbohydrate (21.16+0.12%DM) and the energy value (320.00+0.01kcal/100g) while the exocarp contained moisture (22.00+0.12%W/W), ash (8.00+0.11%DM), crude fibre (7.00+0.11%DM), crude fat (12.50+0.10%DM), crude protein (1.58+0.11%DM) available carbohydrate (70.92+0.11%DM) and the energy value (402.42+0.10 kcal/100g). The endocarp mineral elements analysis revealed that sodium (0.033+0.21 mg/100g), lead (0.004+0.12mg/100g) cadmium (0.002 +0.11mg/100) calcium (78.35+0.12 mg/100g), zinc (55.32+0.12mg/100), phosphorus (0.068+0.12mg/100g), iron (47.45+0.11 mg/100g) and manganese (0.09+0.31 mg/100g) while the exocarp mineral elements analysis revealed that sodium (0.011+0.11 mg/100g), magnesium (0.02+0.11 mg/100g), lead (0.02+0.12mg/100g), cadmium (0.03+00.12mg/100g), zinc (12.16+0.12mg/100g), potassium (17.21+0.12mg/100g), calcium (22.55+0.11mg/100g), iron (11.21+0.32mg/100g) and manganese (0.003+0.12mg/100g). The mineral element concentrations of cobalt, nickel and mercury were not detected in both endocarp and exocarp of cola lepidota. The toxicants composition analysis of endocarp revealed that hydro-cyanide, soluble oxalate and phytic acids contents were 0.54+0.01, 8.65+0.12 and 5.50+0.12 mg/100gDM respectively, while the exocarp revealed 0.09+0.12, 0.01+0.11 and 4.00+0.11 mg/100gDM respectively. The results of phytochemical screening of water extract (WE) of both endocarp and exocarp of cola lepidota shows the presence of polyphenols, reducing sugars, cardiac glycosides and saponins and the absence of phlobatannins, tannins, anthranoids and anthraquinones. The petroleum ether extract (PEE) revealed the presence of cardiac glycosides, saponins, flavonoids, polyphenols, and reducing sugars and also the absence of alkaloids, tannins, phlobatanins, anthranoids and authraquinones.
KEYWORDS: Cola lepidota, Proximate Composition, Minerals, Nutritional and Anti-nutritional